Heading Prof.against F.


Department of Health Sciences

Area 21st Floor
Seebohm Rowntree Building
York YO10 5DD
Direct line (01904) 321300
Fax (01904) 321722
Email:  tas5@york.ac.uk

Professor Trevor A Sheldon

Learning & Teaching

To Whom It May Concern:

In my capacity of chair of the Advisory Group for the systematic review on the effects of water fluoridation conducted by the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination the University of York and as its founding director, I am concerned that the results of the review have been widely misrepresented.

The review was exceptional in this field in that it was conducted by an independent group
to the highest international scientific standards and a summary has been published in
the British Medical Journal.

It is particularly worrying then that statements which mislead the public about the review’s findings have been made in press releases and briefings by the British Dental Association, the British Medical Association, the National Alliance for Equity in Dental Health, the British Fluoridation Society and others abroad.

I should like to correct some of these errors:

1   Whilst there is evidence that water fluoridation is effective at reducing caries, the quality of the studies was generally moderate and the size of the estimated benefit, only of the order of 15%, is far from “massive”.

2   The review found water fluoridation to be significantly associated with high levels of dental fluorosis which was not characterised as “just a cosmetic issue”.

3   The review did not show water fluoridation to be safe. The quality of the research was too poor to establish with confidence whether or not there are potentially important adverse effects in addition to the high levels of fluorosis. The report recommended that more research was needed.

4   There was little evidence to show that water fluoridation has reduced social inequalities in dental health.

5   The review could come to no conclusion as to the cost-effectiveness of water fluoridation or whether there are different effects between natural or artificial fluoridation.

6   Probably because of the rigour with which this review was conducted, these findings are more cautious and less conclusive than in most previous reviews.

  The review team was surprised that in spite of the large number of studies carried out over several decades there is a dearth of reliable evidence with which to inform policy. Until high quality studies are undertaken providing more definite evidence, there will continue to be legitimate scientific controversy over the likely effects and costs of water fluoridation.


  T.A. Sheldon,
  Professor Trevor Sheldon, BSc, MSc, DSc, FMedSci.

The  web link   This is WAS the original document,

but we maintain our own, should it ever be lost.

Green strip



State of Arizona, County of Maricopa


INC., Plaintiff, vs. 
CITY OF FOND DU LAC, Defendant. Case No. 92 CV 579

Gerard F. Judd, Ph.D., being first duly sworn on oath and with personal knowledge of the information contained herein, respectfully states to the Court as follows:


1.) I have been a professor of Chemistry at Phoenix College, Phoenix Arizona, since 1965.

2.) I received my B.A. in chemistry from the University of Utah in 1943.

I received my M.S. from the University of Portland in 1948. I received my Ph.D. in physical and organic chemistry from Purdue University in 1953. I did Postdoctoral research at Purdue University, on fluorinated organometallic reactions in 1954.

3.) A few of my more recent research, academic and service honors include:

a. Elected to Emeritus Member of American Chemical Society, 11/92.

b. “20 Year Outstanding Teaching Award and Pin” from Maricopa County Community College District, Dr. Paul A. Elsner, Chancellor, 2/92.

c. Reviewed two fundamental chemistry textbooks for publishers, 5/91.

d. Received “Speaker’s Gold Plated Champion’s Award for Research, Communication and Education,” regarding better teeth, health and government. Arizona Breakfast Club, Harry E. Everingham, President, 11/24/90.

e. “Faculty Appreciation Gift for Outstanding Contributions to Teaching,” Maricopa County Community College District, Phoenix, Arizona, Dr. Paul A. Elsner, Chancellor, 3/4/85.

4.) I have devoted thousands of hours during my career to studying the chemistry of fluoride. In addition, in preparing this affidavit, I have specifically researched and summarized the following professional and technical literature on the epidemiological effects of fluoride:

a.  Journal of Fluoride, August 1992 – January 1983.

b.  Chemical Abstracts, August 1992 – January 1989.

c.  Index Medicus, May, June and July 1992.

d.  Fluoridation The Great Dilemma, a 421-page book by George L. Waldbott, M.D. in collaboration with Albert W. Burgstahler, Ph.D. and H. Lewis McKinney, Ph.D.

e.  A Struggle With Titans, Forces Behind Fluoridation, a 383-page book by George L. Waldbott, M.D. (a scientist’s look at fluoridation).

f.  Fluoridation, the Aging Factor, a 203-page book by John Yiamouyannis, Ph.D. in Biochemistry, and world-leading authority on the biological effects of fluoride.

g.  Fluoride, The Freedom Fight, a 207-page book by Dr. Hans Moolenburgh, M.D. (The Netherlands).

h.  Fluoridation, a 264-page book by Isabel Jansen, R.N.

i.  The Fluoride Question, Panacea or Poison?, a 176-page book by Anne-Lise Gotzsche, medical journalist (England).

J.  Hello, Test Animals… Chinchillas or You and Your Grandchildren, a 180-page book by W. R. Cox, chinchilla breeder and researcher.

k.  The Grim Truth About Fluoridation, a 128-page book by Robert M. Buck, journalist.

l.  Fluoridation, Poison on Tap, a 460-page book by Glen S. R. Walker, consultant in strategic metals, munitions, and chemical industry, registered by the National Association of Testing Authorities in Australia.

m.  Fluoride in Australia, a Case to Answer, a 159-page book by Wendy Varney, journalist.

5.) During the past two years I have personally discussed the effects of artificial fluoridation of drinking water with many individuals possessing outstanding background on the subject of fluoridation, including the following:

6.) My research, communication and discovery concerning the epidemiological effects of fluoridation has provided me with solid scientific evidence on which to base the following conclusions.

7.) Fluoride has never been established as, and is not, essential in nutrition for soft tissues, bones or teeth.

8.) There are no experiments or data which establish that fluoride in any form or in any concentration is harmless when put into drinking water for human consumption or usage.

9.) Fluoride at low levels has been shown to unsnap hydrogen bonds in the enzyme cytochrome oxidase, and thus ruin its ability to handle oxygen in humans, animals or plants. (Exhibit).

10.) It is well-established in academic and industrial chemical industry that the hydrogen-fluoride hydrogen bond is stronger than the hydrogen-nitrogen or hydrogen-oxygen hydrogen bonds characteristic of human enzymes. Therefore, human enzyme systems (thousands of enzymes) are subject to destruction when water containing fluoride is consumed. After a few weeks for some, and a lifetime for others, a large enough reservoir of fluoride is built up to cause serious ailments.

11.) At least 63 human, animal and plant enzymes are for the most part destroyed or modified by fluoride.

12.) A summary of important epidemiological effects of fluoride from Chemical Abstracts, 1992-1989 (53 pages); Journal of Fluoride, August 1992-January 1993 (42 pages); and Index Medicus, May, June and July 1992 (3 pages) failed to produce even one article proving fluoride to be harmless.

13.) Contrariwise, hundreds of experiments on test animals, humans, plants, and their cells, have invariably demonstrated harmful effects.

14.) A large number of epidemiological effects in the way of ailments and allergies caused by fluoride have been clinically established by competent authorities, including those below.

15.) Forty-nine or more serious allergenic conditions were established by George Waldbott, M.D. These were proven by removing patients from drinking water with fluoride in it, in which case they were cured. This was followed up with single- or double-blind tests with fluoride tablets.

16.) Eight of Dr. Waldbott’s side effects were confirmed through double-blind tests organized by Dr. H. Moolenburgh, with 12 other physicians, one pharmacist, and one attorney. (Exhibit). Only one of these side effects presented in court was sufficient to cause the Holland Ministry of Health to discontinue fluoridation of water in that country. These side effects are listed in Waldbott’s book, pp. 123-125.

