Assorted papers from around the globe.


… Neuro-degeneration was clearly evident in the hippocampus,
neocortex, cerebellum, spinal cord and sciatic
nerve on fluoride exposure …



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Neurodegenerative changes in different regions of brain, spinal

cord and sciatic nerve of rats treated with sodium fluoride.

P. Yugandhar Reddy1,  K Pratap Reddy1,  K. Praveen Kumar1

1 Department of Zoology, University College of Sciences, 

Osmania University,  Hyderabad 500 007,

Andhra Pradesh,  INDIA

 January 2011


Fluoride is known to cross the blood-brain barrier and alter the structure and function of neural tissue. There are few authoritative reports on neurodegenerative changes in hippocampus, neocortex, cerebellum, spinal cord and sciatic nerve in fluoride intoxication.
We report the alte-rations in the structure of neuronal tissue 
after chronic administration of sodium fluoride (for 60 days) to rats.

Twelve male Wistar rats were divided equally into two groups: one group received 20 ppm of sodium fluoride (NaF) and the other group (which served as a control) received tap water for 60days. The body weights and organic somatic index of brain in the sodium fluoride treated animals were significantly reduced, relative to the control group. Tissue fluoride levels of hippocampus, neocortex, cerebellum, spinal cord and sciatic nerve, all increased significantly in fluoride treated rats. Electron microscopy of the hippocampus, neocortex, cere-bellum, spinal cord and sciatic nerve showed neurodegenerative changes in the NaF treated group compared to controls. Axon deterioration, myelin sheath degeneration and dark cells with scanty cytop-lasm were observed in spinal cord and sciatic nerve in the treated group. Other distinctive morphological alterations observed were: vacuolated swollen mitochondria in neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum; myelinated fibers with breaks in continuity (axon partly preserved and partly vacuolated) in hippocampus; myelin splitting and vacuolated schwann cell within the cerebellum and sciatic nerve respectively. Thus, neurodegeneration was clearly evident in the hippocampus, neocortex, cerebellum, spinal cord and sciatic nerve on fluoride exposure.

Key words: sciatic nerve,  cerebellum,  sodium fluoride,  hippocampus,

   transmission electron microscope ©

2011 Deccan College of Medical Sciences.

All rights reserved




Rats manufacture Vitamin C, in their livers, which gives them

some protection from fluoride damage. Human livers

do not have this function, therefore on poor diets

over many years, on lower doses of fluoride

humans will suffer more than rats…






Air pollution caused more than 1.2 million premature deaths
in China in just one year

Pollution - China

Fluoride Vol. 37 No. 2 125–132 2004 Research Report 125


Daishe Wu,a,b,c Baoshan Zheng,a Xiuyi Tang,d Shehong Li, a Binbin Wang,

a Mingshi Wang,a,b Guiyang, China  



31 JULY 2013

Written by Aviva Shen

     China’s air pollution levels have reached dire levels, even breaking the upper limits of the Air Quality Index earlier this year. In a sign the government is serious about tackling this crisis. The China Daily announced Thursday that China will spend $275 billion over the next five years to reduce emissions and launch anti-pollution programs.

The funds, which exceed the total economic output of Hong Kong last year, will target emissions in the densely populated area surrounding Beijing, where residents have suffered through off-the-charts pollution and all its accompanying illnesses. Air pollution caused more than 1.2 million premature deaths in China in just one year, while some Beijing schools are building air-purified domes over playgrounds so children can play “outside” safely. Anti-pollution protests have grown more and more prevalent all over the country.

These unsustainable conditions are directly linked to China’s rapid industrialization. Most of Beijing’s pollution stems from factories and power plants outside the city. China’s coal production has tripled in the past ten years as the nation’s energy consumption has exploded. The Chinese government, up til this year, has aggressively encouraged economic growth at the expense of the environment and public health.

But now that the environmental repercussions cannot be ignored, the government has done a hard about-face. New promised anti-pollution measures include speedy installation of pollution control equipment on coal-fuelled refineries, restrictions on high energy consumption industries like steel, cement and glass, and use legal action to force industries to upgrade their emissions standards.

Before Thursday’s announcement, China had already pledged $16 billion to specifically help Beijing build and update sewage and garbage treatment, plant new forests and curb illegal construction.

The nation also invested twice as much as the U.S. in clean energy projects last year.

This post was originally published at ClimateProgress.

Read more:

See also: 


 106 Fluoride Vol. 36 No. 2 106-112 2003 Research Report

For Correspondence: Prof Wuyi Wang, Institute of

Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources

Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences,

Beijing 100101, China. E-mail:




Yonghua Li, Wuyi Wang, a Linsheng Yang, Hairong Li

Beijing, China

SUMMARY:  Data on coal-burning endemic fluorosis throughout China and on the exposure-response relationship between concentrations of fluoride determined in coal samples and the prevalence of dental fluorosis reported from 17 representative surveillance stations in Southwest China were used to estimate the safety threshold for coal fluoride. Coal-burning endemic fluorosis occurs mainly in the mountainous areas of this part of China, where the prevalence of the disease is closely linked to geochemical parameters of the local environment. In these regions the incidence of dental fluorosis has a significant positive correlation with the concentration of fluoride in coal. The safety threshold of coal fluoride is estimated to be 190 mg/kg by the criterion of 0% incidence of dental fluorosis.

