A potted history

FLUORIDE POLLUTION – The Secret War – Dr. Smith

… Fluoride air pollution can have a devastating
 effect on the total environment …

The Secret War .

Image of Dr. Smith

The major industries with fluoride pollution problems include:

coal-burning power stations, petro-chemical refineries, aluminium,

zinc, copper, beryllium and magnesium producing factories, steel mills,

fertilizer works, plastics manufacturers, glass factories, cement works, 

pottery and tile makers, brick works, chemical factories and nuclear

processing plants. The most common and dangerous air pollutant

produced by these industries and many others, is —

Hydrogen Fluoride

3 smoke stacks f

   Workers in the following occupations may be exposed to

   Hydrogen Fluoride in the workplace air:

Aircraft workers,
 Alkylation plant workers, 
Alloy steel cleaners, 
Alloy steel makers, 
Aluminium fluoride makers, 
Aluminium makers, 
Beryllium workers, 
Bleachers, 
Brass cleaners, 
Brewers, 
Brick cleaners, 
Brick makers, 
Casting cleaners, 
Cement workers, 
Ceramic workers, 
Chemists, Copper cleaners, 
Cryolite makers, 
Crystal glass polishers, 
Dye makers, 
Electric arc welders, 
Electroplaters, 
Enamel etchers, 
Fermentation workers, 
Fertilizer makers, Filter paper makers, 
Fluoborate makers, 
Fluoride compound makers, 
Fluorine makers, 
Fluorocarbon makers, 
Fluorochemical makers, 
Fluosilicate makers, Freon makers, 
Genetron makers, 
Glass etchers, 
Graphite purifiers, 
Hydrogen fluoride makers, 
Isotron makers, 
Laundry workers, 
Metal cleaners, 
Metal polishers, 
Neon sign makers, 
Oil well acidizers, 
Ore dissolvers, 
Petrol refinery workers, 
Phosphate rock workers, 
Plastic makers, 
Polish makers, 
Pottery workers, 
Power station workers, 
Quartz crystal makers, 
Rocket fuel handlers, 
Rocket fuel makers, 
Silicon chip makers, 
Stainless steel cleaners, 
Stainless steel makers, 
Steel casting picklers, 
Steel millworkers, 
Stone cleaners, 
Tile makers, 
Uranium refiners, 
Yeast makers, and
 Zinc workers.

Fluoride air pollution can have a devastating effect on the total environment.

Angus Lazores is a Mohawk Indian. For centuries before the white-man reached Canada and the United States, the Mohawks hunted, fished, trapped, and farmed the islands of the Gulf of  St. Lawrence, now known as the St. Regis Akwesasne Indian Reserve.

Angus Lazores, along with 1,500 other Mohawks, lives on Cornwall Island, a part of the reserve straddling the borders of  Quebec, Ontario, and Upper New York State. The St. Regis Mohawk Band settled Cornwall Island just over a hundred years ago; they soon became known as an efficient and self-sufficient agricultural community. In 1959, there were 45 farmers, forty cattle barns and 364 dairy cattle on the Island.

Twenty years later, only eight farmers and eight cattle barns were left.

During the twenty years the cattle population was decimated;

all the bees on the Island had disappeared; crop yields had fallen;

partridges, after which the Akwesasne Reserve is named, had declined drastically; and the white pine trees on the Island were dying.

In 1959, Reynolds Metals Company had built an aluminium smelter on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River near Massena, New York State. Cornwall Island is downwind of the smelter at least 60 per cent of the time.

Angus Lazores dates his problems on the Island to 1962, just three years after the smelter became operational.

In that year, cattle became lame and developed swellings on their legs, eventually the lameness became so severe that the animals could no longer graze normally. They laid down to eat on pasture and then crawled to the next place to eat. With increasing age the cows had difficulty drinking cold water, and chewing was obviously painful. The animals would grab hay but let it go after unsuccessful attempts at mastication.

The first pregnancy and calving were usually uneventful, but the cows had small udders and too little milk for the calf. At the third pregnancy and delivery, the native cows had usually deteriorated, being unable to drink or chew properly. Cows died during delivery and neonatal calf mortality was high. If cows survived the third pregnancy they were sold for slaughter.

By 1971, the majority of farmers had switched from dairy to beef cattle and by November 1977, there were only 177 cattle on the Island compared with 364 in 1959.

The cause of the cattle disease was admitted only after many years. In 1969, officials of the Canadian Ministry of the Environment had expressed concern to Reynolds Metals about fluoride emissions impacting on the Island. Four years later, the St. Regis Local Council authorised an investigation into pollutants emitted by the smelter. In July 1973, the Council were advised that damage to the pine trees on the Island was due to fluoride gases.

Two years later, urine samples from Cornwall Island cattle showed abnormal levels of fluoride.

In November 1975, Angus Lazore’s cattle were examined by a veterinarian called Abbey, sent by Reynolds Metals. He claimed that internal and external parasites were responsible for the condition of the cattle – fluoride wasn’t even mentioned.

The Mohawk elders were disturbed by Abbey’s diagnosis and approached Professor Lennart Krook, an eminent veterinary scientist at Cornell University.

Krook ran extensive diagnostic and pathological tests on the St. Regis cattle, then announced his findings:

“Owing to extensive and serious chronic fluoride poisoning no cattle born on Cornwall Island were going to live for more than five years.”

During 1977 and 1978, the situation which had developed on the Island was investigated by a team of scientists from the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University. Leaders of the team were Professor Krook and Dr George Maylin. In the introduction to their published report, they point out:

“Of all pollutants that affect farm animals, fluorine has caused the most severe and widespread damage. The object of the present study is to record yet another man-made fluorine pollution disaster and to interpret the pathogenesis of the osseous changes in view of recent advances in the understanding of bone metabolism.”

While Krook and Maylin focused on the cattle, Dr Clancy Gordon of the University of Montana, examined 2,600 plant samples from Cornwall Island and found very high levels of fluoride in all the vegetation tested.

University of Illinois scientists were then recruited to see if the Islanders themselves were suffering health problems resulting from excessive exposure to fluoride. Doctors Bertram Carnow and Shirley Conibear reported:

“Significant numbers of people with abnormalities of the muscular, skeletal, nervous and blood systems.”

In addition, Cornwall Island physicians had noted high rates of anaemia, rashes, irritability, diabetes, high blood pressure and thyroid disease.

Carnow and Conibear concluded that there had been;

“Unquestionably heavy exposure to fluorine compounds that has affected all the life studied.”

They recommended an immediate reduction in smelter fluoride emissions. Chief Francis of the Mohawk Indian Band put it more dramatically, he advised anyone living in areas where smelters might be built, to:

“Block the project. Block them with everything you have. If you fail then move. Move as quickly as you can because there’s no money that can buy your health back.”

