CORAL BLEACHING – CHLORINE v CHLORINE DIOXIDE

THE HISTORY OF ONE OF THE WORLD’S MOST POWERFUL,
AND SAFEST DISINFECTANTS

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a disinfectant which possesses high efficiency,
low toxicity, fast, and broad sterilization ability.  

 CORAL BLEACHING - CHLORINE  v  CHLORINE DIOXIDE.

IMAGE OF CORAL

chlorine part 1 of 3

 

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C.V Cd

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  Management of biofilm 

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http://www.pureline.com/1644-2/# coral images

  ( And may be Sea Coral ! )

The History Of CD

image of chlorine dioxideChlorine Dioxide

More info  → HERE

THE HISTORY OF ONE OF THE WORLD’S
MOST POWERFUL, AND SAFEST DISINFECTANTS:

  1814

Sir Humphrey Davy, a British chemist, discovers chlorine dioxide (CD), a result of potassium chlorate reacting with sulfuric acid. Although he fully understood the chemistry, he most likely did not appreciate the consequences: CD will prove to be more effective at killing more viruses, bacteria and fungi than any comparable disinfectant, such as chlorine bleach.

  1930s

Because of the disinfecting power of CD, use begins to grow. A major benefit of CD is that, as a true gas, it expands uniformly to fill the space it is disinfecting. Due to concerns about the logistics of safely transporting the gas, industries wishing to use it decide to simply make it themselves in large quantities and activate it on site.

  1944

To mitigate taste and odor problems, CD is introduces into a water treatment plant at Niagara Falls, N.Y. Other municipalities soon do the same. The water not only tastes better and has no unpleasant odor–it’s also safer to drink, thanks to CD’s strong disinfecting properties.

  1950s

Brussels, Belgium, changes from chlorine to CD to disinfect drinking water in 1956. The 1950s see widespread use of CD in water treatment plants and swimming pools in the U.S. A new discovery is made: CD destroys biofilm, the algal slime that collects in cooling towers, among other places and harbors harmful bacteria. Chlorine bleach by contrast cannot kill biofilm.

  1967

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registers an aqueous form of CD for use as a sanitizer and disinfectant. Even though it aggressively attacks pathogens it is extremely safe and CD is eventually used to commercially sanitize fruit. 1970s to early 1980sThe EPA begins recommending using CD instead of chlorine bleach to treat water because CD does not produce any harmful byproducts. Although chlorine and chlorine dioxide share a common name, they are fundamentally different chemicals with distinctly different chemical structures. This means they react differently when mixed with other compounds. Chlorine bleach is formed by adding chlorine gas to salt water. However, when chlorine bleach reacts with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water streams, it produces THMs (trihalomethanes). THMs have been linked to cancer. Because of its superior efficacy and how safe is its, use of CD continues to grow.

♦ [1974 ‘The Safe Drinking Water Act’- President Ford see below

1988

The EPA registers CD as a sterilizer. This means CD is both safe and effective to use in hospitals, healthcare facilities, and laboratories. 2001CD, in both liquid and gas forms, becomes the number one substance used to decontaminate buildings where the anthrax attacks occurred. It’s success rate is based on how well is works against very small anthrax spores, how quickly and easily it is deploy. CD completely destroys anthrax without harming buildings.

  2005

CD is deployed to eradicate mold infestations in homes damages by the flood waters from Hurricane Katrina. After a 12-hour treatment, a New Orleans restaurant is able to banish all mold inside without rebuilding.

  2012

(January) ProKure revolutionizes the way CD is deployed. For the first time, because of ProKure’s patented technology, CD can be created at any time, and anywhere there’s water. It can now be safely transported in dry pouches and made into a liquid disinfectant and deodorizer on site and on demand. In essence, the ProKure product line has made it possible for industries and companies of all sizes (not just a select few) to quickly and easily unleash the amazing power of chlorine dioxide. 2014 (November) CD is now two hundred years old. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) registers ProKure V as a disinfectant against the Ebola virus. ProKure V begins to kill pathogens in a matter of seconds, whereas other commonly used, more traditional disinfectants take minutes. The rapid speed in which ProKure V kills pathogens makes it a product of choice for helping contain infectious-disease outbreaks and keeping public facilities cleaners and safer for everyone. 

The Scientific Method (MMS)

water-safety

 *    See 1974 →  ‘Safe Drinking Water Act’

Technically, artificially fluoridating drinking water is a violation of the ‘Safe Drinking Water Act’ (SDWA). Under statutes of the SDWA, federal agencies are forbidden from endorsing, supporting, requiring or funding the practice of adding any chemicals to the water supply other than for purposes of water purification. However, the Public Health Service (PHS) applies semantics to circumvent
Federal law in order to promote and fund the practice
.

More info  →   HERE

See also ↓ 
CHLORINE AND ATRAZINE

EPA symbol

  USA EPA More info → HERE 

Image Chlorine Dioxide

Other uses include: Seafood industry, Food processing, Poultry industry,
Air conditioning cooling towers, Swimming pools, Potable water treatment.

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Urban Utilities logo

UrbanUtilities – Queensland still uses Chlorine ?

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Alum. Aluminium sulphate was removed from Sydney water
supply
 1994 suspected of causing Alzheimer’s disease

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Please do you own research on CD as it’s promotion
is
 beyond the intended scope of this web site.

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See also →  MARINE SNOW

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INACTIVATION EFFECT OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE ON 
PHYTOPATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN IRRIGATION WATER

Kuo-Shan Yao1, Yung-Hsu Hsieh2, Yu-Jie Chang3, 
Chen-Yu Chang4,* Ta-Chih Cheng5 and Hui-Lin Liao4 
Taiwan 2 Department of Environmental Engineering National 
Chung-Hsing University Taichung 402, Taiwan. 
  jeeam20-3_157-160  

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See also → MMS  ←→  Jim Humble  ←→ Autism

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Climate Change, Fluoride Gases and ‘Clean Power’

Lewis accused the American Physical Society of supporting
the global warming scam, driven with the trillions
of dollars
 - it has corrupted so many scientists.

solar flares

Few climate studies include info on:
“The Electric Universe” ?

sunspotredframe

sunspots

Last Update 30th Oct. 2017

climate change info.

 AXIOPISTY MAY BE LACKING

EPA logo

The CO2-Climate Change Global Warming Mantra
WE HOPE THAT THIS WEB SITE WILL ALERT OUR READERS TO SOME OF
THE MANY OTHER FACTORS, RESEARCH PAPERS AND OPTIONS FOR OUR FUTURE

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SEA LEVEL CHANGE – EXPLAINED

  RECOMMENDED BY US  

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global Warming Petition Project
AND OPINIONS IN THIS DEBATE ↓ ↓ ↓ OVER 31,000 signatures.

  ❝ Today, scientists are seeing the accomplishments of science demonized
and one of the three most important molecular substances that make life possible – atmospheric carbon dioxide (the other two being oxygen and water) – denigrated as an atmospheric “pollutant” in a widely circulated movie.

Scientists who have carefully examined the facts know that this movie contains numerous falsehoods.

This and many other similar misguided propaganda efforts in the media, naturally repel men and women who know the truth. The search for truth is the essence of science. When science is misrepresented, scientists are naturally incensed. 

Harold Warren Lewis, a respected physicist who had previously advised both the U.S. Government and the Pentagon on various matters including missile defence and nuclear winter, shocked his peers when he disseminated his letter of resignation from the American Physical Society. Lewis accused the American Physical Society of supporting “ the global warming scam, with the trillions of dollars driving it that has corrupted so many scientists. ”

THE F-GAS INDUSTRY PLOT TO SUBVERT EU CLIMATE LEGISLATION

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EPA logo

EPA – Sea level changes since 1880 ⇒ HERE

HISTORY 1421 copy

In the years 1421-22 the Chinese sailed around
the north and south poles, and though the
Northwest Passage, which was then ice-free.
They chiseled marks in the rocks on various headlands. These marks are
now below low water mark; evidence of warmer times and oceans rising…
 ICE FREE NORTH WEST PASSAGE

Through the NW Passage

The Capricornian (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1875 – 1929)

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Proof that the Earth has a natural thermostat

See the five web sites below:

1  Primary Water – Bill Cox

2  The Theory of Primary Water – Cassiopaea

3  Primary Water Theories | Bloom the Desert

4  PrimaryWaterInstitute.org

5  PrimaryWaterInstitute.org

See also the book ‘Devining’ by Christopher Bird  – ISBN 354 043889

See also → NAUTICAPEDIA

Piers Corbyn …We need a world campaign
to clear out the fraud and clean up science”.

The Frozen Thames 1677

More → HERE

  Medieval Warm Period 

the climate keeps changing

Bubbles coke

 Carbon dioxide is NOT a hazard, to tax it makes no sense. – It is a breath tax !
Carbon dioxide as the single cause of climate change is the
new version of the ‘
Millennium Bug’.

see → J Priestley 17 August 1771  (‘Minerals for the Genetic Code’)

Here’s why our planet, our forests and our oceans all needs MORE CO2:
http://www.naturalnews.com/040588_carbon_dioxide_environmentalists_Al_Gore.html

See Film Below 3

Al Gore interview s

 → https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z8r-hNfHXXY 

An alternative explanation to anthropogenic global warming.

3 of the 6

1)  HYDROFLUORCARBONS      (HFCs)
2)  PERFLUOROCARBONS          (PFCs)
3)  SULPHUR HEXAFLUORIDE   (SF6)

Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6)
is a non flammable greenhouse gas.
It has an atmospheric residence time ranging from 500
to several thousand years according to the
intergovernmental panel on climate change.

SF6 is the most potent greenhouse gas that it has evaluated, with a ‘g’  of  22,800 times that of CO2 when compared over a 100-year period. Measurements of SF6 show that its global average mixing ratio has increased by about 0.2ppt per year to over 7 ppt.
Sulfur hexafluoride is also extremely long-lived. It is inert in the troposphere and stratosphere and has an estimated atmospheric lifetime of 800–3200 years. (ozone depletion.) Atmospheric lifetime and GWP relative to CO2 at different time.co2 anthropocene times

Geophysical Research Letters article:
“Ozone Depletion by Hydrofluorocarbons”

CHILLING INTENT

 HERE 

Uni.East Anglia

UEA RESEARCH REVEALS FOUR NEW MAN-MADE GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE

By Staff Writers Norwich, UK (SPX) 16 March 2014 Scientists at the University of East Anglia have identified four new man-made gases in the atmosphere–all of which are contributing to the destruction of the ozone layer. New research published today in the journal Nature Geoscience reveals that more than 74,000 tonnes of three new chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and one new hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) have been released into the atmosphere.

Scientists made the discovery by comparing today’s air samples with air trapped in polar firn snow – which provides a century-old natural archive of the atmosphere. They also looked at air collected between 1978 and 2012 in unpolluted Tasmania. Measurements show that all four new gases have been released into the atmosphere recently – and that two are significantly accumulating. Emission increases of this scale have not been seen for any other CFCs since controls were introduced during the 1990s. But they are nowhere near peak CFC emissions of the 1980s which reached around a million tonnes a year. Lead researcher Dr Johannes Laube from UEA’s School of Environmental Sciences said: “Our research has shown four gases that were not around in the atmosphere at all until the 1960s which suggests they are man-made.”

“CFCs are the main cause of the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica. Laws to reduce and phase out CFCs came into force in 1989, followed by a total ban in 2010. This has resulted in successfully reducing the production of many of these compounds on a global scale. However, legislation loopholes still allow some usage for exempted purposes.

“The identification of these four new gases is very worrying as they will contribute to the destruction of the ozone layer. We don’t know where the new gases are being emitted from and this should be investigated. Possible sources include feedstock chemicals for insecticide production and solvents for cleaning electronic components.

“What’s more, the three CFCs are being destroyed very slowly in the atmosphere – so even if emissions were to stop immediately, they will still be around for many decades to come,” he added.