17.) Genetic changes in bone cells and sperm cells of mice were thoroughly studied, re-studied and established by Dr. Albert Taylor.

This work has been confirmed by numerous other researchers.

18.) Fluoride as a factor in cataracts has been established by statistical studies of Dr. Ionel F. Rapaport and confirmed by the research of Dr. Burgstahler. This has also been confirmed by analysis of cataracted and un-cataracted eye lenses. The older the person, the more the fluoride in the lens. (Exhibit).

19.) SIDS (crib or cot death) has been related to fluoride poisoning by Dr. J. Colquhoun (exhibit), Dr. Bruce Spittle, and others.

20.) Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and chronic fluoride toxicity (CFT) have been found to be very closely related in their symptoms (Exhibit).

21.) RSI (repetitive stress injury, or carpal tunnel syndrome) has been linked to the accumulation of fluoride in the bone by Dr. Geoffrey E. Smith. Additional work supporting this link was found by Dr. Sutton. (Exhibit).

22.) Dental fluorosis has been shown recently to occur at fluoride levels as low as .3 ppm, as opposed to earlier studies of Dr. H. Trendly Dean, who set 1.0 as a tolerable limit, allowing 24 percent fluorosis. The degree of fluorosis depends on the nutritional status of the person.

23.) Dr. Waldbott had over 400 cases of pre-skeletal bone fluorosis in patients, which he established was caused by their drinking fluoridated water. (Exhibit) This has been further confirmed by many other studies. The degree of bone fluorosis is strictly related to bone fluoride content.

24.) Embrittled bones are caused by drinking fluoridated water, as well as by administration of tablets to “harden bones.” (Riggs study, Exhibit; Utah study, Exhibit; Jacobson’s study, Exhibit; Cooper’s study, Exhibit; and Sower’s study, Exhibit.

25.) Increased infant mortality and birth defects (two to three times increase) was established by Dr. Albert Schatz to be present in Chilean children administered fluoridated water in an experimental study in Curico, Chili, with San Fernando and La Serena as a control towns. (Exhibit). Dr. Schatz found fluoridation did no good for teeth, and caused enormous increase in miscarriages. The malformations and infant mortality dropped dramatically upon cessation of the fluoridation. Similar malformations and infant mortalities are now occurring in U.S.

26.) C. R. Cox, working with the University of Oregon, found that 17 ppm fluoride in feed caused constipation, great mature and baby chinchilla death, small litters and over four generations a smaller, inferior rabbit.

27.) Down’s Syndrome was established to be linked to consumption of fluoride through statistical studies and re-studies by Dr. Ionel F. Rapaport, M.D. and Waldbott, Fluoridation the Great Dilemma, pp. 212-219. Dr. Rapaport also found that 70% of Down’s Syndrome babies were born with cataracted eyes.

28.) Genu valgum (knock knees) has been reported as having been caused by fluoride in drinking water..

29.) Gilbert’s Disease (hemorrhagic yellow jaundice) has been cured by taking the patient off fluoridated drinking water. (Exhibit).

30.) Collagen synthesis has been shown to be impeded by fluoride by the work of B. Uslu, Andola School of Medicine, Eskisehir, Turkey.

31.) Immunosuppression, according to Sutton and Gibson, may be caused by consumption of fluoride. (See Exhibits).

32.) Decreased immunodiffusion has been established as due to fluoride ion, making it a negative chemitaxic agent (this means it impedes the “taxiing” or motion effect). (Exhibit).

33.) Between 1953 and 1968, there were approximately 572,810 (44,062 per year average) more deaths due to all types of cancer in 10 major fluoridated cities compared to non-fluoridated cities. Sex, race and age changes in these populations were insignificant during this period, so that nothing else could be established as causal. (Exhibit).

34.) In Antigo, Wisconsin, heart attacks were shown to dramatically increase both in the general population and the people under 65 and over 65 when fluoridation was instituted and continued over 35 years.

35.) A tremendous increase in caiman (alligator) deaths was experienced once Kansas City, Kansas water was fluoridated at the Parrot Hill farms under the care of Patricia Jacobs, naturalist. EVIDENCE AGAINST THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FLUORIDATION

36.) In contrast to the claims of the Human Health Services and the American Dental Association that fluoride reduces DMF (decayed, missing, filled teeth) 65 percent, it has now been established through a very large number of reliable studies that fluoride may actually cause a slight amount of DMF. (A large amount of DMF is actually related to nutrition.)

37.) Dr. Yiamouyiannis found that of 39,200 students, ages 5-19, from 89 fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas, the teeth of those living in non-fluoridated areas had slightly less DMF. (Exhibit).

38.) A survey of 1,500 fifth grade students in Missouri gave slightly lower DMF for those who lived in a non-fluoridated area. This was also true in a survey of 1500 6th graders.(Exhibit).

39.) A study of school children in Tucson, Arizona by Dr. Cornelius Steelink (Chemistry Department, University of Arizona), established that there was an increase in DMF with an increase in fluoride in the water. (Exhibit).

40.) A thorough study of the entire population of Japan (included 20,000 school children, 1972) established that when the fluoride in the drinking water was above .4 ppm there was more decay. (Exhibit).

41.) A study of Auckland, New Zealand, found that DMF decreases depended heavily on dental education in the schools and the salary of people from various areas, and insignificantly on the amount of fluoride in the water. (Exhibit).

42.) In Garis, Africa a high proportion of 14 to 15-year-olds had first permanent molars which were extensively carious or missing despite 1.06 ppm fluoride in drinking water. High sugar intake was a possible factor.

43.) Earlier “studies” justifying fluoridation of drinking water have been unmasked and debunked by competent authorities (Dr. Waldbott, Dr. Colquhoun, Dr. Foulkes, Dr. Mark Diesendorf, Dr. Sutton, Dr. Exner and Dr. Rudolf Ziegelbecker) on the basis of neglecting variables, cheating and group selection, not completing the studies, etc. (Exhibits).

44.) As one example, phosphate, calcium and strontium were not accounted for in the Newburgh-Kingston study, or any other study, to the best of my knowledge. Dr. Waldbott established that the Kingston water had deficiencies of these elements.


45.) My research has made it clear that the American Dental Association and U. S. Human Health Services have made a wrong turn in their attempt to improve the teeth of the American public.

46.) Fluoride in drinking water should be limited to .1 ppm where possible, since reverse osmosis can easily reduce fluoride below this value.

47.) It is my best judgment, reached with a high degree of scientific certainty, that fluoridation is invalid in theory and ineffective in practice as a preventive of dental caries. It is also dangerous to the health of consumers.

48.) I make this Affidavit in support of the Plaintiff’s Motion for Summary Judgment.