Reynolds Metals spent its first ten years of operation spewing over 130 kilos of fluoride emissions an hour, directly downstream to Cornwall Island. Even after New York State regulations forced the company to reduce its emissions to 30 kilos an hour by 1975, Reynolds’ “gift” to the Mohawks had been an appalling -

TWELVE MILLION KILOS OF AIRBORNE FLUORIDE CONTAMINANTS

OVER TWENTY YEARS.

The Mohawk way of life became a victim of a preventable man-made plague. And you don’t have to go to Canada to find fluoride pollution problems. For more than a century, the Hunter Valley Region of New South Wales has produced some of Australia’s finest wines.

On Tuesday July 8 1980, the Tyrrell’s and the Tulloch’s, Reg Drayton and Dr Max Lake together with Chris Barnes, who, as President of the Hunter Valley Vineyard Association represented virtually all the other wine-makers, held a press conference at the Hilton Hotel, Sydney.

Their message was simple – they could foresee the day when the Hunter Valley was finished as a wine-growing area. And the reason? For the past ten years the ALCAN aluminium smelter at Kurri-Kurri had rained 600 to 700 tonnes of fluoride pollutants onto the surrounding landscape annually. The wine-makers said they had known nothing about these fluoride emissions until 10 months previously, yet fluoride pollutants have, in the past, reduced grape yield and decimated vineyards in Spain, Greece, Bulgaria and the Rhone Valley.

Ever since the beginning of the industrial revolution but particularly in the second half of this century, wholesale pollution of air and of the countryside with fluoride fumes and fall-out has taken place; and the most common and most dangerous fluoride air pollutant is HYDROGEN FLUORIDE.

As mentioned previously, Dr Jag Cook, from Britain’s National Chemical Emergency Group – which is responsible for mopping up any major toxic spills in the UK – has said: “Hydrogen fluoride is about the only chemical that really scares me.”

Hardly surprising since amongst other things, hydrogen fluoride (HF) eats up glass and dissolves most metals.

Alright, you say, its dangerous, but I don’t live near a factory that releases HF into the atmosphere, nor do I work in an environment where HF is present. But consider this. Demand for lead-free petrol is growing quickly and the processes for making it involve the use of HF to achieve high octane ratings without using lead. In fact, between 1.26 and 3.14 kilos of HF are used in the production of every six barrels of alkylate.

As a result HF is present in the exhaust gases from vehicles using lead-free petrol. The levels of HF, three inches from the exhaust outlet measure 30 parts per billion, and remember at that concentration, HF can impair reflex activity in rats by acting as a CNS depressant – in other words, a mind-dulling drug.

HYDROGEN FLUORIDE, aka:, is used by an increasing number of industries, and it is also produced as a pollutant by an increasing number of industries.

A series of accidents in the United States have recently demonstrated that industrial HF sites are a major threat to public safety.

For instance, an HF leak on 30 October 1987 at the Marathon refinery in Texas City left 700 people in need of urgent medical treatment. Dr Fred Millar, of the Environmental Policy Institute, said that only luck had prevented the accident from becoming the major industrial catastrophe of the year. He pointed out:

“The release was from the vapour space of a storage tank. If the same release had been of HF liquid thousands would likely have died in the ensuing gas cloud. It would have been our Bhopal.”

A few months later, another HF leak occurred at Mobil’s refinery in Torrance, California. This caused a raging 41-hour fire and millions of dollars worth of damage. An official report of the accident suggested:

“The consequences may have been so great as to warrant regulations to direct industry to phase out its use or substitute processes with less environmental hazards.”

In March 1988, there was another HF leak, this time in Tulsa, Oklahoma. There, an accident at the Sun refinery produced a three-mile-long cloud which engulfed the town. Only a prompt evacuation limited the casualties to 36 persons (none fatal).

A recent test by the US Government showed that relatively small amounts of HF liquid will release a dense, ground-hugging gas cloud which remains lethal for five kilometres.

In Britain, the location of HF manufacturing plants are, according to the Health and Safety Executive, officially secret – to prevent them becoming targets for terrorists.

Many people, particularly those working in the pot-rooms of aluminium smelters, are exposed to relatively high concentrations of hydrogen fluoride. What can it do to them? Well, lets see.

In the spring of 1986, one of the most modern aluminium smelters in the world went into production in Portland, Victoria. The smelter had been built by the Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA), who also owned a much older smelter at Point Henry, Geelong.

Two years later, on the 2nd December 1988, the Melbourne Age reported:

“SMELTER WORKERS CLAIM FOR ASTHMA.”
 “Twelve workers from the 35 per cent State-owned Portland aluminium smelter have issued common-law claims against the joint-venture seeking damages for occupational asthma. 

The chairman of the Aluminium Development Council, Mr. Bruce Heister, said the incidence of occupational asthma varied from smelter to smelter but the reasons for this were not clear. 

Damages for a case of occupational asthma were claimed against another big aluminium producer, Comalco, at its Queensland smelter a few months ago. 

The cause of pot room asthma is suspected to be an agent, or agents, in emissions from smelter pot lines. 

Since production started in Portland in October 1986, 65 workers have been diagnosed as having occupational asthma.”

In other words, after just 25 months in operation, 65 workers at one of the most modern aluminium smelters in the world had been affected by mysterious agents in the pot room.

Worse was to follow. On 27 April 1989, the Melbourne Herald reported:

“ALUMINIUM IS LATEST WORKER HEALTH SCARE.”

“A senior Victorian union official claims workers at Geelong’s ALCOA smelter are suffering respiratory ailments potentially as deadly as those found in the asbestos industry. 

Mr. Royre Bird, slate secretary of the Federated Iron-workers Association, has called for a national inquiry into respiratory disease in aluminium smelter workers after a report by New South Wales researchers found evidence of long-term irreversible lung damage.
 
The report, by a team from Newcastle University medical school, found workers at Alcan Aluminium’s Kurri-Kurri smelter suffered reduced lung function equivalent to smoking a packet of cigarettes a day. 

Mr. Bird, who has worked in the industry for 18 years, claimed the findings had serious implications for the aluminium industry world-wide and for workers at Geelong. He said he believed that apart from respiratory diseases, aluminium workers were at risk of contracting cancer. 

He claimed to have observed a “slow but gradually developing history of cancers” at the Point Henry Plant in Geelong.

He also claimed workers at the Portland smelter, partly owned by the State Government, were suffering higher rates of pot room asthma than at Point Henry. 

Union solicitors had confirmed 176 cases of pot room asthma at Point Henry since 1964, compared with 76 at Portland. At least 20 more cases were being processed by other solicitors, he said.”