Keywords: China; Coal fluoride; Endemic fluorosis; Safety threshold.


     Fluorine (F), the most electronegative and reactive of the halogens, is a common chemical element in the earth’s crust in combined form. F concentrations in rocks and soils are well documented, but data on the F concentration in coal are relatively limited.

1-4 Swaine reported the total F concentration in coal ranges from 20 to 500 mg/kg.

5 Statistical data indicate that the mean concentration of F in coal worldwide is 80 mg/kg, but in China it is 200 mg/kg.

6 In the mountainous areas of Southwest China, it is even higher— up to 3106 mg/kg in local coal.

7 Fluoride in coal can be released into the ambient environment as atmospheric F, waterborne F, and residue F during mining, handling, and combustion.

6-8 In Southwest China, F

See also↓

End line

The Chinese have some coal for power stations. 

Queensland’s coking coal, also known as metallurgical coal
is needed by them to make steel.
Not very easy to do with steaming coal or solar power!

Coking Coal 
Coking coal, also known as metallurgical coal, has low sulphur and phosphorus content and can withstand high heat.
Coking coal is fed into ovens and subjected to oxygen-free pyrolysis, a process that heats the coal to approximately 1,100 degrees Celsius, melting it and driving off any volatile compounds and impurities to leave pure carbon. The hot, purified, liquefied carbon solidifies into lumps called “coke” that can be fed into a blast furnace along with iron ore and limestone to produce steel.

Steam Coal
Steam coal also known as thermal coal, is suitable for electric power production.
Steam coal is ground into a fine powder that burns quickly at high heats and is used in power plants to heat water in boilers that run steam turbines. These need to have Scrubbers on the smoke stacks.










In the township Xinyuan, we examined 250 schoolchildren, aged 7-14 years.
The goiter prevalence was 91% and dental fluorosis 20.80%.
The average level of iodine in drinking water was 5.21 mg/l,
and that of fluoride 0.88 mg/l.




Lin Fa-Fu, Aihaiti, Zhao Hong-Xin,

Lin Jin, Jiang Ji-Yong, Maimaiti, and Aiken.


… Xinjiang Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Research; Office of Leading Group for Endemic Disease Control of Hetian Prefectural Committee of the Communist Party of China; and County Health and Epidemic Prevention Station, Yutian, Xinjiang. Cretinism in iodine-deficiency areas is well known, yet the milder forms of somatic and psychomotor maldevelopment and thyroid dysfunction caused by iodine deficiency may be more difficult to detect. DeQuervain, in 1936, called this milder form “semi-cretinism,” while in 1980 Laggasse used the term “cretinoidism.” It was formally named “subclinical endemic cretinism” at a symposium on subclinical cretinism held in Xinzhou, Shanxi province in 1985.

Currently, attention is being focused on these disorders in China and abroad.

The Hetian prefecture in Xinjiang has reportedly been one of the Asian

areas most severely affected by iodine deficiency disorders (IDD).

During the period 1987-1989, we made a systematic survey of

subclinical endemic cretinism in this district under

a UNICEF aid Project.


General conditions and selection of affected areas – The entire region of Xinjiang in central Eurasia is affected by iodine deficiency. The study area, located between the southern border of Tarim basin and the northern slope of Kunlun Mountains, is arid with sandy soil and an annual precipitation less than 50 mm. The cultivated alluvial plain extends from south to north with a steepening gradient. The geographical distributions of endemic goiter and endemic fluorosis are characterized by marked vertical zones. The inhabitants are of lower socioeconomic status, with an annual mean income of about 200 yuan (RMB) per person.

Area with high fluoride and low iodine levels (Area A) – In the township Xinyuan in the lower reaches of Kliya river in the county of Yutian, north of the highway, we examined 250 schoolchildren, aged 7-14 years. The goiter prevalence was 91% and dental fluorosis 20.80%. The average level of iodine in drinking water was 5.21 mg/l, and that of fluoride 0.88 mg/l.

Area with low iodine level (area B) – In the townships of Langan and Jiayi in the alluvial plain before the mountains and to the south of the highway, we examined 256 schoolchildren, aged 7-14 years. The goiter prevalence was 82% and dental fluorosis of 16.00%. The average water iodine level was 0.96 mg/l and that of fluoride 0.34 mg/l. ...

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M&F Cretins f


Image of 3 Cretins copy

More info on iodine → HERE

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  Iodine and IQ f  


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Newsweek 24 Feb.2015

  Water fluoridation in England linked to higher rates of under-active thyroid  

See also 

Iodine Awareness Week –
Antimicrobial Resistance Emergency







The radiative forcing of climate change associated with

emissions of SO2F2 depends critically on the
atmospheric lifetime of SO2F2.


The use of the fluoride-containing pesticide, sulfuryl fluoride as a food fumigant (trade name ProFume ®) as well as the fluoridation of drinking water, also contribute to the release of fluoride from anthropogenic sources. Based on available data, phosphate ore production and use, as well as aluminium manufacture are the major industrial sources of fluoride release into the environment.

Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) is a radiatively active industrial chemical released into the atmosphere in significant (ktonne/year) quantities. The potential for SO2F2 to contribute to radiative forcing of climate change needs to be assessed.  Long path length FTIR/smog chamber techniques were used to investigate the kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O3 with SO2F2, in 700 Torr total pressure of air or N2 at 296 ± 1 K. Upper limits of k(Cl + SO2F2) < 9 × 10−19, k(OH + SO2F2) < 1.7 × 10−14 and k(O3 + SO2F2) < 5.5 × 10−24 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 were determined. Reaction with Cl atoms, OH radicals, or O3 does not provide an efficient removal mechanism for SO2F2. The infrared spectrum of SO2F2 is reported and a radiative efficiency of 0.196 W m−2 ppbv−1 was calculated. Historic production data estimates are presented which provide an upper limit for expected atmospheric concentrations. The radiative forcing of climate change associated with emissions of SO2F2 depends critically on the atmospheric lifetime of SO2F2.

Further research is urgently3 + SO2F2) < 5.5 × 10−24 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 were determined. Reaction with Cl atoms, OH radicals, or O3 does not provide an efficient removal mechanism for SO2F2. The infrared spectrum of SO2F2 is reported and a radiative efficiency of 0.196 W m−2 ppbv−1 was calculated. Historic production data estimates are presented which provide an upper limit for expected atmospheric concentrations.

The radiative forcing of climate change associated with emissions of SO2F2 depends critically on the atmospheric lifetime of SO2F2.

Further research is urgently needed to define the magnitude of potential non-atmospheric sinks.

See also →
 Aust. Defence Bases Contaminated With PFOA (Fluoride)






Hydrofluoric Acid Leak – Hube Global Chemical Plant-South Korea

 This fluoride accident was under reported!



7  October 2012


Fluoride Accident South Korea

↓ This Video runs for 65 seconds 

  Hydrogen Fluoride kills 5   

↑ Warning, disturbing short video ↑

Vit.c strip

An estimated 8 tons of HF was released.

5 people including the 2 workers perished,

18 responders, workers, reporter wound-up in the hospital,

 almost 3000 villagers from 2 villages downwind of the

facility were treated for irritation, exposure.

damage related to the leak that totaled some $8.5 million

     Five workers were killed and 18 others were injured in the blast at chemical maker Hube Global at the Gumi National Industrial Complex in the industrial city, about 200 kilometers southeast of Seoul.
The gas leak has cost factories in the industrial complex about 17.7 billion won (US$15.9 million) in lost production, officials said. Hundreds of angry villagers in Gumi who suffered after the massive gas leak moved to a safer region with some residents reporting blood in their saliva. About 110 elderly people in Bongsan-ri village evacuated to a facility about 10 kilometers away.

More than six weeks after eight tonnes of hydrofluoric acid was accidentally released at a chemical plant in South Korea, many of the thousands of local residents who fled the area at the time have reportedly not yet returned to their homes despite assurances from authorities that the area is now safe.

The highly toxic hydrofluoric acid was released on 27 September at the Hube Global chemical plant in Gumi, about 200km from Seoul. The leak killed five workers at the plant and severely injured at least 18 others, including workers and emergency personnel. The plant is reportedly still idle after the accident with no date yet set for resuming operations.

Hydrofluoric acid is used to produce chemical precursors for the pharmaceutical industry and has other industrial applications. Highly corrosive and an acute poison, exposure can cause death and serious damage to the skin, lungs, heart, bones and nervous system.

Initial press reports at the time of the accident said more than 3000 people in villages and farms downwind of the accident inhaled fumes and required emergency treatment for health complaints, including nausea, chest pain, rashes and sore eyes. The accident also contaminated crops and sickened livestock. Around 80 other firms in the area were affected, with damages estimated at more than $20 million (£12.5 million).

The initial government response to the accident, including possible mistakes by firefighters, and a sluggish evacuation of nearby residents, was sharply criticized in the Korean media. The government later acknowledged the severity of the incident on 8 October by designating the area around the plant a ‘special disaster zone’. Since then, additional information about the aftermath of the accident has slowed to a trickle.

Afraid to return home

A recent local news report says that government officials have declared that hydrofluoric acid concentrations in the air, water and soil in the affected area have dropped to levels that are no longer harmful. But the report adds that most residents are still afraid to return to their homes.

Vladimir Sakharov, director of the environmental emergencies preparedness programme at Geneva-based Green Cross Internationaltells Chemistry World that it is possible that hydrofluoric acid concentrations are now below dangerous levels. ‘If the spill was treated with neutralizing substances, normally, the situation should be under control after more than a month,’ he says.

Sakharov adds: ‘Depending on the specifics of the response operations and local conditions, soil may become polluted by fluorides, which are strongly retained by soil components. Then, fluorides may accumulate in plants. To what extent soil is polluted by fluorides and whether it is safe to resume agricultural activities, could be determined by chemical and Eco toxicological analyses and tests.’

The commercial area in Gumi where the accident occurred was originally developed with the goal of attracting high-tech firms. But when high-tech demand failed to materialize, zoning regulations were eased to allow other industries in. In 2008, Hube Global, a South Korean-Chinese joint venture headquartered in Seoul, opened the ill-fated plant to supply raw materials to the electronics, chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biotech sectors.