Dated this _____ day of ________, 1993. __________________

Green strip

More experts against F. → HERE

Green strip



  1. Amer. Fed Gov’t. Employees (AFGE Local 3331)

  2. Washington, DC

  3. Amer. Fed Gov’t. Employees (AFGE Local 3911)

  4. New York, NY

  5. Aurum Foundation

  6. Keene, New Hampshire

  7. Belgian Platform Environment & Health

  8. Nieuwkerken Waas, Belgium

  9. Clean Water Action Alliance of MA

  10. Boston, MA

  11. DAMS (Dental Amalgam Mercury Syndrome)

  12. Minneapolis, MN

  13. Earth Island Institute

  14. San Francisco, CA

  15. Environmental Health Fund

  16. Jamaica Plain, MA

  17. Environmental Research Foundation

  18. Annapolis, MD

  19. Green Decade Coalition/Newton

  20. Newton, MA

  21. Greenwatch, Inc.

  22. Jersey Shore, PA

  23. Health Action Network Society (HANS)

  24. British Columbia, CANADA

  25. Haverhill Environmental League

  26. Haverhill, MA

  27. Indigenous Environmental Network

  28. Bemidji, MN

  29. Insitute for Health Realities

  30. Colorado Springs, CO

  31. Institute for Natural Dentistry

  32. Woodstock, NY

  33. Int’l. Academy of Oral Med. & Toxicol.(IAOMT)

  34. Sedona, AZ

  35. Int’l. Assoc. of Fire Fighters Local 781 AFLCIO/

  36. CLC

  37. Independence, MO

  38. Maine Toxics Action Coaltion

  39. Bowdoinham, ME

  40. Merrimack Valley Environmental Council

  41. Haverhill, MA

  42. New England Patients’ Rights

  43. Norwood, MA

  44. National Treasury Employees Union

  45. Washington, DC

  46. NJ/NY Environmental Watch

  47. Elizabeth, NJ

  48. Olympic Environmental Council

  49. Port Townsend, WA

  50. Oregon Toxics Alliance

  51. Eurgene, OR

  52. Oregon State Public Interest Research Group

  53. (OSPIRG)