This research has been funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), the European Union, and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).(Australia)

‘Newly detected ozone depleting substances in the atmosphere’ is published in the journal Nature Geoscience on Sunday, 9 March 2014.

csiro logo Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

CSIRO HFC,PFC,ect

Thank you C.R.I.R.O.
Full text  →  HERE  

Green strip

THIS LOOKS VERY PROMISING  → HERE   NEW

Climate Action Commissioner Connie Hedegaard said: “Today marks the beginning of the end for fluorinated gases in Europe. Not only is this good for the climate, but also for the European industries that will invest in more innovative, cleaner alternatives…

Green strip

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Notice all the F. for fluoride 

pfos-image

PROBLEMS WITH FIRE RETARDANTS

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-03-03/calls-to-stop-downplaying-impacts-of-pfos-pfoa/7215922

[ The RAAF once used harmless environmentally friendly fermented
blood and bone,
 and liquorice to make fire fighting foam. ]

Modern Fluoride Free Foams do Exist

Aust. Defence Bases Contaminated With PFOA (Fluoride)

EXTRACT: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), which can be collectively described as Kyoto Protocol synthetic GHGs (KP-SGGs). HFCs are used extensively in Australia, largely in air conditioning and refrigeration, initially as ‘ozone-friendly’ replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Minor uses of HFCs in Australia are as aerosol propellants, including metered dose inhalers (MDIs), as foam blowing agents and in fire extinguishers. PFCs are a by-product of the production of aluminium in Australia and overseas and, in addition, are used overseas in the electronics industry during the manufacture of integrated circuits and plasma screens. Refrigeration represents a very minor use of PFCs in Australia and overseas. Sulfur hexafluoride is used extensively in the electricity distribution industry, both in Australia and overseas, for dielectric insulation and current interruption in circuit breakers, switchgear, and other electrical equipment, and as a cover gas in metal production, for example magnesium. There does not appear to be any significant use of nitrogen trifluoride in Australia, which is used internationally in the semi-conductor production industry, initially as a replacement for PFCs.

Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) and trifluoromethyl sulfurpentafluoride (CF3SF5) are potent synthetic greenhouse gases that  ARE  NOT  PART  OF  THE  KYOTO PROTOCOL  SUITE  of  SGGs  (KP-SGGs).  [ Our emphisis ] Sulfuryl fluoride use in Australia is growing rapidly, as a replacement for phosphine (PH3) and possibly methyl bromide (CH3Br), in grain fumigation. [*] It is unlikely that trifluoromethyl sulfurpentafluoride is used in Australia. Its occurrence in the atmosphere is largely as a by-product of the production of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS: CF3(CF2)7SO3H), which has never been manufactured in Australia, but is a key ingredient in fabric stain repellants (e.g. 3M’s Scotchguard) … [*] Co2 is a safer option… Full text  →  HERE  

Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C: Environmental Carcinogenesis and Ecotoxicology ReviewsVolume 28Issue 2, 2010

 Abstract: Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) is used primarily as a fumigant in replacement of methyl bromide, but it has the potential to contribute significantly to the global warming. This article introduces SO2F2 in the physicochemical properties, the current uses in agriculture and industry, the toxicological data, and the environmental implications on the basis of its environmental properties. The health hazards of SO2F2 and its probable decomposition products were also evaluated based on their occupational exposure limits and possible exposure sources. The resident and occupational exposure assessment was further discussed to understand seriousness of risk caused by SO2F2 and its decomposition products…

environment canada

EXTRACT: Inorganic fluorides are used in Canada and emitted into the Canadian environment both from anthropogenic (estimated releases of approximately 23 500 tonnes/year) and natural sources (amounts released are not known). The main anthropogenic sources of inorganic fluorides in Canada include phosphate fertilizer production, chemical production, and aluminum smelting. Gaseous inorganic fluorides (e.g., hydrogen fluoride and sulphur hexafluoride) are primarily released into the atmosphere, whereas particulate compounds (e.g., sodium fluoride and calcium fluoride) are released into the aquatic and terrestrial environments.

                               Greenhouse gas                               Formula           Gas Number 100 year GM

chart-2

 

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The new Air Resources Board regulation

↓  California Limits SF6  ↓
 Environment News Service

❝ …In 1999, PG & E set a three-year goal of reducing annual SF6  emissions by 50 percent from a 1998 baseline and achieve this goal. Efforts to reduce SF6 emissions at PG & E resulted in the discovery that more equipment was leaking than the company previously thought…  ❞

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THE NEW F. CONTAINING REFRIGERANT

  2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene  

 ( Also known as HFO-1234yf )
HONEYWELL has hit back at a
German motoring magazine article describing its new
HFO-1234yf  as a ” Killer Refrigerant.”

While car manufacturers around the world look set to standardise on 1234yf as the replacement for R134a in vehicle air conditioning systems, environmental groups and others in Germany continue to raise concerns over its flammability and the potential release of highly toxic hydrogen fluoride in the case of a fire. Under the headline
“The Killer Refrigerant”, influential German motoring magazine ‘Auto Bild’ describes HFO-1234yf as “Environmentally friendly, but dangerous”.
❝  …1234yf  is yet another transitional refrigerant, 350 times less harmful than 134a, but not benign. CO2 or water as refrigerants are ideal as they are benign, and very cheap, it is just that they require expensive compressors  (titanium, turbos, etc.). They are also said to be more efficient overall (they require higher compression but give even more cooling to more than make up for the extra compression energy used)… ❞ [ They cannot be patented ! ]

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image-of-green-tick R744

Sanden Hot Water Heat Pump

 and air conditioners use industry-leading technology Ozone friendly refrigerant
R744  (CO2)

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  MORE INFO ON REFRIGERANTS  
[ With all those ‘F’ & ‘C’ it makes CO2 and water look simple and safe! ]

With the potential to knock out 1% of global greenhouse gases, the world’s automotive
manufacturers are being urged to opt for the sustainable solution in “The Cool War”
as they make their decision over which new refrigerant to adopt for
mobile air conditioning in cars.

mobile A.C. Co2MULTI-CILOUR-LINE

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taipei-times-logo

Aluminum-ion Battery

Leading science journal Nature Communications has
published an article on a “low-cost, highly energy-efficient”
aluminum battery developed by an international research
team led by National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU)
professor Chen Chia-chun (陳家俊), the university said yesterday.

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—  SULFURYL FLUORIDE  —

Sulfuryl Fluoride also a greenhouse gas, is about 4000-5000 times more
efficient in trapping infrared radiation (per kg) than CO2 (per kg).

Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) developed by the Dow
Chemical Company. Sulfuryl fluorde is marketed as:

VIKANE,  PROFUME,  ZYTHOR and MASTER FUME

http://archive.corporateeurope.org/lobbycracy/chillingintent.html


—  CFCS – CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS  —

… contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. The manufacture of these compounds has been phased out by the Montreal Protocol, because they contribute to ozone depletion. However CFCs are still leaking from old refrigerators in land fill, and it may be many years before this stops.

Methane l

chemical formula CH4 also affects the degradation of the ozone layer —Methane in the Earth’s atmosphere is an important greenhouse gas  with a global warming potential of 25 compared to CO2  [Which is 1 (one)]

Termites 2

See → HERE  &   HERE 

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OXYGEN DEPLETION – AIRCRAFT

The environmental impact of aviation occurs because aircraft engines emit heat, noise, particulates, and gases which contribute to climate change and global dimming. Airplanes emit particles and gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, lead, and black carbon which interact among themselves and with the atmosphere. Despite emission reductions from automobiles and more fuel-efficient and less polluting turbofan and turboprop engines, the rapid growth of air travel in recent years contributes to an increase in total pollution. International aviation emissions have escaped international regulation. Apart from problems of emissions, aircraft consume huge quantities of oxygen which may be of more concern.

See our post on Lead In Aviation Fuel  →  HERE

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 “Dam interesting “
How Bacteria Nearly Destroyed All Life
Written by Alan Bellows on Aug. 2008

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Southern California’s Aliso Canyon
PORTER RANCH METHANE GAS LEAK DISASTER aerial video this week showing the tremendous, continuous release of methane Los Angeles County will continue to live under a state of emergency
THE MASSIVE CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS LEAK NO ONE IS TALKING ABOUT

Though it seems to be oddly absent from the mainstream media headlines,
a massive methane gas leak in Southern California 
 read more

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This is a good site, but not well informed on fluorides or termites 
  HERE  

GlobalGreenLogo

—  SUNSPOTS & ‘HOCKEY STICKS‘  —

     If you go back through time you will notice many
‘Hockey Sticks’
→  Click to enlarge  

Ice samples 10K years

GRIP-ice-core

FULL TEXT → HERE

—  SUN SPOTS  —

Sun Spots are intense ‘bubbles’- storms of magnetic energy, larger than our Earth – (see the images at the top of this page). These solar storms come in eleven-year cycles (average) and are recoded in sea coral, ice cores and tree growth rings. These organic records show many climate changes long before our industrial age… The solar cycle length may also be responsible for variation in temperature as well as the number of sunspots, which also can vary in size. The affects of pollution by humans and volcanoes will not be immediate and may be delayed for months or years, making it difficult to assign blame… With so much disagreement amongst the ‘experts’ we can only speculate. —

sunspot-cycle

 

 

 

 

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Volcano m

Seismic activity m

Volcanic activity, earthquakes, rainfall, power grids failures and civil unrest, increase at times of high sunspot activity. The earth and the rest of our solar system has just come through some of the lowest peaks for several thousand years hence the global heating, and droughts. We are now entering what seems to be more normal activity, some predictions are that 2012-2014 will be a VERY active time for the sun, with all the above implications…

.-o-o-o-O-o-o-o-.

…Fluorides are so highly toxic that a single truckload of the industrial waste from the phosphate
fertilizer industry, used to fluoridate public drinking water, is sufficient to kill the whole Australian populace outright. The largest recorded knock down of humans, animals and crops by fluoride was the eruption of Lakagígar in Iceland over an eight-month period between 1783 and 1784, where a mixture of Hydrogen Fluoride and Sulphur Dioxide is estimated to have claimed up to 6 million lives directly or indirectly (through starvation due to loss of livestock and crops) in the Northern Hemisphere …
[Wikipedia 2015]…


                                                         —  GLOBAL COOLING ?  —

Millions of tones of fluorides, dusts and carbon dioxide are emitted from active volcanoes. The dust emissions circulating in the upper atmosphere reflect heat back into outer space, with a delay time of a few years, so we can expect more rain, earth cooling, and more earthquakes in the near future – not global warming. One year’s volcanic activity of one Indonesian volcano can discharge more carbon into the atmosphere, than we humans have throughout our history.

F. Mexico volcno

http://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/11/1949/2011/nhess-11-1949-2011.pdf

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—   OIL, COAL AND URANIUM  —

scrubberBurning coal, and oil  results in pollution of the planet with mercury and a list of other chemical contaminants to stress your dictionary and the alphabet.  ←[ Many chimneys are NOT fitted with scrubbers. ]

Nuclear power is uneconomic if the full cost of mining and the long-term management of waste and the decommissioning of power stations are included, and is therefor NOT carbon neutral.
Like fluoridation nuclear power is based on deceit and lies.
Nuclear power plants are only possible due to funding of billions of government dollars.

In a ‘carbon economy’ the overall nuclear cycle – from mining, transporting and processing uranium ore, to disposing of radioactive waste and decommissioning power plants – generates CO2. which could be the same as from a gas-fired power station. Fast-breeder reactors would result in a plutonium economy with dangerous plutonium toxicity, nuclear weapons implications and global contamination for thousands of years. (CO2 is not poisonous in fact it is plant food.) Nuclear power primary existence was to supply plutonium for bomb manufacture – not cheap electricity, and on a planet with suicide bombers  security is very costly, if not impossible.

♦  OIL  IS  NOT  A  FOSSIL  FUEL:
Quote, the British Scientist, Sir Fred Hoyle FRS – “The suggestion that petroleum might have arisen from some transformation of squashed fish or biological detritus is surely the silliest notion to have been entertained by substantial numbers of persons over an extended period of time.”….

 

 

Russian-Abiotic-Oil-

      May be this is why Vladimir Putin is not popular in the ‘West’ .

Oil is not a fossil fuel. This is a theory put forth by 18th century scientists. Within 50 years, Germany and France’s scientists had attacked the theory of petroleum’s biological roots. In fact, oil is abiotic, not the product of long decayed biological matter. Oil, for better or for worse, is NOT a non-renewable resource. It, like coal, and natural gas, replenishes from sources within the mantle of earth. This is the real and true science of oil.