A few days later, a cancer specialist supported Mr Bird’s claim when the Melbourne Sun published the following article on May 1 1989:

“CANCER RISK AT SMELTERS: DOCTOR”. 

”Workers at aluminium smelters are at risk of developing cancer as well as chronic asthma, according to a leading cancer specialist. At least 39 smelter workers across Australia are believed to have already died from work-related cancer.
 
Dr Cyril Minty, a specialist at the Peter McCallum cancer hospital, said fumes emitted from the smelters’ pot rooms could contain cancer-causing chemicals as well as irritants that produced the respiratory condition known as ‘pot room asthma’
 
Dr Minty said more than six sufferers of industrial asthma from Portland and ALCOA’s Geelong smelter had been referred to him during the past year.”

Now, there is no mystery at all. The major pollutants in the pot room are gaseous and particulate fluorides; and HYDROGEN FLUORIDE is the most common fluoride gas.

HYDROGEN FLUORIDE IS THE MAJOR CAUSE OF

POT ROOM ASTHMA AND A CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LUNG CANCER IN

SOME ALUMINIUM WORKERS.

But, industrialists live in fear of conclusive evidence linking a pollutant to ‘new’ occupational or Neighbourhood diseases. The reason is obvious. Employers and their insurers will face claims for compensation.

(Note: a “Neighbourhood disease” is one affecting people living in the vicinity of a pollutant producing factory.)

Industries with major fluoride pollution problems are amongst the most powerful interest groups in society. Fluoride emissions are amongst the most difficult of all pollutants to control effectively, and in a highly competitive economic system, many companies will fight for their very lives to avoid spending large amounts of money to control pollution since this will, almost inevitably, increase the price of the end-product.

Certain sections of industry will go to great lengths to suppress stories about fluoride pollution. Such reports might encourage people to sue for damages or, result in pressures for tougher anti-pollution laws.

The first symptoms of exposure to trace amounts of hydrogen fluoride are NOT physiological but psychological, and include such symptoms as confusion, fatigue, partial loss of memory and mental dullness. To put it another way, behaviour is exquisitely sensitive to minute traces of hydrogen fluoride (and other pollutants) in the environment.

Unfortunately, the tests to which chemical substances are usually subjected in efforts to determine their so-called “maximum permissible doses or concentration” do not take into account possible changes in mental function, and also would often fail to pick up long-term or chronic effects on the organism.

Minute concentrations of hydrogen fluoride inhaled over lengthy periods of time CAN DAMAGE VITAL COMPONENTS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM – this leaves the individual vulnerable to opportunistic diseases.

Last century, canaries were taken down coal mines because of the presence of trace amounts of deadly gases in the mines. The gases were undetectable by smell but if the canary died, the miners got out – quickly!

Some scientists suspect that FROGS have become analogous to the coal-mine canaries. All over the world frogs are disappearing and no-one knows why. The best guess so far is that pollution of the environment is responsible. I’d like to tell you about an experiment I recently completed.

In the adult human the immune system weighs about two pounds and consists of around a trillion lymphocytes and about 100 million trillion molecules called antibodies that are produced and secreted by the lymphocytes.

In a mouse, the immune system consists of about 300 million lymphocytes and around a trillion antibodies.

The smallest known immune system, that of a tadpole, is estimated to have a million lymphocytes and an antibody repertoire of about 10 million. Smaller immune systems do not exist presumably because such systems would recognize antigen so infrequently that they would provide little, if any, protective advantage.

I exposed tadpoles to a number of increasingly common environmental pollutants, including mercury, cadmium and hydrofluoric acid – which is hydrogen fluoride in water, and both gas and acid have the same formula, HF.

Incredibly low concentrations of these chemicals proved lethal to the tadpoles.

But technically speaking, the tadpoles didn’t die of “mercury poisoning” or “cadmium poisoning,” or “hydrofluoric acid” poisoning. They died because the chemicals ‘wrecked’ their immune systems leaving the tadpoles vulnerable to all the germs and parasites in their environment.

The significance of this is that scientists still evaluate the toxicity of a chemical by determining what amount of the chemical causes obvious damage or death.

For instance, lets look at a common chemical – sodium fluoride.

It would take at least 3 grams of sodium fluoride to kill a healthy adult. That’s the amount in 3,000 litres of fluoridated water.

If you ingested about 8 milligrams of sodium fluoride daily for ten years or more, you would develop a well-defined disease called skeletal fluorosis, which affects bones, tendons and secondarily, the nervous system. If an infant ingested 2 milligrams of fluoride daily, they would develop dental fluorosis or ‘mottled’ teeth.

Apparently therefore, the only problems that low doses of sodium fluoride can cause are either dental fluorosis or skeletal fluorosis. The CLINICAL symptoms of these conditions are easily detected – ‘mottled’ teeth and ‘bony outgrowths’ and the calcification of tendons in skeletal fluorosis.

BUT WHAT ABOUT SUB-CLINICAL SYMPTOMS

THOSE THAT WE CAN’T SEE?

Experiments have shown water containing 1 to 4 parts per million can have an effect on the Central Nervous System – a mind-dulling effect! Experiments have also demonstrated that fluoride at a concentration of just 0.6 parts per million can disturb antibody production, and thus interfere with the functioning of the immune system.

And many experiments have shown that concentrations of fluoride of about 4 parts per million can damage DNA – the vital core of every living cell.

In other words, at very low concentrations, fluoride can cause subtle changes in enzyme activities, nerve action potentials, altered behavioural reaction, and the immune system…

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About Dr. Smith

Dr Geoffrey Ernest Smith, L.D.S., R.C.S. (Eng.)
Dental Surgeon, (retired)

Curriculum Vitae

  • Born: 1 November 1932, Married, 5 children, 4 grandchildren.

  • Educated: Lawrence House School, St. Annes on Sea, Lancashire. Rossall School, Fleetwood, Lancashire. University of Manchester, Turner Dental School.

  • 1956: Qualified L.D.S., R.C.S. Royal College of Surgeons. (England).

  • 1957-59 Post-Graduate Studies. Queens University, Belfast.

  • 1959-60 Travelling Fellowship, UK Medical Research Council; WHO Regional Office, Brazzaville. 

    Based University of Ibaden W. Nigeria. Field work: Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Liberia.

  • 1961-68 General Dental Practice, London and Dublin.

  • 1965-66 Consultant, Aspro-Nicholas, Ireland, Ltd., Dublin.

  • 1969-71 Consultant, Glaxo Group Ltd., London.

  • 1972-74 Consultant, PIA Ltd., Lopex Group, London, New York.

  • 1974-76 Consultant, Nicholas International, Slough & Melbourne.

  • 1976-79 General Dental Practice and School Dentistry, Melbourne.

  • 1979-80 Hospital Dentist, Proserpine, North Queensland.