Human error

Police investigating the accident said that the hydrofluoric acid spill may have been caused by human error as two workers were unloading the chemical from a delivery tanker. A closed circuit security video camera recorded the two workers on top of the tanker, both without protective gear. They were connecting an air hose to a valve in the tanker in order to force the chemical out under high pressure. The video shows white vapour erupting at high pressure from the tanker, engulfing the workers.

Police have said the workers were trying to save time and did not follow proper safety procedures. Prosecutors plan to indict three Hube Global executives.

Firefighters who initially responded to the Hube Global accident were not apparently fully briefed on the risks of hydrofluoric acid, according to some reports. The first to arrive on the scene wore typical firefighting garments and masks – inadequate protection against hydrofluoric acid fumes. Firefighters also spread the hydrofluoric acid further by spraying water on it. At the time of the accident, neither the Gumi city government nor the Hube Global plant had supplies of slaked lime, an agent used to neutralize the acid. Slaked lime was not deployed at the accident scene until the day after the leak.

‘I am sure that RoK (Republic of Korea) specialists and scientists know what and how to respond from now on in,’ Sakharov says.

‘I would urge openness and transparency from RoK authorities, so this could benefit the entire international community.

Lessons from this environmental emergency would be extremely valuable for all countries: what exactly happened, what was done, what went well and what did not work, positive and negative results, achievements and shortcomings, how to prevent such accidents and be better prepared in the future?’

South Korea today began evacuating people from a village near Gumi, where eight tons of hydrofluoric acid leaked out of the city’s Hube Global’s chemical factory on September 27, according to Agence France-Press.

More from GlobalPost: North Korea soldier defects to South Korea across DMZ

(Note: this article has been changed to reflect it was hydrofluoric acid that spilled, not hydrocloric as initially reported by AFP.)

Several dozen villagers were taken to a temporary shelter today, and officials said the rest of Bongsan-ri village’s 300 residents will be moved in later stages. 

The move comes a day after the government launched a three-day probe into the leak amid mounting concerns that it has compromised the health of hundreds, issuing a statement saying authorities may designate “the affected region a special disaster zone,” according to Agence-France Press

Health officials said at least 600 people have so far been treated for health complications caused by the leak, said AFP. The spill was triggered by an accidental explosion that killed five people at the plant.

Hydrofluroric acid is capable of penetrating human tissue and is considered extremely dangerous.

But residents of the area say the government has been slow to respond to health concerns. Today’s relocation came hours after villagers held a meeting to demand they be removed from the region. 

Local leader Park Myung-seok told AFP he and other villagers had “decided to relocate by ourselves as the government is doing nothing for us.”

Residents of another nearby village, Imcheon-ri, are also reportedly calling for relocation. 

Gomi’s disaster management office today said 73 companies have reported
property damage related to the leak that totaled some $8.5 million,
said AFP. A large amount of farmland was also affected. 







Industry and these government agencies have been largely
successful in obscuring the facts. This has been brought
about by authoritarian endorsement and opinion,
by making claims unsupported by valid
science, and by repetition…



How We Got Fluoridated

by Philip Heggen  …  April 1999

Throughout the world, and from the beginning, virtually all living creatures have been exposed to fluoride.
It’s nothing new. Fluoride is one of the most abundant elements in the earth’s crust [and Mars] – cumulative and toxic to all forms of life at remarkably low dosage.

Sixty years ago U.S. dental researchers had identified areas in sixteen states where disfiguring mottled enamel was a serious problem. Thirty years ago, the World Health Organization had noted that high concentrations of fluoride are found in areas of every continent and that dental fluorosis is a problem from Finland to South Africa and from England to Japan.

But fluoride affects more than just developing teeth. Even dinosaurs have ingested water and vegetation contaminated by fluoride from volcanic gases and ash – and suffered the consequence in terms of painful arthritic effects.

Industrial mining and manufacturing, like mini-volcanoes, bring up fluorides from the earth into the biosphere, with similar effects on human communities. In the past century or so, man has spawned these “mini-volcanoes” without fully understanding the consequences. Modern well-drilling equipment has provided much needed water from deep within the earth – and this, too, has resulted in fluoride poisoning. This has not been a conspiracy in the usual sense of the word … but rather, a colossal blunder.

“The problem is enormous, unbelievable,” says Andezhath Susheela of the Fluorosis Research and Rural Development Foundation in Delhi, India. She has been unraveling the national story for a decade during which time her estimate of the number of people leading “a painful and crippled life” from fluorosis has risen from one million to 25 million and now to 60 million – six million of them children – spread across tens of thousands of communities. “In some villages three-quarters of the population are seriously affected.”

This paper is a chronicle and overview spanning the history of modern industry. It shows the rise of fluoride pollution and how economic motives have overridden concerns for human health. We take you back to the early metal refinery pollution in Europe and show the record of lawsuits for fluoride damage. This reveals the basis for American industry’s fear of being shut down by lawsuits. We also document the steps taken by industry to divert public attention away from fluoride air pollution. This chronicle shows that the origin of water fluoridation is in these fluoride fears of industry – not in concern for children’s teeth.

During the 1940s, the development of the atom bomb required handling huge amounts of fluoride in the production of nuclear weapons. Documented here is a major safety study by the Atomic Energy Commission. As a result of this extensive study, the federal government became involved in the suppression of information about fluoride poisoning. Formerly restricted government documents now made available under the Freedom of Information Act have filled in some blank spaces in this chronology.