OIL  IS  NOT  A  FOSSIL  FUEL  ←→  -It is renewable-  ←→  Thomas Gold

The Origins of Oil and Petroleum

Thomas Gold Image

‘Big oil’ has a vested interest in pushing the idea that oil is scarce, hard to find, and thus costly to produce — all of which, of course, means increased revenues and profits.

 See also: Blood Oil – A new book by Leif Wenar

P.S.- There is plenty of oil in Queensland. – Why are we importing it?

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 NUCLEAR POWER IS NOT CLEAN OR GREEN – Even if coal, and oil, burning do not influence climate change, these activities need to be reduced and finally stopped due to the pollution they cause. Clean thermonuclear alternatives need to be pursued or Helium3. The use of atomic power stations, ships and weapons is a continual threat to the health and survival of  life on earth. The energy produced by atomic power is cancelled out by the high of cost for the long term servicing of radioactive waste, which certainly is not carbon neutral…

 FALLOUT FROM FUKUSHIMA

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  Cesium contamination- Bluefin tuna-Fukushima  ← 

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  Major Problems Facing Canada’s Nuclear Sector  

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A Time-Lapse Map of Every Nuclear Explosion Since 1945 – by Isao Hashimoto
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LLCF7vPanrY&feature=related
Do not watch this before going to bed.

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Hell at Handford

handford-nuc-site-ffLEAKING NUCLEAR WASTE CONTAMINATING GROUND WATER
- Credit Natural News
Hanford Determines Double-Shell Tank Leaked Waste From Inner Tank.

This headline on a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) press release from last October is bigger news than it first appeared. For the first time, the massive storage tanks built to hold some of the most radioactive nuclear waste in the world were found to be slowly leaking.

The United States campaign to build a giant arsenal of nuclear weapons during the Cold War created an environmental disaster at Hanford Site in Washington State. Highly radioactive sludge being leaked threatens to contaminate the region’s water supply.

In February, federal and state officials said six giant underground tanks holding a toxic brew of highly radioactive wastes are leaking at the 570-square-mile Hanford Reservation. The location of this nuclear waste site is right on the Columbia River in South Central Washington State. Dirtiest nuclear waste stored at the Hanford Site

Hanford is known as the dirtiest reactor site in the world. It has 1,000 inactive dumps, 200 square miles of contaminated ground water, and 50,000 drums of plutonium wastes in temporary storage. For nearly 40 years, Hanford’s eight production reactors made plutonium for hydrogen bombs for the US Military. During that process, contractors dumped plutonium, cesium, technetium, tritium, strontium and other isotopes into the air, soil, and ground water. More astonishingly, they even dumped nuclear waste directly into the Columbia River – the drinking water source for downstream cities.

Hanford has 54 million gallons of the high-level waste liquids and sludge contained in 177 aged and decrepit storage tanks. Back in the 1980s, the DOE disclosed that up to 69 of the million-gallon tanks may be leaking. February’s disclosure makes 75; six are confirmed leaking.

The Human Fallout
In 1990, a DOE analysis of radiation exposures downwind from Hanford found that infants and children were heavily contaminated because of drinking contaminated milk. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project found that 13,500 people may have received doses over 33 rads of iodine-131 and that infants and children closest to Hanford could have consumed between 650 and 3,000 rads. A single rad can cause thyroid cancer and other illnesses.
Cancers, miscarriages and other health problems suffered by people in the area were linked to the deliberate spewing of 5,500 curies of radioactive iodine-131 to the atmosphere in a Dec. 3, 1949, experiment called “green run,” and on the offhand dispersal of 340,000 curies in 1945 alone.

Hanford’s latest six leaks are just a microcosm of the radiation leaked from the site which continues to leak deadly nuclear waste to the Columbia River resulting in a plague of cancer and disease that seems to have no end. What is Washington State doing about this? Washington Governor Jay Inslee and the U.S. Department of Energy are each looking for answers from a private company managing the most dangerous radioactive waste at the Hanford Site, where plutonium was made for the U.S. nuclear arsenal.
Inslee has asked his top Hanford adviser to begin inquiries into the situation with the leaking double-shell tank, a spokesperson for his office said.
Inslee said, “We’re going to be reviewing this. We know how diligent I want this state to be of having a zero tolerance policy … on leaking radioactivity. It is the right policy. It is demanding, but it is legally enforceable and we’re going to continue to insist on that policy.”

Inslee added:
“We are going to be insistent that our federal partners be open and transparent with us to the extent humanly possible, that we are and will be reviewing what happened in this particular circumstance.”

  Sources for this article include  ↓ ↓
  http://truth-out.org
  http://www.king5.com

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Perovskite image f

A promising new way of making high-efficiency
solar cells, using perovskites instead of silicon.

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See also our site on: →  CORAL BLEACHING

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Piers Corbyn, Astrophysicist,
Managing Director & Founder of:

weather-action-logo

⇒  HERE

“There is no evidence for the CO2 climate driver
proposition in the real world using real
data over hundreds of thousands of years. 
World temperatures do not follow CO2…”

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GLOBAL COOLING – ICE AGES

Winters of The World m

Winters of The World

Although this book is more concerned with global cooling, it covers many aspects of climate change. We therefore commend it to anyone looking for scientific info on a broad scale, – both in time and space.   ❝…Even if there is a slight global warming at present, it would be difficult to prove that this is caused by industrial atmospheric pollution. Global climate is never stable in any case, and short-term oscillations of a few centigrade degrees are probably a perfectly normal feature of our environment. Other atmospheric changes have seriously been considered as factors in the waxing and waning of the world’s ice cover. The ozone composition of the upper atmosphere is thought to be affected by solar flares and also by industrial pollution, [fluorides] but it is not certain how much global cooling and warming can be accounted for by changes in the ozone layer. Volcanic eruption may also affect the climate, especially if there are many large-scale eruptions over a short space of time which add volcanic dust [and fluorides] to the atmosphere. However, it is now thought that the effects of volcanic eruptions are short-lived, and it has been demonstrated that volcanic dust seldom remains in suspension in the atmosphere for more than seven years after an eruption… ❞

OTHER ISSUES DEALT WITH IN THIS BOOK INCLUDE

—  INTERNAL —

1   Variations in the Earth’s core – alterations in the output of heat from
radioactive materials [natural] inside the Earth.

2   Alterations in the direction and strength of the convection currents
which may exist within the Earth’s mantle. – geothermal heat flux.

3   Frequency of reversals of the Earth’s magnetic fields.
(Over 80 in the last 2,000 million years.)

—  SOLAR  —

 4   Our sun is a slightly variable star.
Its energy is output is NOT a constant. – Őpic.

5   There may be a ‘flickering’- on a timescale of the order of 250-300 million years.

6   Many periodicities have been recognized or assumed, ranging from millions of
years
 to less than a year.

7   Solar emission cycles with periods of between 200,00 and 400,000 years have received particular attention.

8   Sunspot cycles. [11 year average]

9   Precession of the equinoxes: 21,000 – 25,000 years

10  The obliquity of the Earth’s orbit: c. 41,000 years

11  The eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit: 90,000 – 100,000 years

—  GALACTIC  —

12  The Solar System moves up and down through the galactic plane.

13  The effects of interstellar dust veils.

14  Solar winds from other stars.

15  Changes in spin-rate of the Earth.

❝ Each of these factors might lead independently to small coolings and warmings of the global climate, but substantial climatic changes such as those involved in the initiation of an ice age can probably not occur until three factors are ‘favourable’ phased at the same time…❞

— THE LITTLE ICE AGE IN WEST ANTARCTICA —

It synchronous with the Little Ice Age in the Northern Hemisphere “probably caused by a change in solar and volcanic forcing”…

   Read More  

Reference:

Orsi, A.J., Cornuelle, B.D. and Severinghaus J.P. 2012.
Little Ice Age cold interval in West Antarctica:
Evidence from borehole temperature at
The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide.
Geophysical Research Letters 39: 10.1029/2012GL051260.

image Heidelberg Appeal

  THE HEIDELBERG APPEAL  

Climate Change Awards

  HERE  

Co2 Science

 http://www.co2science.org

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SOME NEW CLEANER OPTIONS: 

– BLACK SMOKERS 

Hydrothermal Vents (Under the sea)

image of 'black smoker' f

Hydrothermal vents exist at the ocean floor, 2100m (7000ft) below the surface.
They exist in many oceans around the world, especially in the Pacific and Atlantic. 

 Hydrothermal electricity clean and green

A short must watch ↑

Marshall Hydrothermal f

 

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– HELIUM-3 –

Europe, China, India and Russia are also space nations. China is planning to mine Helium-3 on the moon, where it is plentiful, for a future fusion economy. ( Provided: No one else is there first!  )

Fusion power (not radioactive) based on Helium-3 will give us all clean energy for thousands of years.
Helium-3 fusion produces charged particles called protons, which create plasmas that can be contained and redirected by electromagnetic fields to produce electricity directly, rather than using less efficient steam turbines

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– THORIUM REACTORS –

THORIUM PELLETS

Thorium reactors  COULD  be a safer alternative than uranium, but this would not suit the military – (no bomb material) or the uranium industry, as it would give more nations access, to power, as thorium is more ubiquitous than uranium.  Both India and China are researching this now. (Australia has the largest known deposits of  Thorium in the world.) More info on Thorium reactors →  HERE

THORIUM OPTION?

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– WIND POWER –

http://www.mnn.com/green-tech/research-innovations/blogs/japanese-breakthrough-will-make-wind-power-cheaper-than-nuclea

Japanese breakthrough will make wind power cheaper than nuclear power.
A surprising aerodynamic innovation in wind turbine design called the ‘wind lens’ could triple the output of a typical wind turbine, making it less costly than nuclear power.
NOTE: Some major wind projects like the proposed

TWE Carbon Valley project in Wyoming are already pricing in significantly lower than coal power – $80 per MWh for wind versus $90 per MWh for coal – and that is without government subsidies using today’s wind turbine technology.

 

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vertical-axis-wind-turbines-f

Vertical-axis wind turbines potential sources of cheaper
electricity in urban and suburban areas, researchers discover.

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 Credit :  Care logo

New wind turbine m

 New Wind Turbine Makes Very Little Noise 

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—  NEW SOLAR CELLS + D C Wind Turbines  —

The new efficient solar cells that respond to none visible light, (still work on cloudy days), optical double sided cells, DC wind turbines that can operate at any wind speed and do not require a gearbox. Peaking power plants and base load hydro-power from stored water pumped up behind dams by wind turbines, at off peak times, offer some cleaner options until we progress further with cold or hot fusion (helium 3), conversion of water into hydrogen, or the harnessing neutrinos, Hydrothermal, or whatever scientists discover in the future… ‘The Blue Economy’ as per Gunter Pauliis offering many other innovations of great merit.

  Gunter Pauli 

Gunter Pauli

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USA RESEARCH

Japan’s recent tragic nuclear experience may stimulate some new developments worldwide. However industrial corruption, electronic sabotage and debt banking in the USA will hinder these technical developments there and, its support for Israel with its endless Middle East wars will bleed the USA white, financially, thus reducing its research and development potential.

The myth of global warming, driven by massive well-financed media-protected propaganda, has persuaded many politicians and centers of learning that carbon dioxide (CO2) is a problem. -
See extract→  Eisenhower’s Farewell Speech But, as explained above, 
It ain’t necessarily so.

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The Theory of CO2 and Global Warming
May Be Seriously Flawed 

 WEATHER MODIFICATION ,

More on Weather Modification

And External Cosmic Forces Are More Likely Explanations
“Global Dimming” … inhibition of photosynthesis and agricultural production.

  “MUST WATCH”

Questioners

Maybe that is why 31,487 scientists, including 9,029 with PhDs, reject man-made global warming by carbon dioxide.
 www.petitionproject.org/ 

See also the book ‘Heaven+ Earth” by Professor Ian Plimer

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❝ I don’t pretend to understand the Universe — it’s a great deal bigger than I am.  ❞
Carlyle – in his Old Age

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“CHASING ICE” captures largest glacier calving ever filmed

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AS THE CLIMATE CHANGES, EITHER TO HOT OR COLD.
THESE COMMON SENSE RULES STILL APPLY :

1)  Don’t build or live close to fault lines, volcanoes, on steep slopes, or close to water,
( wharves being the exception ).