  • 1987-88 Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Melbourne.

  • 1980 – Consultant, Environmental and Public Health.

Some relevant papers in the scientific literature:

  • NZ Med.J. 1983;96, 1067-1068.

  • Persp. Biol.Med. 1986 29, 560-

  • New Scientist 1983;5 May 286-287

  • Trends.Pharm.Sci.1986, 7, 10

  • Fluoride, 1983, Editorial, Autumn.

  • Sci.Tot.Environ. 1987, 63, 1-11.

  • Aust.Dent.J. 1984, 29, 199-200.

  • Endeavour, 1987, 11, 16-

  • J.R.Coll Gen.Pract.1984, 34, 350-351.

  • Sci.Prog.(Oxf.), 1987, 71, 23

  • Xenobiotica, 1985, 15, 177-186.

  • The Scientist, 1987, 1, 24.

  • Sci.Prog.(Oxf.), 1985, 69, 429-442.

  • Sci.Tot.Env., 1988, 68, 79-86.

  • Sci.Tot.Env. 1985, 43, 41-61.

  • NZ Med.J. 1985, 90, 556-557.

  • NZ Med.J. 1985, 98, 454-455.

  • Pers.Biol.Med. 1988, 31, 440-45

  • NZ Med.J. 1988, 100, 669-670.

  • Sci.Tot.Env., 1988, 76, 167-

  • New Scientist, 1985, 1467-, 50-51.

  • NZ Med.J. 1988, 101, 802.

  • NZ Med.l. 1985, 30, 232-233.

  • Med.Hypoth., 1986, 19, 139-

  • Med.J.Aust., 1985, 143, 283-286.

  • Mutat.Res., 1990, 241, 339-

  • Med.J.Aust., 1986, 144, 152.

  • Fusso Kenkyo, 1990, 11, 38-48

  • Lawyer, 1986, 4(3), 6. (Japanese)

  • Fluoride, 1986, 19, 105-107.

  • Probe, 1989, 31, 1-2.

  • Nature 1986; 323, 198.

  • Aust. Dent.J., 1985, 30, 232-233

Note:

The Secret War was originally prepared as a personal submission to the

Brisbane City Council’s Task Force on Fluoridation, in March 1997.

Paper : Original Paper 
Citation : Caries Res 2001;35:125-128
 Title : Fluoride Deposition in the Aged Human Pineal Gland Author(s): J. Luke
Info : Figures: 2; Tables: 0; References: 32

 Keywords : Calcium; Distribution; Fluoride; Human pineal gland; Hydroxyapatite; Pineal concretions
 
Abstract : The purpose was to discover whether fluoride (F) accumulates in the aged human pineal gland. The aims were to determine (a) F-concentrations of the pineal gland (wet), corresponding muscle (wet) and bone (ash); (b) calcium-concentration of the pineal.

Pineal, muscle and bone were dissected from 11 aged cadavers and assayed for F using the HMDS-facilitated diffusion, F-ion-specific electrode method. Pineal calcium was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy.

Pineal and muscle contained 297+/-257 and 0.5+/-0.4 mg F/kg wet weight, respectively; bone contained 2,037+/-1,095 mg F/kg ash weight. The pineal contained 16,000+/-11,070 mg Ca/kg wet weight.

There was a positive correlation between pineal F and pineal Ca (r = 0.73, p<0.02)

but no correlation between pineal F and bone F.

By old age (50-70), the [ pineal gland ] has readily accumulated F

and its F/Ca ratio is higher than bone.

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 ” … Having said all of this, the absence of evidence of measurable impact is no excuse for not promulgating the best and most appropriate environmental standards.

For far too long we have provided industry with de facto subsidies by not enforcing the best and most appropriate environmental regulations. In not doing so we provide industries with special arrangements to pollute an economic advantage.

Aside of the human health or environmental responsibilities, this is simply not equitable or reasonable…”
Professor Mark P. Taylor, Environmental Science, Department of  Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science,
Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia

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Tooth Decay in the Developing World:

Could a Vaccine Help Prevent Cavities?

Geoffrey E. Smith

His Tooth Vaccine 

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See also:

Fluoride and the Phosphate Connection

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FLUORIDE AND INTELLECTUAL SUPPRESSION

For full paper  

  INTELLECTUAL SUPPRESSION  

Brian-Martin

f-intellectual For full paper 

  INTELLECTUAL SUPPRESSION  

prof-mirowski

 Professor Philip Mirowski

(He does not mention the ‘F’. word,
but he shows us how science may have lost its way –
“privatization of knowledge, – Universities are commercial-
and curiosity is engineered out”…)

Philip Mirowski Economics and Policy Studies 
400 Decio Faculty Hall Notre Dame, IN

46556 574.631.7580. Philip.E.Mirowski.1@nd.edu 

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  Up-Date on Allergies and Vaccines  

DOLLAR TOUG WAR

$ometimes $cience is for $ale!

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Queensland Fluoridation – Behind the Scenes – FOI

   It is disappointing that Dr. Hodge has not kept up with the science of fluoridation.

Fluori-leaks-sZelle-Hodge-ff

ADA / Qld. Labour Party Collusion      

‘” (The Queensland Health Department, funded

The Australian Dental Association

Queensland Branch, $220,000 as a CONtribution

to its pro-fluoridation campaign. 

The request for this funding was directed to

the Hon. Stephen Robertson MP.

The Minister for Health at the time [Feb. 2006] )

Hodge-letter-til-f

 

Off-line-Copes...

CRIMINAL CODE 1899 – SECT 87 (Queensland)

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FLUORIDATION AND MONEY

As Dr. Frederick Exner noted: “If American Industry had to stop
polluting our air, water, and our countryside with fluoride 
fumes and fall-out, and to dispose of its fluoride
wastes without creating a public hazard,
it would cost, not mere millions, but 
countless billions of dollars.

more paper money image

—  FOLLOW THE MONEY  —

DOLLAR TOUG WAR

The secrete war...

F. money trail...

We must also consider the concept of a control group
in 
establishing cause and effect.

Without a control group, the
 effect of fluoride gases are confused with the effect of
fluoridated water or toothpaste. This camouflage has served
the interests of powerful corporations since 1945.

Fluorine constitutes 0.065 per cent of the elements of the

earth’s crust and is a significant component of the total
biogeochemical cycle in which life has evolved. Mankind has
always been exposed to fluoride in the environment; and
fluoride has always been a trace constituent of our diet and
a component of our body fluids, tissues and skeleton.

Indeed, the ubiquitous occurrence of fluoride in nature

means that it would be virtually impossible to prepare a
diet entirely free of fluoride.