  54. Portland, OR

  55. Pennsylvania Environmental Network

  56. Fombell, PA

  57. People for the Environment

  58. N. Andover, MA

  59. Poudre Valley Green Party

  60. Ft. Collins, CO

  61. Renaissance Academy

  62. Fairview, UT

  63. Second Look

  64. Worcester, MA

  65. Soil & Health

  66. Auckland, NZ

  67. Toxics Action Center

  68. Boston, MA

  69. TriState

  70. Environmental Council

  71. Chester, WV

  72. W. Newton Dental Association

  73. W. Newton, MA

  74. Waste Not

  75. Canton, NY



  78.  Signatories:

  79. Alan S. Abrams, DDS

  80. Norwalk, CT

  81. Phillip Allen, MD, PhD

  82. Wichita, KS

  83. Stephen D. Annecone, PE

  84. Boulder, CO

  85. Stephen S. Baer, DDS

  86. Sedona, AZ

  87. Patrick Bannon, DDS

  88. Downers Grove, IL

  89. Larry Banyash, MD, FAAFP

  90. Elkhart, IN

  91. Billie J. Barewald, RN

  92. Mountain View, CA

  93. John Barthelme, PhD

  94. Assoc. Prof. Of Anthropology, St. Lawrence Univ.

  95. Canton, NY

  96. Marcia Basciano, DDS

  97. Downers Grove, IL

  98. James S. Beck, M.D., Ph.D.

  99. Prof. Emer., Med. Biophysics, U. Calgary

  100. Calgary, AB, Canada

  101. Gerhard Bedding, MA, MALS

  102. President, Aurum Foundation

  103. Keene, NH

  104. Paul Beeber, JD

  105. Hicksville, NY

  106. Terri Lyn Bell Beecher, RDH

  107. Pagosa Springs, CO

  108. Judson R. Belmont, MD

  109. Manchester, NH

  110. Rosalie Bertell, PhD, GNSH

  111. Yardley, PA

  112. Buffy Shawna Binder, ND

  113. Hamilton, MT

  114. Timothy Binder, ND, DC, Lic.Acu.

  115. Boulder, CO

  116. Russell Blaylock, MD

  117. Ridgeland, MS

  118. Christine Bloss, DDS

  119. Montrose, CO

  120. Bill Boehm, DDS

  121. Aspen, CO

  122. John H. Boyles, MD

  123. Dayton, OH

  124. Gregory W. Bragiel, DDS

  125. Anchorage, AK

  126. Idelle Brand, DDS

  127. New York, NY

  128. Norman Bressack, DDS

  129. N. Bellmore, NY

  130. Wayne C. Brush, R.Ph.

  131. Fremont, NH

  132. Dennis Briggs, PhD

  133. Billings, MT

  134. James, J. Brough, MS, PE

  135. Lander, WY

  136. Elaine A. Brown, DMD

  137. W. Lebanon, NY

  138. Clarence Brown, MD

  139. Emerg. Dept. Metrowest Med. Ctr.

  140. Natick, MA

  141. Eric R. Brown, MD

  142. Assoc. Clinical Prof.of Med., Tufts U.Sch.of Med.

  143. Bangor, ME

  144. Mary Struble Brunk, DDS

  145. Dallas, TX

  146. Albert Burgstahler, PhD

  147. Lawrence, KS

  148. Stanislaw Burzynski, MD, PhD

  149. Houston, TX

  150. Rashid A. Buttar, DO, FAAPM, FACAM, FAAIM

  151. Cornelius, NC

  152. Chandos F. Caldwell, PhD

  153. East Brunswick, NJ

  154. Noel Campbell, BDSc, LDS, FACNEM, FASID

  155. CEO/Dir. of Research, Hope Research Inst. Pty

  156. LtdMelbourne, Australia

  157. Steven Canarick, DMD, FAGD

  158. Massapequa, NY

  159. Ronald S. Carlson, DDS

  160. Honolulu, HI

  161. Neil J. Carman, PhD

  162. Austin, TX

  163. Gilbert D. Carney, DMD, DC

  164. Groton, MA

  165. Robert J. Carton, PhD

  166. Neavitt, MD

  167. Steve Chamberlain, DDS

  168. Daytona Beach, FL

  169. Richard Chanin, DMD

  170. Cincinnati, OH

  171. Perry A. Chapdelaine, MD

  172. Brentwood, TN

  173. Cheryl Sue Click

  174. Dental and medical master mediator w/Utah courts

  175. Salt Lake City, UT

  176. Robert J. Clinton, DDS, MSc

  177. Sydenham, ON, Canada

  178. Suzanne Coble, MD

  179. Keene, NH

  180. Gary Cohen

  181. Executive Director, Environmental Health Fund

  182. Jamaica Plain, MA

  183. Lynda Comerate, RN, PHN

  184. Arcata, CA

  185. Paul Connett, PhD

  186. Prof. Of Chemistry, St. Lawrence Univ.

  187. Canton, NY

  188. Douglas Cook, DDS

  189. Suring, WI

  190. David Coombs, PE

  191. Elgin, TX

  192. Myron J. Coplan, PE

  193. Director, Intellequity

  194. Natick, MA

  195. Thomas Cowan, MD

  196. Peterborough, NH

  197. Cathy Cragoe, RN, MSN

  198. Springfield, IL

  199. Mario Cristiani, DDS

  200. San Diego, CA

  201. Elizabeth Cullen, MB, MSc

  202. Kilcullen, Ireland

  203. Matthew Daggett, DDS

  204. San Antonio, TX

  205. Sandra Danu, ND

  206. Sarasota, FL

  207. George A. Debs, DC

  208. Worcester, MA

  209. Mary DeCicco, DMD

  210. Skillman, NJ

  211. Vincent DiLorenzo, DDS

  212. Laverick, PA

  213. Michael F. Dolan, PhD

  214. Dept. of Geosciences, UMass, Amherst

  215. Amherst, MA

  216. Ronald Dressler, DDS

  217. Norcross, GA

  218. Catherine V. Dwyer, MD

  219. W. Swanzeyk, NH

  220. Curtis Eastin, DDS, ND

  221. Coeur d’Alene, ID

  222. G.W. Edwards, DMD

  223. Sanford, FL

  224. Samuel S. Epstein, MD

  225. Prof Emeritus, Envir. & Occup. Medicine

  226. Chair, Cancer Prevention Coalition

  227. Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

  228. Chicago, IL

  229. Greg Erickson, RS, CHO

  230. Director of Public Health

  231. Wilmington, MA

  232. Gerald Estberg, PhD

  233. Physics, retired

  234. Port Angeles, WA

  235. G. Robert Evans, DMD, FAGD

  236. Groton, MA

  237. Douglas N. Everyingham, MB, BS

  238. Brisbane, Australia

  239. Katherine Farago, RN

  240. Mesa, AZ

  241. Barbara E. Fitzpatrick, MEd

  242. Elementary and secondary education

  243. Fayetteville, AR

  244. Marc D. Flack, DDS, FAGD

  245. Salt Lake City, UT

  246. Michael Fleming, DDS

  247. Durham, NC

  248. Pam Floener, PT, RMA

  249. Sugar Hill, GA

  250. Patricia A. Flood, MS, Lac

  251. Port Angeles, WA

  252. Paul Framson, PhD

  253. Seattle, WA

  254. Ada Frazier, DDS

  255. Meridianville, AL

  256. Pam Gale, FNP

  257. Fort Collins, CO

  258. David W. Ganong, DMD

  259. Vineyard Haven, MA

  260. Vladimir Gashinsky, DDS

  261. Millburn, NJ

  262. Michael Lee Gerber, MD

  263. Reno, NV

  264. David Getoff, CCN, CTN, FAAIM

  265. Jamul, CA

  266. Paul Gilbert, DDS

  267. East Brunswick, NJ

  268. William Glaros, DDS

  269. Houston, TX

  270. Tom Goldtooth

  271. Director, Indigenous Environmental Network

  272. Bemidji, MN

  273. Steven N. Green, DDS

  274. Miami, FL

  275. Wiley Green, DDS

  276. Frankfort, IN

  277. Blanche D. Grube, DMD

  278. Scranton, PA

  279. James T. Hannon, PhD

  280. Asst. Prof. of Sociology, Bridgewater State College

  281. Concord, MA

  282. Glenn Harris, PhD

  283. Prof. of Environmental Studies, St. Lawrence Univ.

  284. Canton, NY

  285. Dayton Hart, DMD

  286. Foley, AL

  287. Boyd E. Haley, PhD

  288. Dept. of Chemistry, U. of Kentucky

  289. Nicholasville, KY

  290. Alan Hayashi, CRN, RN, TNS

  291. Loveland, CO

  292. Deirdre Healy, JD

  293. Worcester, MA

  294. Patricia Hecht, PhD

  295. Manchester, NH

  296. Kent Hesse, MD

  297. Spring Valley, NY

  298. W. Robert Hetrick, PhD

  299. Wichita, KS

  300. David R. Hill, MA, MSc, P.Eng.

  301. Prof. Emeritus, U. Calgary

  302. Bowen Island, BC, Canada

  303. Donald Hillman, PhD

  304. Prof. Emeritus, Animal Science

  305. Michigan State Universtiy

  306. East Lansing, MI

  307. J. William Hirzy, PhD

  308. Sr.Vice President

  309. Nat. Treasury Employees Union, Chap. 280, EPA

  310. Washington, DC

  311. Paul Homer, JD

  312. Glencoe, IL

  313. David B. Homer, M.D. FAAFP

  314. Telluride, CO

  315. Charlotte Howard, PhD

  316. Austin, TX

  317. Dean Howell, ND

  318. Bellevue, WA

  319. C. Vyvyan Howard, MB, ChB, PhD, FRCPath