2)  Stop weather modification

3)  Manage all human activities as sustainably as possible:
Clean Air, Clean Water, Clean Food, and Clean Fire.

Voltaire –
“ It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong. ”

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More information is also available:

from → http://www.nipccreport.org/index.html

To receive weekly summaries of this new material posted on the NIPCC
(Non Governmental International Panel On Climate Change) website
(Not connected to us),  click here.
Postal Address:NIPCC Project
Center for the Study of
 Carbon Dioxide and Global Change
P.O. Box 25697
 Tempe, AZ 85285-5697
USANIPCC_contact “at” nipccreport.org

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 A few solar panels in China!

solar-panels-china

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The Australian “Carbon Tax” will WAS TO be paid in-part to the
United Nations World Government not by choice, – but by law.

In February 2011  Paul Murray from the WestAustralian reported that:

Ex- ‘Prime Minister Julia Gillard’s new tax was to be used to allow Australia to meet its share of a $100 billion-a-year United Nations fund to transfer wealth from rich countries to help undeveloped nations adapt to global warming. The Gillard Government was party to a UN agreement which Climate Change Minister Greg Combet entered into in December at a meeting in Cancun, Mexico, under which about 10 per cent of carbon taxes in developed nations will go into a Green Climate Fund.

❝  … They [Australians] do not want a carbon tax, not because they do not care about the environment but because they know that it will do nothing for the environment. They know that it will not lower global temperatures one jot or tittle. We absolutely know that and no-one has ever disputed it. They also know that billions of their dollars are going to be sent offshore to unaccountable regimes or organisations. You are going to see it go to an international United Nations fund and you are also going to have to buy permits from nations which have a less than rigorous reputation for financial transparency and honesty.
These are things that all concern us… ❞

CorybBernardi m

  Cory Bernardi (SA, Liberal Party)

He makes no mention of other atmospheric pollutants,
– still he has got it right so far! )

Marine snow

‘MARINE SNOW’ – PART OF NATURES CARBON SEQUESTRATION –

… Because of the relatively long residence time of the ocean’s thermohaline circulationcarbon transported as marine snow into the deep ocean by the biological pump can remain out of contact with the atmosphere for more than 1000 years. That is, when the marine snow is finally decomposed to inorganic nutrients and dissolved carbon dioxide, these are effectively isolated from the surface ocean for relatively long time-scales related to oceancirculation. Consequently, enhancing the quantity of marine snow that reaches the deep ocean is the basis of several geoengineering schemes to enhance carbon sequestration by the ocean. Ocean nourishment and iron fertilisation seek to boost the production of organic material in the surface ocean, with a concomitant rise in marine snow reaching the deep ocean. As of yet, these efforts have not produced a sustainable fertilization that effectively transports carbon out of the system…

       Credit Wikipedia

… The small percentage of material not consumed in shallower waters becomes incorporated into the muddy “ooze” blanketing the ocean floor, where it is further decomposed through biological activity.  About three-quarters of the deep ocean floor is covered in this thick, smooth ooze.  The ooze collects as much as six meters (20 feet) every million years.  It is usually 289 meters (948 feet) thick,
– but can be up to nearly 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) thick…

Credit NOAA – Wow, that IS a lot of carbon ! 

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climate-change-hoax

 Full story → HERE

Wednesday, 21 June 2017 by: 

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The Galileo Movement (non-profit)
www.galileomovement.com.au

GAL MOV C

Global warming stopped 16 years ago, reveals Met Office
report quietly released… and here is the chart to prove it:

  • The figures reveal that from the beginning of 1997 until August 2012
    there was no discernible rise in aggregate global temperatures

  • This means that the ‘pause’ in global warming has now lasted for about
    the same time as the previous period when temperatures rose, 1980 to 1996

By David Rose

PUBLISHED: 21:42 GMT, 13 October 2012 |
UPDATED: 13:59 GMT, 16 October 2012

  •  Comments (958)

The figures, which have triggered debate among climate scientists, reveal that from the beginning of 1997 until August 2012, there was no discernible rise in aggregate global temperatures.

This means that the ‘plateau’ or ‘pause’ in global warming has now lasted for about the same time as the previous period when temperatures rose, 1980 to 1996. Before that, temperatures had been stable or declining for about 40 years.

Try not to get too hot under the collar about global warming…

sleeping parrot

logo-aust-f-skeptics

 

Fluoridation Queensland Logo

new-water-splash

 

The Fluoride Gas Industry’s Plot Against Climate Legislation

However, F. Gases are highly potent greenhouse gases and therefore
have become an important element of the European Climate Change
Programme (ECCP), which since 2001 has been the EU’s main 

forum for discussing and developing policies to combat
climate change and meet Kyoto demands.

double-pink-up-line

European Commission Welcomes
Parliament Vote on Fluorinated Gases

Update  → →  HERE    18 May 2016

image-of-earth-f

CHILLING-INTENT

Corporate Europe Observatory, October 2005

European Parliament rejects calls to ban most dangerous greenhouse gases A

WORST LOBBY AWARD 

European Parliament rejects calls to ban most dangerous greenhouse gases B


WHEN BEFORE HAVE REFRIGERANTS BEEN A HOT ITEM ?

An important EU initiative which seeks to regulate the use of some highly potent green house gases has been under attack from its inception by F-gas industry lobbying, who seek to weaken its impact on their business activities. The Brussels front for this lobby, which consists of mainly US based multinationals, is the ‘European Partnership for Energy and the Environment’ (EPEE). It is now working hard to influence the European Parliament so that current Parliament proposals do not undermine industry’s initial lobbying success by introducing tougher regulation after all. Internal EPEE documents reveal the exact details of the lobbying strategy laid out by Hill & Knowlton.

The EU is one of the main contributors to global climate change. In order to meet even its own Kyoto commitments[1], generally considered not nearly enough, EU countries have to take serious action. High on the to-do list is reducing the emissions of the ‘F-gases’.   These industrial fluorinated gases (hydro fluorocarbons or HFCs, perfluorocarbons or PFCs and sulphur hexafluoride or SF6), have extremely high Global Warming Potentials (GWP).[2] With their growing production, F-gases will count for a increasing share of global greenhouse emissions.  Unique among pollutants that cause climate change, is that F-gases are not a by-product, but deliberately produced and promoted substances.[3]


    USE OF FLUORIDE-GASES

F-gases are used in many appliances such as refrigerators, air conditioning, foam blowers and car tyres. They replaced ozone-depleting gases such as chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs), which are being phased out globally as part of the 1990 Montreal Protocol. F-gases are therefore often portrayed by their manufacturers as ‘environmentally friendly’. However, they are highly potent greenhouse gases and therefore have become an important element of the European Climate Change Programme (ECCP), which since 2001 has been the EU’s main forum for discussing and developing policies to combat climate change and meet Kyoto demands.[4]

In most appliances, natural alternatives with negligible GWP compared to F-gases are either already available and widely used, or are in development.[5] For example, Greenpeace and German company DKK Scharfenstein introduced ‘Greenfreeze’ hydrocarbon refrigerators into the European market in the 1990s.[6] Now, fridges made by major European [and Japanese] companies such as Siemens and Bosch are nearly all F-gas free. Big food corporations are switching to F-gas free commercial refrigeration.[7]

Despite this and to the disappointment of many, in 2003 the European Commission’s initial proposal[8] for regulating F-gases focused on containment rather than out-right bans. This meant a focus on how the substance is handled, preventing leakage, instead of limiting the use of it. Furthermore, internal market law was chosen as the legal base for the proposal instead of EU environmental law.[9] This effectively prevents individual Member States from imposing their own bans or introducing stricter rules. This is significant because countries such as Denmark and Austria, have been pursuing national F-gas bans and are supporting the switch to alternatives.

After two and a half years of discussions, the F-gas Regulation is nearly finalised. At the end of October 2005, a crucial European Parliament vote may bring fundamental improvements to the current proposal.


    F-GAS LOBBY:

    WHO IS THE EUROPEAN PARTNERSHIP FOR ENERBY AND THE ENVIRONMENT?

While the makers of products using F-gases in many cases have the option to switch to alternatives, Fgas producers have a great interest in sustaining their use. DuPont’s Annual Review in 2004 states that: “With global patent rights for three critical HFC refrigerant blends, DuPont is poised to benefit from implementation of the Montreal Protocol [...]”. DuPont is expanding its F-gas activities in China, a fast-growing air conditioning and refrigeration market.[10] Honeywell and Arkema (part of oil giant Total) are doing the same. Clearly, patent portfolio’s and investment strategies are at the core of the industry’s current offensive and their battle against any F-gas phase outs. In 2002, new F-gas factories were proposed or under construction in European countries like the UK, France and Spain.[11]

The failure of the US government to take meaningful action against global warming is well known. US producers of alternative refrigerants such as hydrocarbons, argue that the absence of US action against F-gases is due to political pressure of pro-F-gas groups “that are closely linked to DuPont”.[12] As a non-signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, the US government and US industries often characterise European initiatives that seek to take action against global warming as barriers to trade “under the guise of environmental protection”.[13] However, it became apparent that in the EU, F-gases were going to be subject to some kind of regulation. So the F-gas industry devised a more European and ‘green’ façade, in order to take action to keep any impending regime as weak as possible. To this end, in 2000, the ‘European Partnership for Energy and the Environment’ (EPEE) was founded.

The EPEE presents itself as the ‘voice of the European refrigeration and air-conditioning sector’.

However, the 23 members on the ‘European’ member list are mostly American or Japanese multinationals with plants in Europe (DuPont, Honeywell, Lennox, Baltimore Aircoil, Copeland, Carrier, Daikin, Hitachi, Mitsubishi and others). The absence of most European refrigerator manufacturers, including Siemens, Bosch, Miele, Delonghi, AEG and Liebherr,[14] is highly significant, as they have all largely switched to alternatives to F-gases.


    LOBBY ON F-GAS

The most vocal lobby on the F-gas regulation has undoubtedly come from the F-gas producers themselves, either through EPEE or the European Fluorocarbon Technical Committee (EFCTC)[15], part of the chemical industry lobby organisation CEFIC. All five members of EFCTC are also members of EPEE.   Other industry sectors lobbying on the F-gas regulation represent the variety of uses of F-gases:             [The] producers of foam, cars, fire fighting equipment and food companies. All are worried about the costs of transition to alternatives. Large food companies like McDonald’s got involved in hope of subsidies for their switch to F-gas free refrigerators. The CIAA (food and drink industry federation) recently got involved to oppose bans that would affect other companies that have not yet switched.

Opposing the pro-F-gas lobby, green NGOs like Greenpeace and Climate Action Network Europe, along with producers of alternative refrigerants, have fought for the EU to adopt a much more far reaching approach to reduce F-gas emissions.

There are significant gaps in the membership list which is available on the EPEE website[16], such as EPEE founding member: the US Airconditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI).[17] The ARI is closely related to the ‘Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy’ (ARAP). Both are based in Arlington, Virginia, near Washington.[18] The EPEE and ARAP are closely linked, with largely overlapping memberships. The only two companies listed as “US” members of the EPEE (Rheem Manufacturing and Lennox International), are very involved in both lobby groups. Dave Lewis of Lennox International is chairman of ARAP. All the other US companies are listed with their European offices. The names of the two organisations include typical terms such as ‘Alliance’ and ‘Partnership’, ‘Responsible’ and ‘Environment’, and reflect a decade-long tradition of industry front groups working against progressive social and environmental legislation.[19] For many years, US and EU multinationals had the ‘Trans Atlantic Business Dialogue’ (TABD) at their disposal for co-coordinated transatlantic lobbying.[20] The TABD was founded in 1995 as an initiative of the European Commission and the US government. This controversial body grants these companies privileged access to high level policy makers. When refrigerants became an issue, a ‘Refrigerants Group’ was set up within the TABD, on the US side, headed by the Air conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI).