Thus, both big government and big industry, for different reasons, became involved in the cover-up. The succeeding collaboration of industry and government is documented in detail.

The difficulties in maintaining a deception over an extended time are significant. This is especially true with an ongoing issue like fluoridation. A compounding of dishonest statements and actions is required to maintain the original deception. At a certain point, the truth of the situation becomes obvious. These consequences are now coming to bear on the defenders of fluoridation. The Epilogue deals with this coming confrontation.


During the last half of the Nineteenth Century, ore refineries and chemical plants were introduced in Europe. In these early years of the industrial revolution came serious air pollution problems. Iron and copper refineries or smelters were the worst culprits. Fumes and fallout from their smokestacks caused obvious injury and sickness to people, livestock, crops, and other vegetation in the surrounding communities and countryside.

Unknown in the early years of the industrial revolution, the most deadly chemical killer in this effluent was hydrogen fluoride (HF), now known to be toxic in a concentration of parts per billion. The term fluorine, rather than fluoride was then commonly used in referring to the air pollutant. Hydrogen fluoride was itself first identified in industrial emissions after the turn of the century, but its effects had been clearly seen in the areas surrounding these industrial polluters.

Early European Chronology


Smelters in Freiburg, Germany first paid damages to neighbors injured by fluorine emissions.


The smelters in Freiburg paid out 880,000 marks in damages for fluorine contamination injuries and 644,000 marks for permanent relief.


The very existence of the smelting industry in Germany and Great Britain is threatened by successful lawsuits for fluorine damage and by burdensome laws and regulations.


A disease of cattle that had been endemic around Freiburg for some 20 years was identified as fluorine poisoning from the smelters.


Fluorine poisoning of cattle was reported near a superphosphate plant in Italy. During the 1890s there had been numerous complaints of damage to vegetation around superphosphate fertilizer plants.


The cattle around a Swiss aluminum plant became poisoned. Aluminum smelters, utilizing the fluxing agents flourite (49% fluorine), and cryolite (54% fluorine), were to become major sources of fluorine air pollution.

Part I   Overview

In America, the term fluoride replaced fluorine in referring to air pollution – as fluorine rarely occurs uncombined with other elements, due to its extremely high reactivity. This is the basis for its toxic effect on virtually all biological systems.

The many successful lawsuits for airborne fluoride damage in Europe were seen as a threat to American Industry. This feared risk produced a strong incentive which resulted in attempts to suppress the facts and sidetrack public concerns about hydrogen fluoride air pollution.

As American smelting industries expanded and smokestack emissions increased, the threat of legal action and regulatory controls worried these industries. Bringing about changes in people’s attitude about fluoride was seen as critically important . The original strategy was to get people to believe that water was the chief source of fluoride, and that other sources were unimportant.

In 1931, this camouflage began with the announcement by Alcoa’s chief chemist, H.V. Churchill, that the mottled teeth of children in the Pittsburgh area had been caused by fluoride in the water. Pittsburgh, of course, was the location of Alcoa’s aluminum smelters. This trick is documented in the Pittsburgh Press for May 31 under the headline, “Scientist Here Finds Secret Poison Which Blackens Teeth of Children”. Churchill’s announcement left the public with the idea that it was only fluoride in the water that caused “mottling”. Today the blame has shifted to toothpaste.

Alcoa’s deception had the effect of covering up major airborne fluoride damage in Pittsburgh. The success of this ploy resulted from the public’s acceptance of Churchill’s expert opinion as unbiased, when it was strongly biased. It does not take an expert to see the circumstances pointing to bias. The tendency of many people to quickly and uncritically accept expert opinion has been utilized as a propaganda device. In fact, it was to become the principal tool and stratagem of the fluoridation campaign. If one looks through profluoridation literature, it is found to be full of authoritarian endorsements (expert opinion), but no hard evidence.

Later, it would be claimed that people need fluoride, and that fluoride should be added to the water supply so everyone could get it. This strategy was to provide an enormous outlet for waste fluorides. Shaping people’s attitudes about fluoride had now begun and was to continue unabated for seven decades. Since the mid-1960s, television advertising has been intensively used to achieve this purpose, with $30 million spent on advertising Crest fluoridated toothpaste in just one year.

In 1931, it became widely known that mottled tooth enamel is caused by fluoride poisoning of the tooth buds while the enamel is being formed. Fluoride in the bloodstream reaches the tooth buds before the teeth erupt through the gums. Fluoride in the drinking water does not directly contact the tooth buds. For this reason dental fluorosis is clear evidence of systemic fluoride poisoning. Also, dental fluorosis is often caused by hydrogen fluoride in toxic air pollutants. It can likewise be caused by foods prepared from crops grown in fluoride contaminated soils and air.

Along with the shaping of public attitudes, industry influenced key government agencies. The US Public Health Service (USPHS), and later, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cooperated, to a surprising degree, in the economical disposal of industry’s toxic fluoride waste materials. As a result of agency appointments and hiring of industry-funded scientists, these government agencies became closely identified with the motivations of industry. In the process, they have had to ignore serious adverse effects on human health – from fluoride as well as a number of other toxic chemical compounds. In the easy choice of catering to industry, these Agencies incrementally abandoned their own basic charge of promoting human and environmental health.