But, until the start of the industrial revolution, most of

the fluoride in the environment was safely ‘locked-up’ in
rocks, coal and clays, and only relatively small amounts
were released either as a result of volcanic activity (HF
can be detected in volcanic gases), coal burning, or the
slow leaching of fluoride into some waters.

most of the F. ...

Over the past 50 years, a variety of industries have

released into the atmosphere more than
25,000,000 tons of fluoride gases and particulates.

Dentists will argue, correctly, that mankind has always been

exposed to fluoride in the environment. We have also been
exposed to trace amounts of arsenic, lead, cadmium, and
background radiation. The human body can handle certain
levels of potentially harmful substances, there’s no doubt
about that. But, remember, there are ‘threshold levels’
above which the poison begins to harm the body or the way it
functions. Since each one of us is metabolically unique,
some people are more sensitive to fluoride than others.
Today, a significant proportion of the fluoride that enters
the human body is from modern man-made sources, and all the
indications are that you and your family are now being over-
exposed to what scientists in the Manhattan Project named –
the Devil’s Element.

You will have heard of fluoride. It’s the miracle ingredient

in your toothpaste, and the chemical they put in public
water supplies to prevent cavities in teeth.

You may have heard of hydrogen fluoride. It’s a common,

particularly dangerous but relatively unknown air pollutant
produced by the most powerful industries including: steel
mills, iron foundries, copper, zinc and aluminum smelters,
plastics manufacturers, fertilizer works, agro-chemical
factories, petro-chemical refineries, brick works, glass
factories, coal-burning power stations, and nuclear
processing plants. The use of unleaded gasoline puts more
fluoride into the air.

If health authorities were to set air pollution standards

for hydrogen fluoride which were harmless, then certain key
industries in our technologically-oriented society would
almost grind to a halt.

This dilemma led to the most bizarre conspiracy of modern

times in which captains of industry and national security
agencies combined to ruthlessly suppress evidence of the
dangers of hydrogen fluoride air pollution; and, cynically
used a healing profession – dentistry – to promote an
apparently beneficial image for fluoride.

The result is that we live in an increasingly ‘fluoridated’

world. The fluoride in water and toothpaste is potentially
harmful; the hydrogen fluoride in contaminated air far more
so. Each year, tens of thousands of tons of hydrogen
fluoride create an environmental hazard more threatening
than global warming or depletion of the ozone layer; and
hydrogen fluoride, which can be 1,000 times more harmful
than sulphur dioxide, is often a key, but rarely mentioned
component of ‘acid rain’.

Few people living in the developed countries of the world

can escape exposure to hydrogen fluoride (HF). Workers in
more than 60 occupations are now breathing HF-contaminated
air, and anyone living in the vicinity of the fluoride-
polluting industries is also at risk.

The World Health Organization has estimated that many

millions of people live in areas with air pollution problems
severe enough to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths
each year and leave many more chronically ill and disabled.

During this century three major air pollution disasters

emphasized the link between contaminated air, disaster and
death. These occurred in the Meuse Valley, Belgium, in 1930;
Donora, Pennsylvania in 1948, and London in 1952. The worst
began in London on Thursday, 4th December, and lasted three
days. During this period, 4,000 people in London died from
heart and lung disease.
Hydrogen fluoride was the chief
 killer in all three disasters.

At incredibly low concentrations HF can induce subtle
changes in enzyme activities, nerve action potentials and
host defence – the immune system.

Hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of just 0.1 parts per

billion in air can damage sensitive vegetation; at a
concentration of 1 part per billion it can devastate
vineyards and orchards. Of all air pollutants which affect
farm animals, hydrogen fluoride has caused the most severe
and widespread damage. Yet health authorities insist that
low-level long-term exposure to HF cannot harm human health!

If there is scientifically acceptable evidence to support
these claims about the hazards of HF, how on earth have
authorities managed to deceive people for so long? Why do we
hear so much about sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and
carbon monoxide, and so little about hydrogen fluoride?

Because most people have been ‘brain-washed’ into believing
that ‘fluoride’ is good for them. After all, it’s put into
water and toothpaste to prevent tooth decay. If you can
drink water containing 1 part per million fluoride, and use
toothpaste containing 1,000 parts per million fluoride, then
how could fluoride in air at a level of parts per billion be
harmful?

In other words, health authorities pretend that fluoride in
the air is the same as fluoride in drinking water and
toothpaste. They even present their measurements of hydrogen
fluoride in air as – fluoride. When describing water
fluoridation, the same tactic is used … sodium fluoride
and fluosilicic acid are described as “natural,” avoiding
the fact that in areas with “natural” fluoridation, the
compounds involved are not these toxic wastes of industry,
but a much less toxic compound of fluoride and calcium.

In the 1930’s scientists in Britain, Europe and the United

States knew that low levels of HF were harmful. Furthermore,
they had identified a visible symptom of chronic HF
poisoning.

Children who grew up near industries with fluoride-pollution
problems could develop ‘mottled’ teeth; so too could cattle
and sheep in the vicinity. The relationship between HF air
pollution and ‘mottled’ teeth was an obvious threat to the
Captains of Industry. They might argue whether it was
sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides or hydrogen fluoride that
was responsible for damage to crops and livestock, but no
other air pollutants caused mottled teeth.

In 1930 there were plenty of ‘mottled’ teeth amongst
children in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, headquarters of the
Aluminium Company of America, Alcoa. The head chemist of
Alcoa, H.V. Churchill, was given the job of ‘explaining’ the
‘mottled’ teeth in a way that would deflect attention away
from Alcoa’s fluoride air pollution problems.

Tooth decay is caused by bacteria – single-celled organisms,
which, like all cells – both enamel and vegetable – are
extremely sensitive to fluoride which, above certain
concentrations, is a potent poison.

The most common bacterium implicated in the
cause of caries is Streptococcus mutans. Levels of fluoride
above 20 partsper million are lethal to S. mutans;
levels as low as 0.19ppm fluoride can interfere with certain
essential metabolic enzymes in the bacterium; and
concentrations of fluoride between 4 and 20 ppm can
cause S. mutans to – mutate. In other words, fluoride
is an anti-microbial agent of great potency.

The development of a cavity in a tooth proceeds in the
following manner. S. mutans (or other cariogenic bacteria)
must first gain attachment to the tooth surface. Once
attached, and given a suitable food supply, the bacteria
thrive and multiply, producing colonies known as dental
plaque. Within the plaque, millions of microbes are consuming
carbohydrates and excreting dilute acids as waste products.
These acids begin to eat away – demineralize – the surface
 layers
of the tooth enamel. As a result, the enamel is broken down
into its component parts, which include,calcium, phosphate,
carbonate and trace amounts of fluoride
(which was incorporated into the enamel as it developed).