Following a 1994 EU proposal to unilaterally ban certain ozone depleting HCFCs[21], the European Commission was criticised by the TABD Refrigerants Group and accused of being “unresponsive to industry input and facts”.[22] A few years later, the TABD focus shifted to the F-gases. Responding to a Danish government plan to ban certain F-gases by 2006[23], industry took action directly to the European Commission. Reporting on the Cincinatti TABD summit in December 2000, the ARI newsletter states that: “The Refrigerants Group briefed Peter Horrocks, the EU’s Environment Head of Sector, and Gerhard Lohan, the EU’s Enterprise Head of Unit, for nearly two hours on the merits of long-term HFC use”.[24] Refrigerants remained a major issue at later TABD meetings.

As demonstrated later, the privileged access that the TABD offered to the F-gas industry influenced key concepts in the first Commission F-gas proposal. The TABD also played an important role in paving the way for a European twin organisation to ARAP to establish itself as a ‘credible stakeholder’. From its inception, the EPEE has served as a platform from which the European decision makers, media and public are supplied with the ‘green’ F-gas message.


    CLOUDY ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS FIRMS

In Brussels, public relations (PR) firms play a key, but opaque role in assisting corporate lobbying. The EPEE is an example of this. The EPEE website does not reveal that the group’s Brussels operations are by and large run by public affairs giant Hill & Knowlton, located on 118 Avenue de Cortenbergh, one of Brussels’ lobbying hotspots.[25] The EPEE has the maximum permitted number of four (previously six) lobbyists accredited with fulltime access passes to the European Parliament on its behalf.[26]                                                                                                                   All but one are Hill & Knowlton employees, registered as ‘EPEE’.

Hill & Knowlton consultants designed EPEE’s lobbying strategy, do the organisational work, and conduct most of the lobbying of EU officials and parliamentarians. While the content and approach of ARAP’s arguments have evidently been copied to EPEE, the EPEE website is more stylish and has a distinctively more ‘green’ flavour to it. Hill & Knowlton claim that thanks to its work, “EPEE has become a legitimate and credible stakeholder in the refrigeration policy debate”.[27] In a very similar manner, the ARAP is established and run by PR firm Alcalde & Fay in Washington.[28]


    GREENWASHING F-GASES

The EPEE lobbying strategy is clearly focused on greening the image of F-gases. To the United Nations, the EPEE claims a commitment to “contribute to the development of effective European policies to reduce greenhouse gases from the use of refrigerants”.[29] Meanwhile to industry, ARI president William Sutton talks about how: “[...] the EPEE [...] is fighting against the possible phase-out of HFC refrigerants in Europe”.[30]

ARAP/EPEE claim that the environmental benefits of F-gases are (1) they replace ozone depleting CFCs, (2) their potential energy efficiency compared to alternatives in some appliances, generating less CO2 emissions. It is argued that (3) with maximum containment, leakage into the atmosphere can be prevented. Diverse arguments are used to discredit the alternatives like hydrocarbons (4).


    GENUINELY CONCERNED ABOUT THE OZONE?

The founders of the EPEE were actively engaged in the fight against the phase-out of CFC’s.

According to internet sources, Hill & Knowlton has in the past assisted in the defense of CFC’s by downplaying its role in the destruction of the ozone layer. Dr. J. Masters, meteorologist, notes how in 1975, when scientists first discovered the ozone hole, Hill & Knowlton was hired by the CFC industry to organise a month long speakers tour around the US for a ozone-skeptic scientist to discredit the discovery as just a ‘number of theories’.[31]

Later, the CFC industry took control of the situation and supported CFC phase-outs, as they saw benefits from the opening market for their replacements, F-gases. Meanwhile, their lobbying continued to slow down the speed of CFC phase-out. For this initial purpose, the ‘Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy’ was founded. This Alliance was later renamed the ‘Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy’.

Kevin Fay (of PR company Alcalde & Fay), then director of the Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy, was quoted commenting on the Montreal Protocol as: “it goes much further than anything we think is necessary”.[32] Mr. Fay is still active in the Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy as a special counsel.[33]

The companies behind ARAP and EPEE, former producers and promoters of CFCs, should not be given any credit for the global move towards CFC phase-out. Furthermore, the fact that F-gases are non-ozone depleting does not make them ‘environmentally benign’ as F-gas companies often claim, as they are still highly potent greenhouse gases.

1.)  The very first impression about the EPEE, given by the website’s flashy introductory film, is its concern with the hole in the ozone layer. However, it fails to say that the alternatives to F-gases are equally  non ozone depleting. Moreover, EPEE members like DuPont,  Solvay and Daikin have made a fortune out of ozone destroying CFC’s in the past, and were initially opposed to their phase outs.[34]  

2.)  For many appliances, alternatives to F-gases are not less energy efficient.  Hydrocarbons are used on mass scale and are very energy efficiently in home fridges. The energy efficiency of a product tends to depend on the design of the system used. More investments would speed up the development of energy efficient appliances using alternatives to F-gases, like hydrocarbons, ammonia or CO2.                        

[Editor’s note: water  and CO2 can be used for air conditioning
- see other information on this web site.  & at end of this page  ]

3.)  The total greenhouse emissions of an F-gas product depends on how much F-gas ends up in the atmosphere. There is still no agreement on actual leakage rates. The Institute for European Environmental Policy  (IEEP) has recently published a report that questions the leakage  percentages under the Dutch containment model that the draft EU F-gas regulation is based on. According to IEEP, percentages may be allowing far higher emissions than the often quoted 4.8%.[35]

4.)  The F-gas lobby constantly refers to the alternatives as ‘flammables’ (especially hydrocarbons), despite the fact that hydrocarbon fridges have proved completely safe. The TABD Refrigerants Group even requested that “the EU Commission and Member States recognise the need for the management and containment of all refrigerants, regardless of the type”[36]. This would mean that CO2 as a refrigerator would have to be contained and recycled after use, despite its negligible global warming potential compared to F-gases. This ‘request’ was clearly meant to reduce the attraction of more cost effective alternatives to F-gases.


    STANDARD ABUSE

In a variety of different ways, the F-gas industry is able to achieve political influence, thereby putting competing alternatives at a disadvantage. For example, in the UK, last year a report[37] was published based on documents provided by Calor Gas, a hydrocarbon producer, demonstrating how alternatives to F-gases were treated unfairly in UK standard setting procedures. The F-gas interests were consistently over-represented in numerical terms during technical committees setting standards for air conditioning and refrigeration. According to the report, the UK government largely left the standard setting process to industry, resulting in negligible external oversight. “This then perpetuates the status quo”. Since participation in standard setting working groups is very costly and time consuming, “[...] it is rare for any contribution [...] to come from any source other than well-financed interested parties  within industry”, says the report. Calor Gas referred the matter to the UK Office of Fair Trading.


    THE COMMISSION PROPOSAL

In 2000, the European Commission started work on a legislative proposal to address F-gases, as part of the EU’s efforts to meet its Kyoto commitments. A special Commission ‘working group on fluorinated gases’ was formed. DG Environment was given prime responsibility for the issue, in close cooperation with DG Enterprise. The participants’ list of this working group is not available on the European  Commission website. At CEO’s request, DG Environment responded the list could not be found.[38] As the list shows, there was a clear lack of representation of the non-F-gas refrigerant industry, as well as of public interest NGOs. The F-gas industry, on the contrary, was well represented by both individual companies, the EPEE and the EFCTC. Working group members were principally invited, but could also apply themselves. The uneven composition of the working group may be because of a biased invitation policy. However capacity issues among NGOs and the non-F-gas industry, combined with a lack of awareness of the political process may have also contributed. However, such working groups have an advisory role, and it should be stressed that it is up to the Commission to decide to what extent their advice is reflected in legislative proposals. Jason Anderson of Climate Action Network (CAN) Europe, the only NGO representative on the working group[39], reports that “the fluorocarbon manufacturers, with a vested interest in F-gases, were most  vocal, as well as several industry groups with long working relationships with the F-gas industry. Producers of alternatives were represented by only one or two people.”[40] In relation to the content of the proposed regulation, there are two key issues. First, its legal base – Art. 175 (Environment) allows member states to impose stricter rules than EU law demands, whereas art. 95 (Internal Market) does not allow this flexibility. Second whether the focus should be on bans or on containment.
The Commission proposal of August 2003 largely reflected the wishes of the F-gas lobby
on these two key issues:

• Article 95 (Internal Market) was decided to be the legal base. 

• The focus of the proposal was on containment, using a Dutch model for handling F-gases, rather than on phase outs of F-gases (except for some uses that are emissive by nature, and HFC134a in car air conditioning).

According to Anderson, the working group did not really discuss the legal base. “Industry always  advocated the legal base to be art. 95, while NGOs at first focused on getting ambitious legislation – but the resulting weak ambition and art. 95 was the combination industry was aiming for”. The Commission’s choice for art. 95 seems illogical as primary aim of the F-gas regulation is to combat climate change. Peter Horrocks of the European Commission’s Directorate-General Environment described the choice of art. 95 as a “political compromise”.[41] According to a parliamentary advisor of the Greens, other sources in the Environment Directorate suggested that the demand for art. 175 as the legal base was the result of horse-trading with DG Enterprise. Greenpeace reports that former Environment Commissioner Wallström was forced by the rest of the Commission to accept the art. 95 as a legal base; “or else she would get no legislation at all”.[42]

On the bans vs. containment debate, Anderson sums up the result from the working group as: “NGOs wanted containment and phase-outs. Industry wanted containment. So the Commission said ‘everyone agrees on containment, that’s enough,’ even though that was clearly the minor part of the NGO  agenda.” He believes that during the period between Spring 2001, the end of the working group discussions, and Summer 2003, the adoption of the Commission proposal, “[the] industry probably did an effective lobby”. Anderson published an extensive critique of the final report of the working group, arguing that the report not always “accurately reflected all the views expressed” and “characterises consensus where no consensus was reached”. He points to a clear lack of data in some cases, where in other cases “reliable data was ignored by opposing industries”. On alternatives, he notes that, “Alternatives have not only been too little considered, the language referring to them is consistently biased in a negative way”.[43]

Once the Commission finalised its proposal, the EU Council of Ministers and the European Parliament took over the process. The first reading at the Parliament ended in March 2004 and brought no      fundamental changes to the Commission proposal. However, in October 2004, the Environment Council of Ministers (the Member States) reached a political agreement, which decided to split the proposal into two: a Directive on emissions from mobile air conditioning, and a Regulation which covers the rest. The Council decided on a dual legal base for the Regulation: Internal Market and Environment. In another area, to EPEE’s great relief, the list of possible bans was not extended, despite requests by the governments of Austria and Denmark for such bans.


    PARLIAMENT: NEW THREATS, NEW ALLIES AND CLOSED LUNCHES

After the summer break of 2005, Parliament is once again holding the playing cards. Following 2004’s Parliamentary elections, and the enlargement of the EU with ten new Member States, the political landscape has changed and new positions have been taken. To the surprise of many, the new rapporteur on this issue, Christian-Democrat MEP Avril Doyle (Ireland) is proposing art. 175 (Environment) as the single legal base for the F-gas Regulation. She has also tabled an amendment to include an additional ban on F-gases in home refrigerators. The single legal base art. 175 is supported by shadow rapporteur Liberal Chris Davies (UK).

Since the F-gas proposal has been split in two, the Parliament Legal Service has insisted that art. 175 should be the legal base for the F-gas Regulation. Yet, the European Commission’s DG Environment has not changed its position.[44] Doyle’s proposals are a serious threat to EPEE’s ambitions. It has stepped up its lobbying activity directed at MEPs and designed to ensure they refrain from fundamentally amending the proposal. As the EPEE newsletter states, the group aims to “ensure that the achievements made at first reading are not jeopardised during second reading”.[45]

With such positions taken by both the new rapporteur and shadow rapporteur, the EPEE has worked hard to find other allies. Liberal MEP Holger Krahmer (ALDE) was prepared to host a closed lunch lobby meeting for the EPEE on September 14 2005, following the F-gas discussion in the EP’s Environment Committee.