This identification with industry was true regarding air pollution, and later epitomized in water fluoridation, with the USPHS eventually setting the goal of mandatory national fluoridation by the turn of the century. EPA later rationalized this goal by calling it an efficient way to recycle waste.

As a consequence of the realignment of the Public Health Service into a strong supporter of fluoridation, research in academic institutions also came under the control of big industry on this feared pollution issue. Control over research in academic institutions was brought about through the giving and withholding of government grants and research contracts. All government support of academic institutions was channeled through the industry biased Public Health Service. These pressures and incentives grew as industry grew. Applied relentlessly over the years and decades, the fluoride industry’s influence on academia has now spanned most of the 20th century.

By way of economic incentives the American Dental Association (ADA) also became a prominent and active promoter of fluoridation. This came about through the influence of a small clique pretending to speak for all dentists. While the public has tended to see ADA as an unbiased professional organization, it is, in fact, a trade group, with predictable motivations. The role of ADA in fluoridation has been that of an opportunist. It has received ongoing financial support from the USPHS, itself a virtual arm of big industry. ADA alleged an ethical role on the part of dentists based on their claim that fluoridation would reduce dentists’ income. But expensive cosmetic dentistry required to hide the effects of fluorosis actually increased the incomes of dentists. As a result, the dental trade association has become an ideal front for big industry in their scheme to dump fluoride waste products at a profit.

Influencing the US medical community was also of crucial importance to the success of the fluoridation scheme. Thousands of American Medical Association members came to be dependent on grants from the National Institutes of Health (a part of the USPHS) for most of their support. A majority of medical schools also came to recognize their increasing dependence on government grants via USPHS. One effect of this influence was minimizing the subject of fluorosis in medical texts. Consequently, the majority of dentists and physicians know very little about chronic fluoride poisoning.

Industry’s unstated motivation behind water fluoridation was to find an economical means for disposal of their accumulating fluoride waste products, and to avoid claims for compensation by workers harmed by airborne fluoride on the job. USPHS supports this industrial strategy while at the same time actively assisting industry in a cover-up of their fluoride air pollution problems. Today, through regional and county health offices, USPHS influences city councils to override previous ballot decisions against fluoridating public water, thereby subverting the basic principles of democratic government, as well as compromising public health.

With such pervasive influence of industry on government, academia, dentistry and medicine, it soon became political suicide for professionals to challenge or even question the fluoridation of drinking water. Individuals who had the boldness to do so soon found that their jobs were in jeopardy. Even outspoken dentists, the supposed experts, were ostracized from their trade organization (ADA) and saw their professional careers threatened. The ADA and their industrial backers were clearly out to destroy the opposition.

Of critical importance to industry was a complete knowledge about the chemical hazards associated with fluoride. Initially concerned with the fluoride-based refrigerant, freon, the Kettering Laboratory was founded in 1925 with gifts from Ethyl Corporation, General Electric, and DuPont and supported by other concerned industries. Kettering was to investigate chemical hazards in American industrial operations. It was Kettering policy to keep such research away from public view.

Since 1925, the great bulk of research in America having to do with fluoride poisoning has been financed by the concerned companies. It has been kept secret because it was done to protect the companies who funded Kettering. The Director of the Kettering Laboratory at the University of Cincinnati, Dr. Robert Kehoe, was also Medical Director of the Ethyl Corporation, and consultant to the Atomic Energy Commission – as well as the Division of Occupational Medicine of the USPHS. All three of these affiliations were with those having strong motives for suppressing the dangers associated with fluorides.

Fluoride research sponsored by industry was done by Kettering Laboratory so that it could be tightly controlled. Research supported by the federal government was channeled through the Public Health Service, which had become a virtual arm of big industry. With its strong bias, USPHS influenced the direction of fluoride investigations as well as what got published. It even censored reports after their publication. In this way, the concerned industries came to control nearly all of the fluoride research originating in the this country.

Research conducted in European countries and in Asia has not been subjected to such constraints. Their research has more starkly exposed the dangers of fluoride. This has led to the outlawing of fluoridation in 98% of Europe and clearly verifies the bias in American fluoride research. Since the classic work on Fluorine Intoxication published by Kaj Roholm in 1935 and 1937, the foreign medical literature has contained ongoing research reports on a wide variety of serious disorders stemming from fluoride poisoning. The same is true of the US veterinary literature. But our own medical literature suffers from the secrecy imposed on Kettering research and from the bias and censorship brought to bear by the Public Health Service.

Part I   Chronology – 1909 to 1938


Alcoa was now producing 16,500 tons of aluminum per year and releasing 132 tons of hydrogen fluoride air pollutants per year.


Pennsylvania law prohibits use of fluoride compounds in food – including water.


The National Research Council, a subgroup of the National Academy of Sciences, is organized as an independent, non-government group. It would provide a close liaison between the USPHS and American Industry, and came to represent industry through the affiliations of its membership. Government agencies came to pass on their chartered responsibilities by taking recommendations from NRC, instead of using their own professional staff. Decisions affecting industry came to be handled this way, to the great advantage of industry.