Gradually, the fluoride level in the plaque fluid builds up.
When it reaches 0.19 ppm the metabolism of the bacteria
slows down – less food is consumed and fewer acid wastes
produced. As the level rises above 4 ppm fluoride, the
‘mutation rate’ of the bacteria increases dramatically.
Finally, as the fluoride concentrations in the plaque rises
to lethal levels, the bacteria die. And, there may even be
some re-mineralization of the enamel.

Wonderful! A cavity has been prevented! But all this has
taken place on the surface of the [tooth] body, not inside it.

Of course fluoride is not the only element that can prevent
decay topically. Any potentially toxic element which can
become incorporated in tooth enamel, such as the bone-
seeking elements – radium, uranium, cadmium, lead and
strontium-90, will kill cariogenic bacteria as they are
released from enamel as a consequence of the de-mineralizing
effect of the microbes’ acid wastes.

Trace amounts of fluoride are present in bone mineral –
which is very similar to the mineral in tooth enamel.
However, there is a crucial difference between bone and
enamel. Once fully formed, tooth enamel is static – it
doesn’t undergo metabolic changes. Bone, on the other hand,
is constantly being remodelled. This involves ‘old’ bone
being resorbed and ‘new’ bone laid down. Cells called
osteocytes and osteoclasts dissolve the ‘old’ bone and
osteoblasts help form ‘new’ bone.

All bone contains some fluoride, and as old bone is
dissolved it is released into the vicinity of the resorbing
cells, and evolution has ensured that the bone cells can
withstand very low levels of fluoride.

But, just as the cariogenic bacteria can be harmed by the
excessive levels of fluoride, so too can bone cells and bone
marrow cells – which include the progenitors of immune
system cells.

The events described above explain the symptoms associated
with both dental and skeletal fluorosis; unfortunately they
also raise the spectre of bone cancer and leukemia.

As Dr. Frederick Exner noted: “If American Industry had to
stop polluting our air, water, and our countryside with
fluoride fumes and fall-out, and to dispose of its fluoride
wastes without creating a public hazard, it would cost, not
mere millions, but countless billions of dollars. and
therein lies the explanation for the utterly relentless
drive to fluoridate our water supplies by any means, fair or
foul, and many other puzzling aspects of the drive to
fluoridate.”

Because of the dental profession’s infatuation with fluoride,
tens of millions of people around the world have ‘mottled’
teeth caused by fluoridated drinking water, fluoridated dental
health products, or fluoride air pollution. The evidence is inescapable.

Although cosmetic dentistry can cover up the visible damage
to teeth, it is costly and highly profitable for dentists.
The dental profession’s longtime promotion of fluoride has
created a need for cosmetic dentistry – yet for years,
dentists argued that by pushing fluoride they would be
putting themselves out of business!

Well, guess what … the litigation has now begun.

And once a jury accepts that fluoride can harm developing
teeth, the next obvious question will be: If fluoride can
damage tooth cells, what other cells and tissues in the
human body are being harmed?

The flood-gates will open. Over the next decade it is
conceivable that in North America, Britain and Australia, at
least fifteen million people will be seeking damages for
‘mottled’ teeth – from toothpaste manufacturers, dentists,
and local authorities who permitted fluoridation. A lot of
money will be involved; even at $10,000 per person, a pretty
modest sum these days, we are talking about $150 BILLION.

Are you beginning to get the picture? The dental profession,
federal and state health authorities, and certain important
industries, CANNOT admit, after 50 years, that fluoride has
been damaging human health; the consequences are
unthinkable.

REFERENCES:

Smith G.E., The Secret War and the Fluoride Conspiracy,
Epeius Publishing Associates, 2 Edna Street, Frankston,
Victoria, Australia 3199, 1997.

Diesendorf, M., et. al., New evidence on fluoridation,
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health,
21(2):187-190, May 1997.

Colgate pays out for teeth ruined by fluoride, by Linda
Jackson, The Sunday Telegraph, November 24, 1996.
China takes a deep breath, U.S. News & World Report,
September 9, 1996, page 36.

Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride, Subcommittee on Health
Effects of Ingested Fluoride, Committee on Toxicology, Board
on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Commission on Life
Sciences, National Research Council, August 1993.

Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and
Fluorine (F), (April 1993), U.S. Dept. Health and Human
Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

Review of Fluoride Benefits and Risks, Department of Health
and Human Services, February 1991.
Stannard, et al, Fluoride levels and fluoride contamination
of fruit juices, Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, v
16(1) 1991.

Susheela, A.K., Fluorosis — Early Warning Signs and
Diagnostic Test, Bulletin of the Nutrition Foundation of
India, 10:2, April 1989.

Fluoridation of Water, Special report by Bette Hileman,
Chemical & Engineering News-August 1, 1988.

Smith G.E., Fluoride and Fluoridation. Soc.Sci.Med., 26,
(4), 451-462, 1988.

Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition –Fifth
Edition, Edited by Walter Mertz, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture,
Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition
Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland, 1987.

Zimmerman, Norman, Ph.D., J.D., Senior Toxicologist, Toxic
Substance Control Commission (Michigan), The Need for the
Determination of the Extent of Total Fluoride Exposure in
Community Assessment of the Value of Water Fluoridation, May
1981.

Harold C. Hodge, Ph.D., The Safety of Fluoride Tablets or
Drops, Continuing Evaluation of the Use of Fluorides,
chapter 11, AAAS Symposium, Boulder, CO, Westview Press,
1979.

Curzon & Specter, An Association Between Strontium in
Drinking Water Supplies & Low Caries Prevalence in Man,
Archives of Oral Biology 23:317-321, 1978.

Erickson, J. David, Mortality in Selected Cities With
Fluoridated and Non- Fluoridated Water, New England Journal
of Medicine, May 1978.

Drinking Water and Health, Safe Drinking Water Committee,
National Academy of Sciences, NAS/NRC, 1977.

National Research Council of Canada (NRCC No. 16081),
Associate Committee On Scientific Criteria for Environmental
Quality, Environmental Fluoride 1977.

Prival and Fisher, Adding Fluorides To The Diet,
Environment, 16:29-33, 1974.

Air Pollutants Affecting The Performance of Domestic
Animals, U.S.D.A. Handbook #380, 1972.

Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants FLUORIDES,
Committee on Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants,
Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council,
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1971.

World Health Organization, International Drinking Water
Standards, 1971.

World Health Organization, Fluorides and Human Health, 1970,
p. 32- 239-240.

Radiological Aspects of A New Type of Bone Fluorosis, ,
Periostitis Deformans, Radiology 87:1089-1094, 1968.

Sievers, Maurice L., Disease Patterns Among Southwestern
Indians, Public Health Reports 81:1082, 1966.

The Fluoride Content of Some Foods and Beverages, Journal of
Food Science 31:941,1966.

Endemic Fluorosis, Medicine 42:229, 1963.