The lunch was attended by a number of MEPs[46] and commission officials from DG Environment and DG Enterprise. Despite Krahmer’s enthusiastic personal slogan ‘To make Europe more Transparent’[47], a Greenpeace representative was at first refused to attend. Only after another MEP intervened, Greenpeace was grudgingly allowed in. Mahi Sideridou (Greenpeace): “Again, the industry gentlemen there were saying ‘no’ to absolutely everything – no to art. 175, no to additional bans. They used the case of the Ozone Depleting Substance Regulation, which is based on art. 175, as a disastrous example of allowing for flexibility in Member States.” Her point of view, on the contrary, is that the right for Member States to take stronger measures to combat ozone depleting substances has delivered vital results in the EU fight against ozone depletion, and has had a global market knock-on effect. The fact that MEPs attending the EPEE lobby lunch were served this specific example, could not contrast more with EPEE’s self created pro ozone protection image.


    LOBBYISTS FILLING THE INFORMATION VOID?

Members of the European Parliament often complain about the lack of time and resources to collect the information necessary to make good judgements about highly technical issues. Quoted recently in the ‘European Voice’, MEP Hartmut Nassauer, points out that at EU level, in contrast to the national level, “there is no government or administrative body linked to the European Parliament so when there is an important directive such as the REACH chemicals legislation, it is important that there are lobbyists who have relevant knowledge”. MEP Chris Davies, shadow rapporteur on the F-gas regulation, confirms that much of the information that comes to him is provided by lobbyists. In his view, the producers of alternatives to F-gases have not been lobbying nearly as strongly. However, the Parliament Environment Committee has rightly not been influenced by this imbalance of information. In its last vote, demands for additional bans were accepted, as well as for a single legal base Art. 175.


    THE GRAND FINALE

On 11 October 2005, members of the Parliament’s Environment Committee proved unconvinced by persistent industry lobbying against F-gas phase-outs. Support was given to phase-outs in domestic refrigeration (four years after the entry into force), in commercial refrigeration (by 2010), in air conditioning (by 2010), in all foams (by 2009), aerosols (by 2006), as well as in trace gases (by 2006). There is a proposal to ban SF6 – the most potent of all F-gases – in all but one appliance (by 2008). Moreover, the Committee chose for a single legal base ‘Environment’ (art. 175), which would allow Denmark and Austria to keep their existing bans and allow other countries to do the same in the future.[48] Before the vote, rapporteur Doyle dismissed complaints that a single legal base art. 175 would disturb the internal market. “With respect, industry’s protests are nonsense. We employ a legal opinion and we should listen to our legal opinion”, she said.[49] The Parliament Committee also agreed to support fiscal incentives for producers of alternatives. In an internal note, Hill & Knowlton consultant Mary. B. Walsh reports to the EPEE members that “[…] the overall result is not good for EPEE with the Committee having accepted a single environmental legal base as well as a the full range of use bans affecting  the Various RAC appliances as proposed”. And: “This means we have our work  cut out for us to get the wider Membership of the parliament to move  against the position as adopted by the environment committee.” [50]


    DG ENTERPRISE LAST MINUTE ATTEMPT TO UNDERMINE F-GAS REGULATION?

In its final stages, the F-gas Regulation has become a target of the “better regulation” campaign of Commissioners Verheugen (DG Enterprise) and Barroso (President). This means that the F-gas directive has been put on the list of legislative proposals, published 27 September 2005, for which a reassessment on the economic impact on business is required. Given the advanced stage that the F-gas Regulation has reached in terms of a decision point, even DG Environment is left wondering what motivation has included it in this list.[51]

Ironically, the double No vote to the EU Constitution in France and the Netherlands, is being used in support of this deregulation drive. It is claimed that the populations in both countries would have rejected the Constitution foremost because they want ‘less Brussels bureaucracy’. Despite clear messages that many people, instead, want a green and social Europe, Barroso and Verheugen presented a list of ‘absurd’ laws to be slashed, and reassessment demands for other regulatory initiatives that might bring additional costs to industry.

Corporate Europe Observatory filed an ‘access to information’ request to DG Enterprise, asking access to all communication and meetings between Commissioner Verheugen and DG Enterprise on the one hand, and business groups on the other, in the context of the establishment of this ‘better regulation’ list. The European Commission replied that no such communication or meetings had taken place.[52] After some weeks of uncertainty, it is now clear that the legislative process of the F-gas regulation will not be delayed because of the economic assessment.[53]

In the days before the decisive European Parliament vote, Hill & Knowlton is co-ordinating the EPEE fight back. An internal EPEE document describes in detail which lobbying action is to be taken by which EPEE representatives, towards MEPs, the Commission and the Member States.[54] Mary Walsh of Hill & Knowlton writes:

“[we] need to do all in our power to ensure the negative amendment don’t get a majority of 367” The leaked document gives a unique insight into the multi-faceted lobbying offensive orchestrated by Hill & Knowlton on behalf of its corporate clients.[55]

 
LEEKED EPEE STRATEGY

• Towards the ‘Trialogue’ meeting between the European Commission,  Parliament and Council, Hill & Knowlton will compile a list with “input against each ban”, that will the basis of all lobbying by EPEE members.  Hill & Knowlton will set up meetings with ‘critical MEPs’ to “ to influence  the voting list across the political group and nation positions.” 

• In the Environment Committee, the aim is “finding friends who can put  doubt on results on critical bans and legal base amendments and carry  the message to wider parliament”[56] Chairman Florenz (EPP, Germany) will be targeted specifically by CEFIC.

• The Parliament Industry Committee on the other hand, is labelled as a  ‘natural ally’, and key players from this Committee are to be mobilised to  “advocate to wider membership”. 

• Also&in the Internal Market and Legal Affairs Committees, Trade Committee and EUAUS delegation, MEPs are selected to be contacted[57]. 

• There is still consideration to try  and “get a political group or group of  MEPs to table any plenary amendments.” To influence the Commission, Hill Knowlton will contact the Cabinets of Dimas (Environment) and  Barroso (President) to “ensure steady on legal base”. 

• ‘NC’ (CEO: most likely referring to Nick Campbell, of Atofina Total, EFCTC, and CEFIC) will talk more to DG Environment, and there is “ongoing  contact with DG Enterprise”. 

• As  for the Member States, the EPEE says: “Calm panic ahead of  COREPER  (CEO: Permanent Representatives Committee) meeting. Ensure  favourable national governments more active in briefing”. The  ‘favourable’ national governments will be “pushed” to “brief  national MEPs ahead of plenary vote to ensure fully informed and well thought out vote”. 

•Notably, the last minute strategy of EPEE should include an “overarching  consideration to push SMEs argumentations as part of EPEE approach – important these and SMS member are brought to the fore in the lobbying”; despite the nearly complete absence of SMEs in EPEE membership [.]

• The broad message will “call into doubt the Committee approach as a whole” (CEO: Committee must mean the EP Environment Committee), argumentation on each ban will be developed, and the legal base  argumentation will be “reworked to short crisp statement”. Daikin suggests an emphasis that varying positions of Member States will “slow down the development of ecologically sound alternatives”.[58] The fact that the F-gas lobby succeeded in effectively gaining control of the initial phases of EU decision-making is a stark and concerning example of policy capture by vested interests. The lack of clear rules for the establishment of European Commission working groups and advisory committees has contributed to this situation. Balanced representation of all stakeholders should be ensured, as well as safeguards against policy capture. Improving transparency is no less crucial. As it is now, democratic scrutiny of the Commission’s decision-making processes is impossible.

These two steps, rules for a fair political process and transparency, are imperative in order give decision-makers and the public a real chance to judge to what extent the Commission fulfils its role ofsmaking proposals in the common European interest.sMore generally, EU decision-making around the regulation of F-gases has suffered due to the hidden nature of lobbying activities. Mandatory registration and disclosure of lobbying expenditure – as sproposed by the Alliance for Lobbying Transparency and Ethics Regulation (ALTER-EU) – would reveal who is lobbying whom, on what issue and with what budgets.[59]

In the case of F-gases, this would have given MEPs some insight into the financial resources pushing competing technical viewpoints. It would also clarify the financial interests and the role of PR/PA firms in lobbying platforms like the EPEE. And it would have revealed just how much money the F-gas producers have invested in preventing a phase-out of their climate-destroying products, compared to the far smaller amounts at the disposal of pro-environment lobbyists as well as the producers of less harmful refrigerating gases. The annual turnover of corporate lobbying in Brussels is estimated to be between 750 million euro and one billion euro.[60] This far outweighs the budgets available to public interest NGOs, trade unions, small businesses and others trying to prevent commercial interests from capturing and dominating the EU decision-making.


    CSR CLAIMS VERSUS LOBBYING STRATEGIES

The lobbying battle around the EU’s F-gas regulation is an example of industry being divided.

On the one side major F-gas producers teamed up to prevent any phase-outs. They had the most to loose. On the other side, only a few of the producers of alternative refrigerants were actively involved. Users of  F-gases are often able to switch, but are looking at economic benefits for switching to balance the costs.

Those corporations wanting to prevent a phase-out of their products and a fast transition to environmentally friendly alternatives for refrigerating gases, invested far more resources in a lobbying effort to shape EU regulations in their interest. Indeed for a while, it looked as though they would be successful. The coming weeks will show whether these companies will get away with this attempt to subvert the EU’s decision-making process. Regardless of the outcome, however, the companies involved should be held accountable to the role they have played in this lobbying offensive.

Some EPEE members are corporations with a carefully nurtured green image. Solvay and Dupont continuously claim to be committed to ‘corporate social responsibility’ (CSR). Visitors to the Solvay websites, will find a site dedicated to Sustainable Development[61], and can read about how the company is a “responsible citizen that pays taxes, contributes added value and sustainability to the community and shares its expertise and skills”.[62] They will not, however, find any mention of the company’s engagement in the EPEE and the attempt to prevent a phase-out of F-gases. Dupont is even more eager to portray itself as a frontrunner in ‘corporate social responsibility’ and has for instance joined the Global Compact, the UN’s voluntary initiative “to promote good corporate citizenship”.[63]

The financial and other support of these companies for the EPEE’s lobbying to weaken the EU’s F-gas regulation is a clear case of a mismatch between CSR claims and lobbying strategies. Lobbying transparency obligations would help increase the public scrutiny of the CSR images designed by these corporations and disencourage inconsistent lobbying.


    SUMMARY

Fluorinated gases (F-gases, HFCs) were pushed onto the market as replacements for CFCs, which caused ozone depletion and were in the process of being banned. However, F-gases are highly potent greenhouse gases. F-gases are, and increasingly will be, in most cases replaceable by environmentally friendly alternatives like hydrocarbons. [water & CO2]. ]But multinationals like DuPont and Honeywell are determined not to give up their globally expanding F-gas business. Their lobby groups in Washington, the Air conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) and the ‘Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy’ (ARAP) effectively used the Trans Atlantic Business Dialogue (TABD) as a platform to oppose F-gas bans by individual EU member states, and to influence the currently debated F-gas Regulation from the very start of the drafting process.

To make it look like a genuine ‘European’ lobby with an environmental focus, ARI founded the ‘European Partnership for Energy and the Environment’ (EPEE). Public Affairs company Hill & Knowlton was hired to run the EPEE lobbying campaign. The EPEE is the European version of the ARAP. The ARAP was founded to defend the interests of CFC producers like DuPont, that at first strongly opposed the ban of CFCs. Now, the ARAP and EPEE alike, fiercely promote F-gases for their non-ozone depleting qualities, while downplaying their global warming impact. The original European Commission proposal reflected the privileged access that the F-gas industry had to the Commission before the drafting process started, and industry’s dominating voice within the Commission’s working group on fluorinated gases. Producers of alternatives to F-gases and environmental NGOs were highly under-represented. The F-gas Regulation is now in the final phase of the second reading at the European Parliament. The EPEE is targeting Members of European Parliament (MEPs), but also the Commission and the Member States, in an ultimate attempt to prevent important changes that would allow for more bans on F-gases and have been proposed by the Environment Committee of the Parliament. These changes threaten much of the F-gas industry’s earlier lobbying achievements. Internal EPEE documents reveal the exact details of the lobbying strategy laid out by Hill & Knowlton. At EU level, there is a great need for transparency rules for lobbying in order to facilitate public scrutiny over important decision-making processes. At this moment, such transparency is virtually nonexistent.