Aluminum cookware is introduced in the US. Aluminum production increases, along with production of the toxic waste product, sodium fluoride.


The Kettering Laboratory is set up by an industrial consortium to do contract research work on chemical hazards in industrial operations. The research findings are hid from public view.


Andrew Mellon becomes US Treasurer. The USPHS is under the direct jurisdiction of the Department of the Treasury. Andrew Mellon was a founder and major stockholder of Alcoa, the main producer of toxic fluoride waste materials. During the 1920s there was growing concern abroad, and in our own Department of Agriculture and Bureau of Mines over fluoride as a public hazard – but not in the Public Health Service. During this decade, no mention of fluoride can be found in the official USPHS publication, Public Health Reports. Also in 1925, the Mellon Institute was founded by Andrew and Richard Mellon, former owners of Alcoa.


The world’s first major hydrogen fluoride fog disaster occurred in the Meuse Valley, Belgium. Six thousand people became violently ill, and sixty died in this episode. Many cattle were also killed. The Danish scientist, Kaj Roholm studied the aftereffects of this episode and the subject of fluorine poisoning. His classic work, Fluorine Intoxication, published in London and Copenhagen, is unique to this day, as it examined in detail substantial numbers of human subjects poisoned by a well defined and dated episode.


A considerable portion of Kettering Laboratory’s facilities are dedicated to the study of fluorides, initially with investigations into Freon 12 gas. Under contract, the studies are not released to the public. Hydrogen fluoride air pollution from Alcoa’s Pittsburgh smelters were causing mottled teeth in the area’s children. Alcoa’s chief chemist ignores this known relationship and announces that fluoride in the drinking water is responsible. That successful camouflage was to be used later as a reason to fluoridate water supplies of cities with the worst fluoride air pollution, thereby diverting attention from air pollution


USPHS dentist, H. Trendley Dean, is dispatched by Alcoa founder, Andrew Mellon, to certain remote towns in the Western US where water wells have a naturally high concentration of calcium fluoride. Dean’s mission would be to find out how much calcium fluoride young children could tolerate before there was obvious visible damage to their teeth.


Dr. Lloyd DeEds, Senior Toxicologist with the Department of Agriculture published a sixty page review on chronic fluorine poisoning (Medicine 12:1-60 (Feb)1933): “Only recently, that is within the last ten years, has the serious nature of fluorine toxicity been realized, particularly with regard to chronic intoxication. It is from the viewpoint of chronic intoxication that fluorine is of importance to the public health.” He discussed poisoning of vegetation and livestock near aluminum plants; and pointed out that superphosphate plants were annually pouring 25,000 tons of fluorine into the air and adding 90,000 tons to the topsoil each year.


From now on, and in the face of growing fluoride air pollution, the USPHS described “mottling” as a “water-borne disease”, and began investigating the extent of the disorder in the US.


H. Trendley Dean and the USPHS conduct the “Galesburg-Quincy” study, one of the two studies upon which water fluoridation rests (the other is the “21 cities” study, done in 1939 and 1940). On these two studies rested the “fluorine-dental caries hypothesis” which was to be tested in the experiments at Grand Rapids, Michigan, Newburgh, New York, and Brantford, Ontario.Note: These studies were later examined by non-government expert statisticians and found to be statistically flawed, as well as having a significant number of other serious problems, making the studies worthless. (see Fluoride the Aging Factor by Dr. John Yiamouyiannis, p. 119-123. also: Fluoridation Errors and Omissions in Experimental Trials, by Philip R. N. Sutton, DDSc, LDS, Senior Research Fellow, Dept of Oral Medicine and Surgery, University of Melbourne, in collaboration with Sir Arthur B. P. Amies, Dean of the Dental School, University of Melbourne) It is interesting to note that Dean visited Galesburg earlier on a mottled enamel survey in 1934 and listed Galesburg as a city that “lacked the requisites for quantitative evaluation”.


A Federally Funded, National Strategy Supporting Big Industry

It was a quirk of fate that the early industrial secrecy surrounding fluoride in America was to be strongly reinforced by the federal government for reasons of national security. Fluoride was the key chemical compound in the production of the atomic bomb, and extensive government information on the serious health risks of fluoride was kept secret both during and after World War II. This helps explain how the fluoride industries were able to get virtually total cooperation from government agencies in covering up industry’s fluoride pollution.

When the concept of water fluoridation surfaced around 1939, it was quickly seized by big industry and turned into a relentless, no-holds-barred drive for universal fluoridation. This drive was soon to be implemented by the US Public Health Service as if it were a military mandate – a “mission”.

USPHS was ideal for this mission, being organized in a similar way to the US Armed Forces. Its officers are commissioned and expected to obey orders of the Surgeon General. The common public view of the Surgeon General as an impeccable and totally objective authority is often naive. In the real world the Surgeon General is expected to support and carry out current policy. If a particular policy, such as water fluoridation is supported successively by two or more Surgeons General, it would be naive to think this proves the policy is based on science.

USPHS has a Dental Corps which is closely associated with those in the American Dental Association (ADA) and holds interlocking memberships on its boards, committees, and councils. Significantly, officers of the USPHS also sit on the editorial boards of every important medical and dental journal in the United States.