  320. Dept Human Anatomy & Cell Biology

  321. Univ. of Liverpool

  322. Liverpool, England

  323. Stephen Howard, Lic.Ac., MAc, Dipl.Ac&CH

  324. Prof. New England School of Acupunture

  325. Stowe, MA

  326. Christopher J. Hussar, DDS, DO

  327. Reno, NV

  328. Philip Incao, MD

  329. Denver, CO

  330. Robert Isaacson, PhD

  331. Distinguished professor, Binghamton University

  332. Member, 20036

  333. NAS/NRC panel on fluoride toxicity

  334. Binghamton, NY

  335. Shirley E. Jacobson, Lt. Cdr.

  336. U.S. Public Health Svc. Commissioned Corps, retired

  337. Bellingham, WA

  338. Sarah Janssen, MD, PhD

  339. Freeport, IL

  340. Frank J. Jerome, DDS

  341. Columbus, IN

  342. Alan Johnson, DDS

  343. Summerville, GA

  344. Gregory J. Johnson, DDS

  345. Richardton, ND

  346. Gerard Judd, PhD

  347. Emeritus Prof. of Chemistry

  348. Glendale, AZ

  349. Eloise W. Kailin, MD

  350. Sequin, WA

  351. Jeremiah Kaplan, MD

  352. Boulder, CO

  353. Gerald F. Karnow, MD

  354. Spring Valley, NY

  355. George Keanna, DDS

  356. Albuquerque, NM

  357. Mark Kelley, ND, CA

  358. Hamilton, MT

  359. David Kennedy, DDS

  360. San Diego, CA

  361. Robert F. Kidd, MD

  362. Renfrew, ON, Canada

  363. Wayne King, DMD

  364. Marietta, GA

  365. Anna Konopka, MD

  366. New London, NH

  367. Stephan M. Koral, DMD

  368. Boulder, CO

  369. George J. Krol, PhD

  370. Principal Scientist, Bayer Corp, retired

  371. Longmeadow, MA

  372. Lennart Krook, DVM, PhD

  373. Prof. of Pathology Emeritus, Cornell Univ.

  374. Ithaca, NY

  375. Pierre Larose, DDS

  376. Montreal, Quebec, CAN

  377. Robert W. Lavely, DMD

  378. Louisville, KY

  379. Grant H. Layton, DDS

  380. Rancho Santa Fe, CA

  381. Ed Leary, PhD

  382. Sun City Center, FL

  383. Michael LeBlanc, DDS

  384. Thibodaux, LA

  385. Terry J. Lee, DDS

  386. Phoenix, AZ

  387. Tom Lee, DDS, MPH

  388. Renton, WA

  389. Helene B. Leonetti, MD

  390. Macungie, PA

  391. Rosezella Canty Letsome, MAT, JD, LLM

  392. Chief Steward,

  393. Nat. Treasury Employees Union, Chap. 280, EPA

  394. Hyattsville, MD

  395. James B. Lewer, DDS

  396. Omaha, NE

  397. Felix Liao, DDS

  398. Riverside, RI

  399. N.J. Liebenberg, B.Eng.

  400. Mossel Bay, South Africa

  401. Donna Lieberman, DC

  402. Cortland, NY

  403. John Light, DMD

  404. Lake Worth, FL

  405. Pamela Lilly, DDS

  406. Whitefish, MT

  407. Tony Lim, DMD

  408. Paoli, PA

  409. Hardy Limeback, DDS

  410. Head, Dept.of Preventive Dentistry, Univ. of Toronto

  411. Member, 20036

  412. NAS/NRC panel on fluoride toxicity

  413. Toronto, ON, Canada

  414. Rodney Loften, DDS

  415. Fenton, MO

  416. Nola MacDonald, DO

  417. Fort Collins, CO

  418. David S. MacLean, DDS

  419. Calgary, AB, Canada

  420. Michael Margolis, DDS

  421. Mesa, AZ

  422. Lynn Margulis, PhD

  423. Dept. of Geosciences, Umass, Amherst

  424. Amherst, MA

  425. Guy Martin, DC

  426. Champlin, MN

  427. Roger D. Masters, PhD

  428. Research Professor, Dept. of Gov’t.

  429. Dartmouth College

  430. Hanover, NY

  431. Thad Mauney, PhD

  432. Analytical Chemistry

  433. Billings, MT

  434. Jim Maxey, DDS

  435. Tulsa, OK

  436. Ella M. McElwee, PhD

  437. New Enterprise, PA

  438. James McFarlane, DDS

  439. Black Forest, CO

  440. Robert E. McFerran, DDS

  441. Lakewood, CA

  442. Thomas McGarvey, DDS

  443. Laramie, WY

  444. Ellen Green McGrath, DDS

  445. Englewood, CO

  446. Carl McMillan, DMD

  447. Cary, NC

  448. John W. Melde, DDS

  449. Fountain Hills, AZ

  450. Philip Memoli, DMD

  451. Berkeley Hts, NJ

  452. Terrence Messerman, DDS

  453. Beachwood, OH

  454. Anne H. Meyer, DDS

  455. Newport, OR

  456. Henry S. Micklem, DPhil

  457. Prof. Emeritus of Immunobiology

  458. Univ. of Edinburgh

  459. Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

  460. Marianne B. Miller, DC

  461. Anchorage, AK

  462. Paul S. Miller, DO, FCA

  463. Lake Oswego, OR

  464. Rosemary G. Minervini, RDH, MS

  465. Lehi, UT

  466. Ronald R. Minor, VMD, PhD

  467. Prof of Pathology

  468. Cornell University

  469. Ithaca, NY

  470. Peter Montague, PhD

  471. Director, Environmental Research Foundation

  472. Annapolis, MD

  473. Hans C. Moolenburgh, MD

  474. Haarlem, Netherlands

  475. Deborah E. Moore, PhD

  476. Exec. Director, Second Look

  477. Worcester, MA

  478. Michael J. Moore, RS, MS

  479. Director of Public Health

  480. Concord, MA

  481. Pierre Jean Morin, PhD

  482. Leclercville, Qc, Canada

  483. Shaunon Moten, DMD

  484. Willingboro, NJ

  485. Phyllis J. Mullenix, PhD

  486. Andover, MA

  487. James J. Murphy, PhD

  488. President

  489. Nat. Treasury Employees Union, Chap. 280, EPA

  490. Washington, DC

  491. Melinda J. Nadeau, JD

  492. Worcester, MA

  493. Richard P. Nalesnik, PhD

  494. EPA National Center for Environmental Research

  495. Washington, DC

  496. Stephen J. Nault, DC

  497. Worcester, MA

  498. Fred Neil, DC

  499. Bellingham, WA

  500. Jerrie Lynn Nelson, M.Ac., Lic. Nut.., RD

  501. Billings, MT

  502. Richard A. Nelson, MD

  503. Billings, MT

  504. Richard Neufeld, DDS

  505. Fullerton, CA

  506. Roshella New, RN

  507. Forest Knolls, CA

  508. Alex M Nicolson, PE

  509. Tujunga, CA

  510. Diane Nomura, DPM

  511. Honolulu, HI 96837

  512. Jean M. Nordin, DDS

  513. Groton, MA

  514. James A. Novak, MD

  515. San Diego, CA

  516. Allison Odenthal, MD

  517. Tacoma, WA

  518. Susan O’Konski, LPT

  519. USAF Colonel, retired

  520. San Antonio, TX

  521. Dian Olah, DMD

  522. El Segundo, CA

  523. Peter Orris, MD, MPH

  524. Prof. of Envir.& Health Sciences

  525. U. of Illinois, Chicago Sch. of Public Health

  526. Chicago, IL

  527. Bill Osmunson, DDS, MPH

  528. Bellevue, WA

  529. Geoff N. Pain, PhD, B.Sc (Hons)

  530. Research Fellow, 0’Connor Water Research Centre

  531. Canning Vale, Western Australia

  532. Gilles Parent, ND

  533. Coauthor

  534. of book on fluoridation

  535. St.Laurent,

  536. QC, Canada

  537. Gurdev Parmar, MD

  538. Fort Langley, BC, Canada

  539. Bekki T. Patton, DDS

  540. St. George, Utah

  541. Carol Patton, RN

  542. Jupiter, FL

  543. Michael L. Pawk, DDS

  544. Renfrew, PA

  545. Elizabeth Piela, DDS

  546. Lakewood, NJ

  547. Lawrence A. Plumlee, MD

  548. Bethesda, MD

  549. Marcia Poe, MS, RDH

  550. Belton, MO

  551. Terry K. Poth, DC

  552. Bellingham, WA

  553. Bryce W. Powell, JD

  554. Sandpoint, ID

  555. Walter W. Pressey, DDS

  556. Mississauga, ON, Canada

  557. H.L. Sam Queen, CCN, CNS

  558. President, Institute for Health Realities

  559. Colorado Springs, CO

  560. Tanya Radic, RN

  561. Cross Plains, TN

  562. Bill Ravanesi, MS, MPH

  563. Boston Campaign Director,

  564. Health Care Without Harm

  565. Longmeadow, MA

  566. James S. Ray, DC, ND

  567. Louisville, KY

  568. Leo Rebello, ND, PhD, DSc

  569. Bombay, Inda

  570. David Regiani, DDS

  571. Ortonville, MI

  572. Michael Rehme, DDS

  573. St. Louis, MO

  574. Monica Richter, MappSci

  575. Director Sustainability Projects

  576. Australian Conservation Foundation

  577. Elizabeth Bay, Sydney, Australia

  578. Mary E. Riposo, PhD

  579. Syracuse, NY