    NOTES:

1.)  For EUA15, that is cutting greenhouse gases to 8% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. 

2.)  A commonly used refrigerant for example, HFC134-a, contributes 1,300 times more to global warming than CO2 and stays in the atmosphere for over 14 years. Other HFCs reach levels of 6,000 to 10,000 GWP, while SF6 has a GWP of nearly 24,000! High Global Warming Potential Gases,  information sheet of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 

3.)  Briefing on the climate threat posed by F-gases, MIPIGGS, September  2004. 

4) . European Climate Change Programme, Report– June 2001

5.)  Examples are ammonia, CO2 and hydrocarbons. Propane, a hydrocarbon, for example has a direct GWP of less than 3 compared with HFCA134a 13,000 (over 100 years) and an atmospheric lifetime of months as opposed to 15 years.

6.)  Greenfreeze–A Revolution In Domestic Refrigeration, Greenpeace, September 1997.

7.)  www.refrigerantsnaturally.com

8.)  Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases, 2003/1089 (COM), European Commission, 11 August 2003.

9.)  Art. 95, Internal Market, instead of art. 175, Environment.

10.)  DuPont and Zhonghao Finalise HFC Refrigerant Joint Venture, March 2004.

11.)  Briefing on the climate threat posed by F-gases, MIPIGGS, September 2004.

12.) The age of hydrocarbon refrigerants has arrived, Idaho Observer, April 2002.

13.)  “It appears that the European Parliament is willing to enact discriminatory non-tariff trade barriers to US products under the guise of environmental protection”, Dave Lewis quoted in Alliance Calls on US Government to Oppose European HFC Equipment Ban, ARAP press release, March 2004.

14.)  Some European associations like AREA (an association representing refrigeration and air conditioning installers) declare to be EPEE member, although they are not on the EPEE membership list. 

15.)  Members are: DuPont, Ineos Fluor, Arkema, Solvay Fluor and Honeywell. 

16.)  www.epeeglobal.org 

17.)  The ARI is not only a ‘founding member’ of EPEE, but also EPEE newsletters can be found on the ARI website, as well as dates of EPEE meetings in Brussels. The ARI members are encouraged to become member of EPEE. 

18.)  The ARAP board of directors includes people from DuPont, Honeywell, Lennox, Carrier, Copeland, Maytag, INEOS, Solvay, York International, General Electric and ATOFINA. 

19.)  Many example can be found on the website of Source Watch 

20.)  See also TABD in Troubled Water, CEO Briefing, October 2001. 

21.)  Council Regulation (EC) No 3093/94 of 15 December 1994 on substances that deplete the ozone layer.

22.)  TABD Special Issue, EABC Newsletter, October 1999. On file with Corporate Europe Observatory.

23.)   See the overview of national government action on the website of the Multisectorial Initiative on Potent Industrial Greenhouse gases 

24.) Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute newsletter, Koldfax, Vol.&27,Nr. 12, December 2000. On file with Corporate Europe Obse rvatory. See also TABD in Troubled Water, CEO Issue Briefing, October 2001.

25.)  This location is also home to PR/PA company Burson Marsteller, see also House of Mirrors; Burson-Marsteller Brussels lobbying for the bromine industry, Corporate Europe Observatory, January 2005. 

26.)  If you look at it from the Hill Knowlton perspective, running EPEE brings the additional benefit of having three extra lobbyists (Philipp  Bruchert, Marc Limon, Mary B. Walsh) accredited at the European Parliament on top of the five currently registered as Hill Knowlton  lobbyists. 

27.)  See the overview of clients on the Hill Knowlton website.

28.)  David Stirpe of Alcalde Fay serves as the Executive Director of the Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy. Kevin Fay is ‘special&counsel’ to the ARAP, and ran the former ‘Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy’. 

29.)  EPEE submission to the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological 

Advice (SBSTA) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, 27  February 2002.

30.)  http://www.ari.org/consumer/speeches/2003/0503suttonoslo.html 

31.)  The Skeptics vs. the Ozone Hole, J. Masters, Chief Meteorologist,The Weather Underground, Inc. 

32.)  The+Hole+in+the+Sky, John Gribbin, Bantam Books, New York, 1988. 

33.)  About Us, ARAP website, checked October 2005. 

34.)  The phase out of CFCs was never a major problem to these companies, even a benefit.  Investments in more specialised, higher cost HCFCs had already been made, and the Montreal Protocol forced consumers into those substitutes. 

35.)  Is STEK as good as reported? Institute for European Environmental Policy, June 2005. 

36.)  Transatlantic Business Dialogue concerned about trade barriers, May 2001. 

37.)  The capture of standards by the F-gas industry, Chris Rose for MIPIGGS, 2002. 

38.)  CEO finally obtained the working group participants list from CAN Europe. Parliament staff confirms that the Parliament is not informed in a structural manner of the composition or deliberations of such Commission working groups, that have the opportunity to greatly influence new proposals. 

39.)  Then called Climate Network Europe, CNE. 

40.)  Telephone conversation with Jason Anderson, formerly working for CAN (then CNE).

41.)  Telephone conversation with Peter Horrocks, September 2005. 

42.)  Personal conversation with Mahi Sideridou, Greenpeace, June&2005. 

43.)  NGO comments on the draft final report of the ECCP Industry sub-working group on Fluorinated gases, 25 April 2001, published by CAN Europe. 

44.)  Telephone conversation with Mahi Sideridou, September 2005. 

45.)  EPEE news, June 2004.  

46.)  Doyle, Davies, Florenz, Prodi, Jackson, Drčar Murko, Brepoels, Weisgerber, Krahmer.

47.)  www.holgerAkrahmer.de 

48.)  E-mail from Mahi Sideridou, 11 October 2005. 

49.)  MEPs ratchet up planned EU curbs on F-gases, Environment Daily 1959, 11/10/05. 

50.)  Internal EPEE note by Mary Walsh (Hill Knowlton / EPEE), 11 October 2005. 

51.)  Telephone conversation with Peter Horrocks, DG Environment, 6 October 2005. 

52.)  E-mail from Mrs. Viviane  Andre, DG Enterprise, 6 October 2005. 

53.)  Fluorinated gases and climate change, Eur-active dossier. 

54.)  Internal EPEE note composed by Mary Walsh, Hill Knowlton, seen by CEO. 

55.)  This document confirms the active participation in EPEE of  the ARI, the  ARAP, and the JRAIA        (the Japan Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Industry Association). 

56.)  Contacts to be followed up are listed as follows:“Doyle/Davies (?)/

Florenz/Blokland/Aylward/Sacconi/Bowis/Brepoels/Grosste^te/

Jackson/Sonik/Trakatellis/Wijkman/ Roth Behrendt/McAvan/

Linemann/ Tzampazi/ Sormosa Martinez / Whitehead/ Maaten / Prodi”. 

57.)  For Internal Market: Whitehead, Newton Dunn, Rizzo; for Legal Affairs: Garganis, Lehne,Lopez-Isturiez, Wallis. 

58.)  However,a stronger national regulatory approach, especially in combination with economic incentives, can create a very beneficial environment for SMEs. 

59.)  See www.alterAeu.org 

60.)  “A spoonful of sugar makes the message go down”, European+Voice,
Vol. 11. No. 33 : 22 September 2005.

61.)  www.solvayhse.com

62.)  Towards&sustainable&development 2004A2008, Solvay, 2004.

63.)  www.unglobalcompact.org Source:

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Kobe, Japan (SPX) 23 June 2016

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 THE GREAT AUSTRALIAN ARTESIAN BASIN UNDER THREAT 

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The Borax Conspiracy
How the Arthritis Cure has been stopped
By Walter Last

Dr. Masaru Emoto

The Japanese researcher who experimented with

the crystal forms of water

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❝ DESALINATION PLANTS MAY BE BAD FOR YOUR HEALTH ❞
Extract from report by Kenneth Davidson Senior columnist at ‘The Age’
  (Australia)

( With his kind permission )

In Australia there are three desalination plants, two more being built, and two more proposed.

Where tests have been made available (from plants on the Gold Coast and at Kurnell in Sydney), the results show the average boron content of reverse osmosis desalinated water was about 0.5 mg/L and the level rose higher as the filters aged. Boron is a threat to public health. This is recognised by toxicologists.

The Harvard Medical School in 2008 said: 

 Boron should not be used in children under 18. Deaths have occurred when boron was taken by mouth or applied as a topical cream on infants 

At the same time this conclusion was reached, the World Health Organisation and the National Health and Medical Research Council (which publishes the Australian drinking water guidelines) increased the recommended standards from 0.5 milligrams of boron per litre to 2.4 mg/L in the case of the WHO and 4.0 mg/L at the NHMRC. These doses are based on adults with a body weight of 60 kilograms (WHO) and 70 kilograms (NHMRC) respectively.
      This means that what may be acceptable for an adult of average
         or above-average weight may be harmful for children
             and toxic for babies. [ However see also → HERE ]

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1)  Toilet– to reverse osmosis– to tap water assumes to make fresh drinking water that is safe, but unfortunately this depends on factors that are out of the control of water districts and also will require addition of caustic soda, sodium hydroxide or Drano, into water, where sodium does not belong in fresh drinking water, to maintain the normal alkaline pH we have in Southern CA. RO removes items that are larger than the water molecule. Fluoride is only now able to be removed well by engineered RO units, where the ion is smaller than the length, and luckily larger than the width, of the water molecule. Unfortunately though, lithium, used as a drug to alter brain function and other purposes in industry, cannot be removed by RO, being at 90 picometer radius far smaller even than the tiny fluoride ion with a 119 picometer radius.  Lithium is now found in community water supplies, some being natural, but much from drugs, axle grease chemicals, lithium batteries, and other chemical wastes that become disposed into sewers. Water districts do not routinely test for lithium, so any San Diego ‘approval’ of toilet-to RO-to tap water would have little meaning.

The only mechanism that can separate lithium from water to make it potable is distillation, or as in nature, evaporation of ocean water (with its dumped treated sewage) by the sun to form rain and snowfall.
This information was forwarded to Mayor Sanders yesterday.

2)  LITHIUM is now being touted as an anti-suicide drug that should be added to water supplies under the pretense of saving the several thousand suicide victims we have in the U.S. annually. The argument is based on the fact that lithium is often found in natural water supplies at 0.03 ppm or higher in some regions. These promoters who believe in ‘eugenics’ claim it ‘has no effects on humans’ (to silence critics) and yet at the same time claim it lowers suicide rates, which obviously if true and not a false correlation, is affecting behavior of people in ways yet unknown and with brain side effects, after permanent ingestion, not assessed. A lobotomy is known with certainty to prevent suicides–does this mean we should treat all people with a lobotomy to spare the 13,000 expected suicide victims this coming year? – Of course not. Further, the highest suicide demographic in the U.S. today is the U.S. military for reasons not certain. are we to drug the U.S. military with lithium to decrease this high suicide rate? – Again, absurd.

3)  San Diego is a famous fine tourist destination, where people from around the world come to visit a perceived paradise. The tourism industry in the city would be placed at severe risk once any toilet to RO to tap water program were instituted city-wide. How many visitors would feel good about using water in a city where water was so scarce people were forced into such a recycling mode?

4)  San Diego’s Mayor already approved fluosilcic acid contaminated materials to be injected into all city water supplies (while blaming this on a CA law intended to help teeth but which was based on falsely correlations and extrapolated observations), so it is puzzling why the Mayor told the news media that the use of toilet–to RO–to tap is the ‘hardest decision he will ever make’. Excuse us!!, but we citizens already made the decision by voting twice against fluosilicic acid injections. For every 150 tons of fluosilicic acid added into San Diego water supplies (which began February 2011), 88 tons of contaminated water and 50 tons of sodium hydroxide (not present in natural fresh drinking water) accompany the 12 tons of fluoride it also contains. For sodium alone, this has been the straw that broke the camel’s back, where avocado production has been substantially reduced by the total sodium present in city water supplies now. Sodium abatement is a National problem, particularly in the Southwest where the Colorado River has hundreds of industrial waste emission points that are allowed to release a ton of salt daily into the River. The final injection by water districts of Drano to minimize the acidity of the fluosilcic acid treated water was sufficient to elevate sodium to 93 ppm which is known to be growth-inhibiting for many plants.