Pathologic Studies in Man After Prolonged Ingestion of
Fluoride in Drinking Water, Public Health Reports 73:721-
723, 1958.

The problem of providing optimum fluoride intake for
prevention of dental caries, Food and nutrition Board,
Division of Biology and Agriculture, National Academy of
Sciences, National Research Council, Pub. #294, November
1953.

Kidney Function & Structure In Chronic Fluorosis, British
Journal Experimental Pathology 33:168, 1952.

Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Fluoridation of Water
Supplies, Division of Medical Sciences, National Research
Council, Nov. 29, 1951.

McClure, Frank J., Non Dental Physiological Effects of Trace
Quantities of Fluorine, Journal American College of
Dentists, vol 12, p. 50, 1945.

Linsman, Crawford & McMurray, Fluoride Osteosclerosis from
Drinking Water, (Case report) Radiology, 40:474 May, 1943
(see erratum, June)

Dean, H. Trendley, Endemic Dental Fluorosis or Mottled
Enamel, Journal American Dental Association, 30:1278, 1943.

McClure, Frank J., Ingestion of fluoride and dental caries –
-quantitative relations based on food and water requirements
of children 1 to 12 years old, American Journal Diseases of
Children, 66:362, 1943.

Fluorides in Food and Drinking Water, National Institutes of
Health Bulletin, 1939.

Removing Stains From Mottled Enamel, Journal American Dental
Association,1937.

Roholm, Kaj, Fluorine Intoxication: A Clinical-Hygienic
Study With a Review of the Literature and Some Experimental
Investigations, 1935, Translated by W.E. Calvert., published
by H.K. Lewis & Co., Ltd., (London) 1937.

Dean, H. Trendley, Some Epidemiological Aspects of Chronic
Endemic Dental Fluorosis, American Journal of Public Health,
26:567, 1936

“It is difficult to get a man to understand something
when his salary depends on his not understanding it”
- Upton Sinclair -

         See also on this web site: 

THE SECRET WAR – FLUORIDE POLLUTION – Dr. Geoffrey E. Smith

❝  A handful of dentists in the various States have advised Health Ministers that fluoridation is universally safe. But dentists’ expertise is limited to areas of the mouth, specifically the teeth and gums; they know nothing of what can happen to fluoride in other parts of the body, and most of them couldn’t care less…

Anyone who looks at the original evidence would be appalled, because it is shoddy, superficial and inadequate. However, dentists have said fluoridation is safe and they can’t go back on that; too many of them would be left with egg on their faces. Additionally, there is the growing fear of litigation… Politicians don’t like having to repeal laws they themselves introduced; and Professors of Dentistry don’t fancy losing their reputations!” Dr. Geoffrey E. Smith. 1983  

About Dr. Smith

Dr Geoffrey Ernest Smith, L.D.S., R.C.S. (Eng.)

Dental Surgeon, (retired)

Curriculum Vitae:

1        Born: 1 November 1932, Married, 5 children, 4 grandchildren.

2        Educated: Lawrence House School, St. Annes on Sea, Lancashire.

Rossall School, Fleetwood, Lancashire. University of Manchester,

Turner Dental School.

3        1956: Qualified L.D.S., R.C.S. Royal College of Surgeons. (England).

4        1957-59 Post-Graduate Studies. Queens University, Belfast.

5        1959-60 Travelling Fellowship, UK Medical Research Council;

WHO Regional Office, Brazzaville. Based University of Ibaden W. Nigeria.

Field work: Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Liberia.

6        1961-68 General Dental Practice, London and Dublin.

7        1965-66 Consultant, Aspro-Nicholas, Ireland, Ltd., Dublin.

8        1969-71 Consultant, Glaxo Group Ltd., London.

9        1972-74 Consultant, PIA Ltd., Lopex Group, London, New York.

10       1974-76 Consultant, Nicholas International, Slough & Melbourne.

11       1976-79 General Dental Practice and School Dentistry, Melbourne.

12       1979-80 Hospital Dentist, Proserpine, North Queensland.

13       1987-88 Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Melbourne.

14       1980 – Consultant, Environmental and Public Health.

SOME RELEVANT PAPERS IN THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

1        NZ Med.J. 1983;96, 1067-1068.

2        Persp. Biol.Med. 1986 29, 560-

3        New Scientist 1983;5 May 286-287

4        Trends.Pharm.Sci.1986, 7, 10

5        Fluoride, 1983, Editorial, Autumn.

6        Sci.Tot.Environ. 1987, 63, 1-11.

7        Aust.Dent.J. 1984, 29, 199-200.

8        Endeavour, 1987, 11, 16-

9       J.R.Coll Gen.Pract.1984, 34, 350-351.

10       Sci.Prog.(Oxf.), 1987, 71, 23

11       Xenobiotica, 1985, 15, 177-186.

12       The Scientist, 1987, 1, 24.

13       Sci.Prog.(Oxf.), 1985, 69, 429-442.

14       Sci.Tot.Env., 1988, 68, 79-86.

15       Sci.Tot.Env. 1985, 43, 41-61.

16      NZ Med.J. 1985, 90, 556-557.

17       NZ Med.J. 1985, 98, 454-455.

18       Pers.Biol.Med. 1988, 31, 440-45

19      NZ Med.J. 1988, 100, 669-670.

20      Sci.Tot.Env., 1988, 76, 167-

21       New Scientist, 1985, 1467-, 50-51.

22       NZ Med.J. 1988, 101, 802.

23       NZ Med.l. 1985, 30, 232-233.

24      Med.Hypoth., 1986, 19, 139-

25       Med.J.Aust., 1985, 143, 283-286.

26      Mutat.Res., 1990, 241, 339-

27       Med.J.Aust., 1986, 144, 152.

28      Fusso Kenkyo, 1990, 11, 38-48

29       Lawyer, 1986, 4(3), 6. (Japanese)

30      Fluoride, 1986, 19, 105-107.

31       Probe, 1989, 31, 1-2.

32      Nature 1986; 323, 198.

22       NZ Med.J. 1988, 101, 802.

23       NZ Med.l. 1985, 30, 232-233.

24      Med.Hypoth., 1986, 19, 139-

25       Med.J.Aust., 1985, 143, 283-286.

26      Mutat.Res., 1990, 241, 339-

27       Med.J.Aust., 1986, 144, 152.

28      Fusso Kenkyo, 1990, 11, 38-48

29       Lawyer, 1986, 4(3), 6. (Japanese)

30      Fluoride, 1986, 19, 105-107.

31       Probe, 1989, 31, 1-2.

32      Nature 1986; 323, 198.

33      Aust. Dent.J., 1985, 30, 232-233         

paper money image

The Control of Dental Caries:

Can Vaccines Prevent Cavities?