  580. Donald A. Ritzman, DDS

  581. Lodi, CA

  582. John Roberts, B.Ch.D.

  583. Huddersfield, W. Yorks, England

  584. Philip Robertson, BHSc, ND, DO

  585. Melbourne, Australia

  586. Louis Ronsivalli, MS

  587. Methuen, AM

  588. Paul G. Rubin, DDS

  589. Seattle, WA

  590. Wallace Rubin, MD

  591. Metairie, LA

  592. Austin Rust, DMD

  593. Licking MO

  594. Jessica Saepoff, DDS

  595. Issaquah, WA

  596. Eugene A. Sambatoro, DDS

  597. Ellicott City, MD

  598. David Satloff, DMD, MMS, MBA, CAGS

  599. N. Attleboro, MA

  600. Olssana Sawiak, DDS

  601. Mississauga, ON, Canada

  602. Bobby L. Scales, MD

  603. Baldwin, MI

  604. Darlene Schanfald, PhD

  605. Port Townsend, WA

  606. Paul W. Scharff, MD

  607. Spring Valley, NY

  608. Bernard Schechter, DDS

  609. Boca Raton, FL

  610. Ron Schoolman, DDS

  611. Wildwood, MO

  612. Ronald Scott, DDS

  613. Brantford, ON, Canada

  614. Beth Settle, DDS

  615. Woodland Hill, CA

  616. Bruce J. Settle, DDS

  617. Woodland Hill, CA

  618. Ruth W. Shearer, PhD

  619. Toxicology, retired

  620. Lacey, WA

  621. Jev Sikes, PhD

  622. Austin, TX

  623. Sydnor Sikes, PhD

  624. Austin, TX

  625. Joel D. Singer, DMD, FAGD

  626. Fort Lee, NJ

  627. Brian J. Smith, DDS

  628. Eureka, CA

  629. Richard J Smyth, DDS

  630. Huntsville, ON, Canada

  631. Caroline Snyder, PhD

  632. Prof. Emeritus, RIT

  633. N. Sandwich, NH

  634. Danita D. Sorenson, PhD

  635. Nevada City, CA

  636. Robert H. Sorenson, PhD

  637. Nevada City, CA

  638. Alan Sousie, RN, MEd

  639. Burlington, VT

  640. Adriana SouzaBarrientos,

  641. RDH

  642. New York, NY

  643. Bruce Spittle, MB, ChB, DPM

  644. Dunedin, New Zealand

  645. W. Gary Sprules, PhD

  646. Professor of Biology

  647. University of Toronto

  648. Mississauga, ON, Canada

  649. Mark Stabley, DDS

  650. Rochester Hills, MI

  651. Jennifer Steinbachs, PhD

  652. Dep. Director, IN Ctr. For Genomics & Bioinformatics

  653. Bloomington, IN

  654. Mark W. Steinberg, ND

  655. Bellingham, WA

  656. Robert B. Stephan, DDS

  657. Spokane, WA

  658. Anne V. Stephenson, RN

  659. Manchester, NH

  660. Diana L. StiggallEstberg,

  661. PhD

  662. Chemistry, retired

  663. Port Angeles, WA

  664. Alexandra Stockwell, MD

  665. Topsfield, MA

  666. Janet Stopka, DDS

  667. Downerts Grove, IL

  668. Anna Strunecka, RNDr, DrSc

  669. Prague, Czech Republic

  670. Nancy Sudak, MD

  671. Duluth, MN

  672. Mary Kelly Sutton, MD

  673. Keene, NH

  674. Michael Sutton, ND

  675. Fort Collins, CO

  676. Lee Swearingen, DDS

  677. East Liverpool, OH 43920

  678. Terri Swearingen, RN

  679. Exec. Dir., TriState

  680. Envir. Council

  681. 1997 Goldman Prize Recipient

  682. Chester, WV

  683. Horton Tatarian, MD

  684. St. George, UT

  685. Kathleen M. Thiessen, PhD

  686. Oak Ridge, TN

  687. Nicholas Thompson, PhD

  688. Clark Univ.

  689. Worcester, MA

  690. Lisa Toaldo, DMD

  691. Matamoras, PA

  692. Aixa TorresRaminex,

  693. DMD

  694. Cabo Rojo, P.R.

  695. Arta Vakhshoori, DDS

  696. San Jose, CA

  697. R.A.L. van der Bijl, DDS

  698. Amsterdam, Netherlands

  699. Elizabeth Vaughan, MD

  700. Greensboro, NC

  701. Robert George Veligdan, DMD

  702. Asst. Clinical Professor, Columbia Univ.

  703. New York, NY

  704. Gerald E. Vermette, DDS

  705. Skowhegan, ME

  706. Roberto Villafanta, DDS

  707. Chula Vista, CA

  708. David Villarreal, DDS

  709. Woodland Hills, CA

  710. Christian Villaume, PhD

  711. Thiavilee sur Meuthe, France

  712. William E. Virtue, DDS

  713. Yadkinville, NC

  714. Bertram Von Zabern, MD

  715. Temple, NH

  716. Gail Walsh, DC

  717. Worcester, MA

  718. Bart Walton, MAc, LAc

  719. Seattle, WA

  720. Brian P. Watson, PhD

  721. Assoc. Prof. Of Physics, St. Lawrence Univ.

  722. Canton, NY

  723. Meriel Watts, PhD

  724. Exec. Director, Soil & Health (NZ)

  725. Auckland, NZ

  726. Beverly F. Wedda, MD

  727. W. Boylston, MA

  728. Charlotte Weiland, ND

  729. Mt. Pleasant, PA

  730. Patrick Weimer, DDS

  731. Mandeville, LA

  732. Randall M. Weiner, JD

  733. Boulder, CO

  734. Dwight Welch, BS

  735. Exec. Vice President

  736. Nat. Treasury Employees Union, Chap. 280, EPA

  737. Stafford, VA

  738. Leonard L. Weldon, DDS

  739. Keene, NH

  740. Christian Wessling, MD

  741. Webster Groves, MO

  742. William Wesson, DDS

  743. Aspen, CO

  744. Raymond R. White, PhD

  745. San Francisco, CA

  746. Paul Wilke, DDS

  747. San Antonio, TX

  748. Donna Williams, DDS

  749. New York, NY

  750. Ken Wolch, DMD

  751. Toronto, ON, Canada

  752. Mae W. Woo, DDS

  753. Billings, MT

  754. Walter Wright, PhD

  755. Prof. of Philosophy, Clark Univ.

  756. Worcester, MA

  757. Ralph Yaney, MD

  758. Billings, MT

  759. Byung Yoo, DDS

  760. San Diego, CA

  761. Andrew Zakarian, DDS

  762. San Diego, CA

  763. Victor Zeines, DDS

  764. Shokan, NY

  765. Michael Ziff, DDS

  766. Sumrall, MS

  767. Sam Ziff, PhD

  768. Orlando, FL





“Both the very young and the very old are
most likely to be adversely affected
after exposure to fluorides.”


 Original text →    HERE   ← Thank you Robert

My Views on the Fluoridation of Water

Robert L. Isaacson Distinguished Professor of Psychology Binghamton UniversityA note on terminology: Fluorine is an element in the halogen group as are chlorine and iodine. Of all the known elements, fluorine is the most chemically reactive, most powerful oxidizing, and most electronegative element. It is a stronger oxidizing element than ozone. It reacts with many compounds at room temperature. It is never found in its pure form in nature.Fluoride: Any combination of fluorine with another element or chemical group of elements. Thus, the addition of fluorides to the drinking water can indicate the addition of a large number of chemical agents. The most commonly used fluorides for this purpose are sodium fluoride, NaF, and compounds that contain both fluorine and silicon. Such agents are collectively called “Fluorosilicates.” They include fluorosilicic acid, fluorosilicate, hydrofluosilicic acid, and hexafluorosilicic acid.In 2003 when I accepted an invitation to join the National Research Council’s Committee formed to evaluate the EPA standards for the amount of fluoride that should be allowed in our drinking water, I had no fixed opinion on whether or not fluoride should be added to drinking water. Probably I was asked to serve on the committee because I had organized a series of experiments published between 1993 and 1998 using rats to study the effects of chronic administration of aluminum fluoride in their drinking water. My primary interest was in the effects of aluminum on the brain and behavior. Aluminum fluoride was used because fluoride facilitates the passage of aluminum into the brain. At the time, aluminum was considered by a number of scientists to be an important factor in Alzheimer’s disease. Scientists are still actively investigating this possibility. Our studies had to include the investigation of the effects of the fluoride since the aluminum and the fluoride readily become associated after ingestion. In essence we wanted to know the effects of the aluminum, fluoride, and the aluminum- fluoride complex. 1