Richard Sauerheber, Ph.D. chemistry,

           UCSD; currently Palomar College, San Marcos, CA

   See: http://www.fluoride-class-action.com/toilet-to-tap

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This ingenious distiller was the winner at Core77 Design Award 2012

Solar distiller →  HERE

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GEreports

EVIDENCE OF ‘WET ZONE’ 410KM BELOW THE SURFACE

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Mad Cow Disease *– causing prions, can survive conventional sewage treatment…

Prions — rogue misfolded proteins that cause mad cow disease, chronic wasting disease, and its human equivalent, variant Creutzfeldt- Jakob Disease — are not degraded by standard wastewater decontamination.

In Australia waste-water, sullage  ( GREY WATER ) – and sewage BLACK WATER ), share the same system this includes hospital waste. Therefore as a precaution, we need to be aware of the problems that recycled water may represent.

    Prions are notoriously resilient to extreme heat, caustic chemicals and irradiation.

see also →  http://www.rkm.com.au/bse  ←

Might Alzheimer’s Disease Be “Foodborne”? (extract from Mercola.com)… Symptoms of vCJD are similar to Alzheimer’s and include staggering, memory loss, impaired vision, and dementia and there’s no known cure. An intriguing suggestion is that Alzheimer’s is a slower moving version of Mad Cow disease, acquired by eating contaminated CAFO meats… TDP-43 might also “predispose” you to Parkinson’s, or Lou Gehrig’s, just as easily as Alzheimer’s. Which disease ends up materializing may depend on the area of your brain the proteins attack …

*– Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a fatal neurodegenerative disease (encephalopathy) in cattle that causes a spongy degeneration of the brain and spinal cord. BSE has a long incubation period, about 2.5 to 8 years, usually affecting adult cattle at a peak age onset of four to five years, all breeds being equally susceptible. BSE is caused by a misfolded protein—a prion. In the United Kingdom, the country worst affected by an epidemic in 1986-98, more than 180,000 cattle were infected and 4.4 million slaughtered during the eradication program.
……..** Please do your own research on pharmacalogical and other
……..hospital waste that finds its way into the sewerage system.

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Meet Irish Pioneer -Tom Prendeville

MIRACLE GROW: Treated water results in larger, healthier crops,
says Professor Austin Darragh of Limerick University
25 August 2013

A groundbreaking new Irish technology which could be the greatest breakthrough in agriculture since the plough is set to change the face of modern farming forever.

The technology – radio wave energised water – massively increases the output of vegetables and fruits by up to 30 per cent. Not only are the plants much bigger but they are largely disease-resistant, meaning huge savings in expensive fertilisers and harmful pesticides.

Extensively tested in Ireland and several other countries, the inexpensive water treatment technology is now being rolled out across the world. The technology makes GM obsolete and also addresses the whole global warming fear that there is too much carbon dioxide in the air, by simply converting excess CO2 into edible plant mass.

Developed by Professor Austin Darragh and Dr JJ Leahy of Limerick University’s Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, the hardy eco-friendly technology uses nothing but the natural elements of sunlight, water, carbon dioxide in the air and the minerals in the soil.

The compact biscuit-tin-sized technology, which is called Vi-Aqua – meaning ‘life water’ – converts 24 volts of electricity into a radio signal, which charges up the water via an antennae. Once the device is attached to a hose, thousands of gallons of water can be charged up in less than 10 minutes at a cost of pennies.

Speaking about the new technology, Professor Austin Darragh says:

“Vi-Aqua makes water wetter and introduces atmospheric nitrogen into the water in the form of nitrates – so it is free fertiliser. It also produces the miracle of rejuvenating the soil by invigorating soil-based micro-organisms.

“We can also make water savings of at least 30 per cent. When the water is treated it becomes a better solvent, which means it can carry more nutrients to the leaves and stem and percolate better down into the soil to nourish the roots, which in turn produces a better root system. Hence the reason you need less water and why you end up with larger and hardier crops,” explains Professor Austin Darragh.

Extensively tested in Warrenstown Agricultural College, the technology is being hailed as a modern day miracle.

Harold Lawler is Ireland’s foremost Agricultural Specialist. As Director of the National Botanical Gardens and former Master of Agricultural Science at Warrenstown Agricultural College, he has carried out more research on Vi-Aqua growth-enhancing technology than perhaps anyone else in the world:

“In the bedding plants we really saw a difference in the results; they were much hardier and tougher. You could drop a tray of these plants on the ground and they would not shatter, like ordinary plants.

“We also noticed that the treated plants needed far less fertiliser than the untreated ones. The roots took the nutrients in better whereas with other normal plants leaching of minerals occurs,” explains Harold Lawler.                                                    

 ORIGINAL ↓ 

http://www.independent.ie/business/irish/wave-goodbye-to-global-warming-gm-and-pesticides-29525621.html

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See the five web sites below:

1  Primary Water - Bill Cox

2  The Theory of Primary Water - Cassiopaea

3  Primary Water Theories | Bloom the Desert

4  PrimaryWaterInstitute.org  [A]

5  PrimaryWaterInstitute.org  [B]

See also the book ‘Devining’ by Christopher Bird  - ISBN 354 043889

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  MAJORITE   

Majorite

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LEAD IN ROMAN WATER

Much of the [early] Roman’s water was channeled through lead pipes.

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Marcus Aurelius :

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  → PEWTER  

Extract from: 

LEAD-F.-ACADEMIC-S

❝ …The ancient Romans used lead for making water pipes, cooking utensils, water tanks and storage vessels. Lead water pipes were used in most major cities in the empire. Wine was cheap in ancient Rome and Athens and it was contaminated with lead from as many as 14 sources during its preparation. Lead was used as part of the preservative and as a flavour enhancer. Even the Christian sacramental cups of that era were the kind that were made of lead or leaded bronze common at the time.

Apathy and gluttony have been associated with the decline of the Roman Empire. It may have been the lead in food, water and wine which caused the apathy. Musonius, a Roman writing in the first century A.D., observed that masters were weaker, less healthy and less able to endure labor than the servant class. Those who grew up in the country were stronger than those who grew up in the city. Those who ate plain food were likely to live longer and have less of the diseases associated, by hindsight, with lead poisoning. These were “gouts,” “dropsies” and “colics.” This is as close as anyone got to discovering chronic lead poisoning in the Roman Empire and leaving a record of the hypothesis.

The rich received more than their share of lead poisoning because they could afford more of the sources of lead contamination. When soft water sits in lead pipes, it leaches the lead from the pipes. In ancient Rome, the rich controlled most of the public water outlets. The first drawn water of the morning, which had been sitting over night absorbing lead, was a privilege of the rich. The evidence suggests that the offspring of parents with lead poisoning were more likely to be underachievers and had a high infant mortality rate. Chronic lead poisoning persistently destroyed the Roman aristocracy, thus creating a scarcity of good management. Old aristocratic families died out only to be replaced by others who suffered the same fate. Nriagu conludes that lead contamination was a major cause of the decline of the Roman Empire… ❞

Credit to Dan Montgomery   –  Original  ↓ 

 http://www.sonic.net/kryptox/environ/lead/romans.htm

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  water.org  

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EKOCENTER is a simple concept. In fact, it’s built inside a shipping container. It features a solar-powered water distiller – the Slingshot – developed by Dean that can transform dirty water from almost any source into 850 liters of pure drinking water a day. That’s enough for roughly 300 people. EKOCENTER can also provide phone charging, satellite uplink, household products, food and beverages and refrigeration for medicines.

In short, it can hydrate a small community, and deliver the benefits of modern technology and consumer goods. We also like to think of it as a “startup in a box” as it will provide employment to local entrepreneurs, many of whom will be women and young workers just setting out in their careers.

At the Clinton Global Initiative this week, we committed to placing 1,500 to 2,000 EKOCENTERs and
Slingshot water purification systems in communities across Latin America, Africa, Asia and North America by 2015. These will complement the two pilot programs we’ve already launched in Paraguay and South Africa, where I had the privilege of opening the first EKOCENTER during my visit there.

Complete original →HERE

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THE ABOVE IS A MOST COMPREHENSIVE 300 PAGES

It is very readable and recommended by us ↑  

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http://www.ready.gov/managing-water

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Making waves in water research

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PERCHLORATE ABUNDANT IN DESERT

   Hydrothermal electricity clean and green  ←  a short must watch 

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http://www.fix.com/blog/sifting-through-the-soil/

SIMPLE SOIL TESTS

 by Kelly Roberson

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↓  RECOMMENDED VIEWING ↓

The Surprising Leading Contributor to Pollution: Agriculture

Vanadana Shiva speaks at “FOOD OTHERWISE” conference Netherlands 2014

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↓ RECOMMENDED VIEWING ↓

“ COMPREHEND AND COPY NATURE ”

VIKTOR SCHAUBERGER

VIDEO

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↓   RECOMMENDED VIEWING   ↓

The lessons of ‘The Loess Plateau’ Nation Project (China)

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↓  RECOMMENDED VIEWING ↓

HERE

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These few books can alter your mind – and maybe save our planet…

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‘LIVING WATER’

Viktor Schauberger and the Secrets of Natural Energy
by
OLOF ALEXANDERSSON

Translated by Kit and Charles Zweigbergk

©  TURSTONE PRESS LIMITED 1982

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Water for Every Farm

‘WATER FOR EVERY FARM’
USING THE KEYLINE PLAN
by
©  P. A. YEOMANS   1978

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The City Forest

‘THE CITY FOREST’

The Keyline Plan For The Human Environment Revolution
First published 1971 Full text on line   HERE  

❝ Complicated – I will never think about city planning and farming
in the same way again.
 If you ask me, P.A. Yeomans is the
Nikola Tesla of irrigation and soil building. Before

diving into this book, you should familiarise
yourself
 with ‘Water For Every Farm’,
otherwise his techniques

won’t make any sense. ❞

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1947, English Book – Illustrated edition. Water for the inland is
a brief and vivid outline of conditions in the out-back of Queensland
in which is embodied the Reid and Dr. Bradfield water schemes
by A.W. Noakes. Noakes, A. W. (Albert William)

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‘PLOUGHMAN’S FOLLY’
by
Edward H. Faulkner - 1945

An engrossing simple argument about something that affects us all.
It is not just about ploughing, but the cycle of life;
how we are degrading it and how we can easily improve it.

Full text on line  → HERE  

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‘AN AGRICULTURAL TESTAMENT’
by
Sir Albert Howard 1943

Full text on line  →  HERE

More info →  HERE  

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Thoroughly researched,
with up to date information on every aspect of the subject.

‘I commend this book to every Australian… It could save your life’ – N.P. Cheney, CSIRO.
Bushfire Behaviour and Management Group Background to bushfires, bushfire cycles,
bushfire behaviour, how to prepare for bushfire season, the decision - evacuate
or stay and what to do 
when bushfire threatens are all covered.

Joan-Webster

Joan Katherine Webster is an award-winning freelance journalist, a newspaper columnist, poet, broadcaster, stage and television drama and satirical comedy writer, and an historian. In 1988, in recognition of her work on bush fires. Joan Webster was appointed consultant to the Victorian Ministry of Education to advise on bushfire safety in schools and community refuges.

In 1990 she received the

Australian Fire Protection Association’s Community Service Award.

 See also ↓

The complete bushfire safety book by Joan Webster

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Be-200 Altair
Australia Needs Several Breiev Be-200 To Fight Our Ever
Present Enemy  -  Bush Fires 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beriev_Be-200 

The Beriev Be-200 Altair (RussianБериев Бе-200) is a multipurpose amphibious aircraft designed by the Beriev Aircraft Company and manufactured by Irkut. Marketed as being designed for fire fightingsearch and rescuemaritime patrol, cargo, and passenger transportation, it has a capacity of 12 tonnes (12,000 litres, 3,170 US gallons) of water, or up to 72 passengers.[1]

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Julia Roberts is Mother Nature

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 Conservation International 

Nature Is Speaking 

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