G. E. Smith

Abstract:

Essentially, responsibility for developing and implementing measures designed to control dental caries should rest with the dental profession. Many of the most effective ways of controlling caries, however, involve the use of fluoride. Either systemically via fluoridated water and tablets or, topically, with fluoride-containing toothpaste and mouthrinses. Scientists in many disciplines are aware that fluorides can, in certain circumstances, endanger the environment. There is some evidence that fluoride contamination of the total environment has increased in recent years. The usefulness of fluoride as a caries preventive does not mean that unnecessary exposure to the element should be tolerated. It is conceivable that fluoride is approaching the limits of its effectiveness as a caries preventive. With this possibility in mind, recent research directed toward the development of safe, effective anti-tooth decay vaccines has been reviewed.

      Editor’s note:

‘The Secret War’ was originally prepared as a personal submission to

 Brisbane City Council’s Task Force on Fluoridation, March 1997

He made two submissions

—  A Short Good Read  —

THE SECRET WAR – FLUORIDE POLLUTION – Dr. Geoffrey E. Smith

F. hoax -Smith

❝  A handful of dentists in the various States have advised Health Ministers that fluoridation is universally safe. But dentists’ expertise is limited to areas of the mouth, specifically the teeth and gums; they know nothing of what can happen to fluoride in other parts of the body, and most of them couldn’t care less…

Anyone who looks at the original evidence would be appalled, because it is shoddy, superficial and inadequate. However, dentists have said fluoridation is safe and they can’t go back on that; too many of them would be left with egg on their faces. Additionally, there is the growing fear of litigation… Politicians don’t like having to repeal laws they themselves introduced; and Professors of Dentistry don’t fancy losing their reputations!” Dr. Geoffrey E. Smith. 1983

About Dr. Smith

Dr Geoffrey Ernest Smith, L.D.S., R.C.S. (Eng.)
Dental Surgeon, (retired)

Curriculum Vitae:

1        Born: 1 November 1932, Married, 5 children, 4 grandchildren.

2        Educated: Lawrence House School, St. Annes on Sea, Lancashire.

Rossall School, Fleetwood, Lancashire. University of Manchester,

Turner Dental School.

3        1956: Qualified L.D.S., R.C.S. Royal College of Surgeons. (England).

4        1957-59 Post-Graduate Studies. Queens University, Belfast.

5        1959-60 Travelling Fellowship, UK Medical Research Council;

WHO Regional Office, Brazzaville. Based University of Ibaden W. Nigeria.

Field work: Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gambia and Liberia.

6        1961-68 General Dental Practice, London and Dublin.

7        1965-66 Consultant, Aspro-Nicholas, Ireland, Ltd., Dublin.

8        1969-71 Consultant, Glaxo Group Ltd., London.

9        1972-74 Consultant, PIA Ltd., Lopex Group, London, New York.

10       1974-76 Consultant, Nicholas International, Slough & Melbourne.

11       1976-79 General Dental Practice and School Dentistry, Melbourne.

12       1979-80 Hospital Dentist, Proserpine, North Queensland.

13       1987-88 Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Melbourne.

14       1980 – Consultant, Environmental and Public Health.

SOME RELEVANT PAPERS IN THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

1        NZ Med.J. 1983;96, 1067-1068.

2        Persp. Biol.Med. 1986 29, 560-

3        New Scientist 1983;5 May 286-287

4        Trends.Pharm.Sci.1986, 7, 10

5        Fluoride, 1983, Editorial, Autumn.

6        Sci.Tot.Environ. 1987, 63, 1-11.

7        Aust.Dent.J. 1984, 29, 199-200.

8        Endeavour, 1987, 11, 16-

9       J.R.Coll Gen.Pract.1984, 34, 350-351.

10       Sci.Prog.(Oxf.), 1987, 71, 23

11       Xenobiotica, 1985, 15, 177-186.

12       The Scientist, 1987, 1, 24.

13       Sci.Prog.(Oxf.), 1985, 69, 429-442.

14       Sci.Tot.Env., 1988, 68, 79-86.

15       Sci.Tot.Env. 1985, 43, 41-61.

16      NZ Med.J. 1985, 90, 556-557.

17       NZ Med.J. 1985, 98, 454-455.

18       Pers.Biol.Med. 1988, 31, 440-45

19      NZ Med.J. 1988, 100, 669-670.

20      Sci.Tot.Env., 1988, 76, 167-

21       New Scientist, 1985, 1467-, 50-51.

22       NZ Med.J. 1988, 101, 802.

23       NZ Med.l. 1985, 30, 232-233.

24      Med.Hypoth., 1986, 19, 139-

25       Med.J.Aust., 1985, 143, 283-286.

26      Mutat.Res., 1990, 241, 339-

27       Med.J.Aust., 1986, 144, 152.

28      Fusso Kenkyo, 1990, 11, 38-48

29       Lawyer, 1986, 4(3), 6. (Japanese)

30      Fluoride, 1986, 19, 105-107.

31       Probe, 1989, 31, 1-2.

32      Nature 1986; 323, 198.

22       NZ Med.J. 1988, 101, 802.

23       NZ Med.l. 1985, 30, 232-233.

24      Med.Hypoth., 1986, 19, 139-

25       Med.J.Aust., 1985, 143, 283-286.

26      Mutat.Res., 1990, 241, 339-

27       Med.J.Aust., 1986, 144, 152.

28      Fusso Kenkyo, 1990, 11, 38-48

29       Lawyer, 1986, 4(3), 6. (Japanese)

30      Fluoride, 1986, 19, 105-107.

31       Probe, 1989, 31, 1-2.

32      Nature 1986; 323, 198.

33      Aust. Dent.J., 1985, 30, 232-233

Extract from

THE CONTROL OF DENTAL CARIES:

CAN VACCINES PREVENT CAVITIES?

 by G.E. SMITH

Abstract:

Essentially, responsibility for developing and implementing measures designed to control dental caries should rest with the dental profession. Many of the most effective ways of controlling caries, however, involve the use of fluoride. Either systemically via fluoridated water and tablets or, topically, with fluoride-containing toothpaste and mouth rinses. Scientists in many disciplines are aware that fluorides can, in certain circumstances, endanger the environment. There is some evidence that fluoride contamination of the total environment has increased in recent years. The usefulness of fluoride as a caries preventive does not mean that unnecessary exposure to the element should be tolerated. It is conceivable that fluoride is approaching the limits of its effectiveness as a caries preventive. With this possibility in mind, recent research directed toward the development of safe, effective anti-tooth decay vaccines has been reviewed.

        Editor’s note:

‘The Secret War’ was originally prepared as a personal submission to

 Brisbane City Council’s Task Force on FluoridationMarch 1997

He made two submissions.

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