In my more than three years working on the National Research Council Committee I learned about the many influences fluoride has on the nervous system and the brain. I also learned about the variety of ways in which people become exposed to it and the work that had been done in trying to determine if fluorides were a hazard to human health and well being. The results and recommendations of this Committee were published late in 2006.2 Slowly, I came to the conclusion that there were strong experimental and clinical indications that fluorides present health hazards to people in many ways. The more I learned, the more I became convinced that the addition of fluorides to drinking water was, and is, a mistake. Accordingly, I decided to share some of my conclusions with any who might wish to know them. Fluorine-containing compounds can affect every living animal and person. Exposure to fluorides can come from the air, the water, and the foods we eat. Fluoride compounds were long used as insecticides. They were especially effective for ants and roaches. Their containers were always boldly marked as a poison and there were warnings on the label to keep them well away from children. This is mentioned only to note that for many years fluorides have been considered to be major health hazards. In regard to health the total accumulation of fluorine in the body is important. Only about half of the amount of fluorides taken in by a person is excreted. The rest stays in the body. Toxic effects are determined by the amount of fluoride stored in the body, current exposure level, and age at the time of exposure. In addition each person has his or her own tolerance level for fluorides. Once this level is exceeded however, dysfunctions of body and/or brain will occur. How these dysfunctions will be expressed depends on the genetic makeup and past experiences of the person. Another factor


that helps determine a person’s sensitivity to fluoride is their age. Both the very young and the very old are most likely to be adversely affected after exposure to fluorides. As noted, different people exhibit a wide range of toxic reactions to fluorides. Some people affected by fluorides complain of general weakness and chronic fatigue, others complain of cramp-like pains in the abdomen, or nausea. Still others express toxin-induced effects by diminished vision, headaches, migraine attacks, or pains in muscles and joints. These fluoride effects have been described in books by Leo Spira (1950, 1959)3 and George Waldbott and his associates (1978).4 It is difficult to determine whether or not a given set of symptoms is a consequence of fluoride intake. It is first necessary to rule out the presence of other diseases that could produce the observed symptoms. A correct diagnosis is best shown by repeated observations of an individual when drinking pure water or water contaminated with a fluoride. These exposures must last for periods of a week or two under conditions in which the patient doesn’t know which type of water is being consumed. If the symptoms disappear when the person is drinking pure water and return with the resumption of drinking the fluoride- treated water, this is evidence that the problems arise from the fluoride. Leo Spira and George Waldbott and his associates used this type of experimental approach in their research. Since people vary so much in their sensitivities to fluorides and also in the nature of their symptoms caused by this toxin, determination of a uniform “safe” level of exposure for everyone is impossible. In a way, fluorides are like ozone: there is no really “safe” level that would protect everyone. The Congressional Safe Drinking Water Act instructed that the level of fluoride in drinking water should be set so as to be safe for everyone


regardless of age or overall health. Increasing the problems that can be induced by fluorine in its different forms is its ability to enhance the effects of other toxins to which we are exposed. For example, fluorides in the drinking water accelerate the absorption of lead, aluminum, and silicon into the body and brain. The toxic effects of lead have been known for hundreds of years. In recent years the focus of attention has been on the learning deficits lead produces in children. The mechanisms proposed for the induction of this effect are not known entirely but there is evidence that many of the most important neurotransmitters of the brain are being affected. These include alterations in dopaminergic, cholinergic, and glutaminergic systems as well as in the “supportive” glia cells of the brain. There is also evidence that lead toxicity may go beyond impairments of intelligence. Indeed, lead toxicity may produce behavioral changes that include loss of impulse control and a related increase in the frequency of violent acts.5 The health hazards associated with enhanced incorporation of lead are not induced by all fluorides but primarily, and maybe only, by the addition of a silicofluoride to our drinking water. The fluoride most often added to our drinking water is hexafluorosilicic acid. This fluorosilicate dissociates when it enters the body. One component contains silicon and another fluorides. As a consequence when silicofluorides are added to our drinking water there are really two toxic hazards: one coming from the fluoride and another from the silicon. Silicon can produce its own toxic effects including the formation of solids (silica and silicates) that can lodge anywhere in the body. In addition the silicon portion also can generate destructive hydroxyl ions in many organs including the brain. The brain damage caused by the production of these free radicals has been related to anti-social behavioral


actions and violence.6 Recently data from 327 towns and cities, some having fluoridated water and others not, have been compared in terms of crime rates. All the communities with fluoridated water had substantially higher rates than did those with non-fluoridated water. This indicates that fluorides can act to enhance the damage being done by other toxins. The impairment of intelligence from lead toxicity is now well established. It is possible that fluorides can produce negative effects on measured intelligence also. The country devoting the greatest attention to this possibility is China. As of February 2007, several groups of Chinese investigators had published over 20 scientific papers on this topic. Scientists from many different areas of China participated in these investigations. The children studied in these reports ranged in age from 4 to 14. All were tested by the same or very similar standardized I.Q. tests. Overall the results came from children tested at different places, at different ages, and tested by different investigators. All the results from China have found that communities with high levels of fluoride in their drinking water have fewer children scoring at the “bright” end of the intelligence spectrum than communities with low or no level of fluoride. Since China does not fluoridate their drinking water, the Chinese studies compare the I.Q. scores of children from towns and school areas that differ in the amount of fluoride naturally present in their water supplies. While not all of Chinese studies were perfectly designed, the large number of studies showing the same pattern of results calls for our attention. A negative effect of fluoride on intelligence seems to be a possibility. Other studies in China have indicated that fluoride exposure in the drinking water of mothers during the 6th to 8th months of pregnancy can


produce anatomical changes in the fetal brains. There are also reports of impaired responsiveness to visual and auditory stimuli in babies in the first three days after birth induced by the intake of fluoridated water by young mothers during gestation.7 The ingestion of fluoride tends to increase the uptake of aluminum by the brain. In the studies done in my laboratory the increase in aluminum in the brains of rats was not a function of the amount of aluminum fluoride given the animals in their drinking water. The smallest dose of aluminum fluoride produced about the same amount of aluminum in the brain as a dose 10 or even a 100 times larger. A small amount of fluoride seems capable of opening aluminum pathways to a maximal degree. It is of great interest that the relative risk of having Alzheimer’s disease is increased when individuals had high amounts of aluminum in the brain coupled with low amounts of fluoride.8 Another observation of interest is that aluminum by itself may not exert toxic affects on the nervous system. It may only become a toxin after joined together with a fluoride to become an aluminum fluoride. 9 The chronic administration of fluorides in rats produces changes in the microscopic structure of the brain. There were significant losses of cells in areas of the hippocampus and the neocortex. Many apparently dead or dying cells were found in areas analogous to locations in which similar dying cells are found in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. A common and, perhaps universal, characteristic of dementia is a reduction of aerobic metabolism in the brain. The blood supply reaching the brain is the primary supplier of oxygen and nutrients. Reductions in this sole source of brain energy can be due to a number of physical or chemical changes. When the brains of animals chronically exposed to aluminum fluoride were examined histologically, deposits of aluminum-based crystals


were found along the walls of both large and small blood vessels in the brain. Similar deposits were also found in the center of many vessels suspended by collagen fibers. These deposits decreased the normal transfer of oxygen from the red blood cells to the brain since they must have created turbulence in its blood flow. It is of historical interest that Alois Alzheimer, the man for whom a type of dementia was named, noted that most patients with this disorder suffered from atherosclerosis in addition to other brain anomalies. This condition is one in which there are deposits formed on the sides and in the center of arteries in the brain. The deposits disrupt the flow of blood to the brain often cause severe brain damage. Brain functions are entirely dependent on the availability of oxygen. The brain itself consumes 20% of all the oxygen used by the entire body. The brain area most affected by the reduction in oxygen availability is the forebrain. The lower centers of the brain, namely the midbrain and hindbrain, are more resistant to oxygen deprivation. This is why the higher functions of the brain are the first to be affected, as well as the most affected, by oxygen deprivation. Basic motor and visceral functions are often spared even in patients with profound interruptions of normal blood supplies to the brain. One of the best-known chemical alterations produced by fluorides is a reduction in cholinesterases, including acetylcholinesterase. Fluorides also directly affect the actions of many of other important neurotransmitters in the brain. Fluorides seem to have a special attraction to acetylcholine. Nerve cells that synthesize this transmitter have numerous projections to many forebrain areas, including the neocortex and deeper areas of the brain that provide information to the neocortex. Not only do fluorides change the amount of the acetylcholine in the


brain, they selectively block certain receptors that respond to this transmitter. Fluoride reduces the number of one type of “nicotinic receptors” for acetylcholine. Some other nicotinic subtypes are not affected.10 Added to all of the other alterations in structure and function of the brain caused by fluorides, the opportunity for mental and behavioral changes are almost limitless. While the cholinergic system of the brain has been most studied in regard to the effects of fluoride, it is not the only neural transmitter affected. It is likely that all neural transmitter systems are affected by fluoride intake, directly or indirectly. Other anomalies related to fluoride intake are found in many other chemical systems of the brain. During the period from 1956 to 1963, the endocrinologist, Ionel Rapaport, presented evidence of a link between fluoride exposure and the numbers of babies born with Down’s syndrome, (Trisomy 21). For a number of years the only follow up to his work was in the form of epidemiological comparisons between the number of births of such children both to mothers living in fluoridated drinking water vs. the number of such born to mothers births in or non-fluoridated drinking water areas. The demographics of the two or more areas being compared were not fully taken into account in most of the studies. Maternal ages were also not taken into consideration. Overall, the “follow up” studies to Rapaport’s report were not decisive but none of them failed to rule out his original findings. Furthermore, a determination of fluoride effects using standard epidemiological procedures cannot provide convincing information. This is because it is impossible to find populations virtually the same in all regards except for the amount of fluoride in their drinking water. Another problem arises from the difficulty in accurately determining the number of Down’s


syndrome children born. Some investigators use the number of birth certificates on which the attending physician notes that the baby had Down’s syndrome. Other investigators use only closed hospital records made sometime later. Still other investigators use both. Neither method is perfect. The use of entries on hospital records would seem to be the most accurate method since physicians seldom enter the nature of possible deformities like Down’s syndrome on birth certificates after delivery. Indeed because of the possibility of making a mistake from delivery, the diagnosis is not often made until a determination can be made by laboratory results. Probably the best collection of relevant data comes from a study of births of children born in two areas of Atlanta, Georgia, as reported by Erickson et al. in 1976. Two different estimates of the number of Down’s children and normal children were presented. One estimate of Down’s syndrome births was made by the examination of copies of birth certificates and the other was based on hospital records. A re-examination of Erickson’s data by Burgstahler11 showed an overall enhancement of Down’s syndrome births to mothers from the fluoridated area. Later, in 1998 Takahashi did a fine grain analysis of data from a number of sources that included the corrected numbers from the 1966 Erickson report.12 In the Takahashi report a clear-cut relationship between fluoride exposure and the number of affected children was found in mothers 30 years of age and younger. Recently, Juan C. Molino13 and I using only data from hospital records found the same age-fluoride-Down’s syndrome birth effect. In his report Takahashi extended the analysis of his data through the use of a regression analysis. He wanted to determine if there could be any dose that would not increase the likelihood of having a Down’s syndrome child. According to his calculations there was no such dose. All doses of


fluoride caused some enhancement of the likelihood of a woman having such a child. There are other data supporting the idea that fluorides can induce genetic alterations. Evidence indicating biochemical interactions of fluoride with the genetic mechanisms of cell division are presented in the NRC report on Fluoride in the Drinking Water. (See Endnote 2) When the possible benefits and possible dangers of fluoride are considered there really is no comparison. Consider the following: There is no known benefit of adding any form of fluoride to our drinking water. Who would want to increase chances of having a less than perfect child? Who would wish to take a chance on a possible reduction of their own mental capacity? Who would want to have their personality altered by fluoride induced alterations in their brain chemistry? Who would want to increase their odds of developing Alzheimer’s disease? Eliminating the addition of fluoride to our drinking water would remove these possibilities. The cost of doing this is zero. In fact it would enrich the communities now adding fluorides to their drinking water.


Endnotes Varner, J. A., Huie, C. W., Horvath, , W. J., Jensen, K. F., and Isaacson, R. L. (1993) Chronic AlF3 administration: II. Selected histological observations. Neurosci. Res. Comm. 13:99-104.Varner, J. A., Jensen, K. F., Horvath, W. J. and Isaacson R. L. (1998) Chronic administration of aluminum fluoride or sodium fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity. Brain Res., 784: 284-298.Varner, J. A., Horvath, W. J., Huie, C. W., Naslund, H. R., and Isaacson, R. L. (1994) Chronic aluminum fluoride administration. Behav. Neural Biol., 61: 233-241.Isaacson, R. L., Varner, J. A., and Jensen, K. F. Toxin-induced blood vessel inclusions caused by the chronic administrations of aluminum and sodium fluoride. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 825:152- 166. The final report of the committee was published by the National Academies Press in December 2006, entitled “Fluoride in drinking water.” It can by obtained from the National Academies Press and by special order from any bookstore. The electronic link to the NRC/NAS publication sites:


1 – 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.http://nap.edu/catalog/11571.html. Spira, L. The drama of fluorine, archenemy, of mankind. Milwaukee: The Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research, 1950, 1959. Waldbott, G. L. Fluoridation the great dilemma, Lawrence, KA: Coronado Press, 1978. Masters R. D., Coplan, M.J. Association of silicofluoride treated water lead with elevated blood lead. Neurotoxicology, 2000. 21:1091-1100. Masters, R. D., Coplan M. J. A dynamic, multifactoral model of alcohol, drug abuse and crime: Linking neuroscience and behavior to toxicology. Soc. Sci. Information, 1999, 38: 591-624. Seavy, J., (2005) Water fluoridation and crime in America. Fluoride, 38:11-22. Du Li. (1992) The effect of fluorine on developing human brain. Chinese Journal of Pathology, 21:218-20. Li Jing, Yao L., Shao, Q-L, and Wu, C-Y. (2004) Effects of high fluoride level on neonatal neurobehavioral development. Chinese Journal of Endocrinology, 23: No.5. Belovjovic, G., Jakovlevic, B. (1999) Aluminum and Alzheimer’s disease. Spr. ArArh. Celok 126: 283-289. Strunecka, A. (1999) Aluminum plus Fluoride: a new deadly duo. Dement. 1: 2- 3. Long, Y-G, Wang, Y-N, Chen, J., Jiang, S-F, Nordberg, A., and Guan, Z-Z. (2002) Chronic fluoride toxicity decreases the number of acetylcholine receptors in the rat brain. Neurotox. Terat, 23: 751-757. Burgstahler, A. W. (1966) Fluoridated water and Down’s syndrome. Long abstract of a report of the 21st Conference of the International Society for Brain Research, Budapest. Takahashi, K. (1998) Fluoride-linked Down syndrome births and their estimated occurrence due to water fluoridation. Fluoride, 31: 61-73. Juan Carlos Molina is the Director of the Ferryra Research Institute at the University of Cordoba, Argentina, as well as holding his distinguished professor position there. He also is a visiting research professor at Binghamton University.


Disclaimer: The material in this document represents my opinions, unless otherwise noted. The content may be copied in part or in full without permission when used in a not for profit format. When used for other purposes, the permission of the author is required. The document is not intended to provide medical advice but rather for the sharing of knowledge and opinions of the author. Decisions about health advice should be based on a personal one-on-one basis with an appropriate physician.

Robert L. Isaacson
Department of Psychology & Centre for Developmental
and Behavioral Neuroscience
Binghamton University
Binghamton, NY 13902-6000
Phone: 607 777 6764