The national strategy for universal fluoridation utilized state and regional health departments as ersatz field headquarters. Strongly biased literature was used, such as the Kettering abstracts published in 1963, and the key ADA propaganda piece, Fluoridation Facts, first published in 1960, and used to this day, although it is proved lacking in credibility by its own references. As this pamphlet was published more than three decades ago and is still uncorrected, one can only call it fraudulent. This promotional material was distributed to health departments and agencies throughout the country.

The disinformation campaign conducted by USPHS has been extended since the 1960s down to local health districts, sometimes employing state or field fluoridation coordinators. With a national communications network of state and regional health departments in place, community assessments can be made and those showing the least resistance are targeted first. The most successful tactics used in previously fluoridated communities are employed on prospective communities. The USPHS campaign has involved literally hundreds of such intrusions on communities, and has become a fine-tuned operation. District health department officials typically contact city councils with a strongly biased sales pitch and promises of federal funding. The attempt is often made to get city councils to vote and rule on the fluoridation issue without a public vote. In some cases, where it is legal, this may involve overriding previous public vote, even though it directly affects all the people in the community on a daily basis.

When a community is overrun by such tactics, the victory often gets wide publicity, as practiced in psychological warfare. Further, there is strong circumstantial evidence that the USPHS campaign includes overturning state laws that interfere with the USPHS “mission”. For example, in the State of Washington, the State Code prohibiting city councils from directly overriding previous public vote was successfully used in Spokane in 1984 to stop fluoridation in that city. The following year that State Code was overturned with no motivation from within Washington. When viewed in the larger context revealed in this chronicle, such circumstantial evidence is compelling.

It has been a priority of big industry to settle lawsuits out of court. This prevents legal precedents being set on fluoride damage, which could open the way for further litigation. A good example involved the Troutdale, Oregon aluminum plant east of Portland, which was operated by Alcoa during World War II. After the war some millions in damage suits were filed, and many hundreds of thousands of dollars were paid in settlements from the new renter of the plant, Reynolds Metals Co.

One such suit was for serious injuries to members of the Paul Martin family. It was considered so important by big industry that an armada of six corporations all joined in the suit as “friends of the court.” They were Alcoa, Kaiser, Harvey Aluminum, Olin-Mathieson, Victor Chemical, and Food Machinery and Chemical. When it appeared that the Martin family might win their case, an out of court settlement was arranged by purchasing the Martin ranch at an inflated price. Once again, a potentially important legal precedent did not get into the legal record.

PART II  - 1939 to 1959


The concept of fluoridation arises as an alternative method of disposing of industrial waste chemicals, where disposal expense is replaced by profit. This fact was confirmed with approval in a 1983 letter written by Rebecca Hanmer, Assistant Administrator, from EPA Office of Water.


The Hatch Act was passed after revelations that employees of the WPA, a New Deal agency, were pressured to make political contributions. The new Act protected against a politicized federal work force. It also prohibited any federally funded agency, whether county, state, or federal, from trying to influence public referenda. Since the beginning of the effort to fluoridate water in the 1940s, however, the Hatch Act has been repeatedly and flagrantly violated


On Sept 29, Mellon Institute scientist, Gerald J. Cox, begins his major role in the promotion of fluoridation by saying, “the present trend toward removal of fluorides from food and water may need reversal”.Note: Scientist Cox also had this to say in 1939: “Fluorides are among the most toxic of substances. Mottled enamel results from as little as 0.0001 percent of fluorine in the drinking water. Every use of water must be examined before fluoridation can begin”. (Journal of the American Water Works Assn. pp. 1926-1930, Nov 1939). Despite all of this, Alcoa sponsored biochemist, Gerald J. Cox, fluoridates rats in his lab and mysteriously concludes that “fluoride reduces cavities”. He makes a public proposal that the US should fluoridate its water supply. Cox begins to tour the US, stumping for fluoridation.


The American Water Works Association decided there was sufficient evidence about fluoride to classify it as a hazardous material, like lead and arsenic. It then suggested that drinking water should contain no more than 0.1 ppm fluoride.


Instead of forbidding the dumping of fluoride in water, the USPHS regulations set 1.0 ppm of fluoride as the maximum tolerance allowed in a public water supply. This allowed industries to continue to dump fluoride wastes into rivers.


In December, Japan attacks Pearl Harbor. All anti-pollution regulations are suspended. Many parts of America now suffer hydrogen fluoride air pollution on an unprecedented scale. Major fluoride hazards develop in war materials production of WWII, consolidating government collusion with big industry on a coverup of fluoride hazards.


In England, a Lancet report showed that out of 589 London children, 28% had mottled teeth. According to Alcoa’s chief chemist and the USPHS, London’s drinking water should contain well over one ppm fluoride to account for this. Tests showed just 0.19 ppm. Clearly, hydrogen fluoride was the cause. In this case, it was surely related to the heavy use of coal for fuel, a known source of HF.


Hydrogen fluoride supplants sulfuric acid as a catalyst in the production of high test gasoline in Los Angeles. One such plant required 500-750 tons of HF yearly (Fluorine Industry Chem. and Met. Eng., 52:94-99 Mar. 1945).


Planning began on the Newburgh, NY, Fluoridation Demonstration Project. Atomic bomb program scientists played a prominent but unpublicized role in this first US fluoridation experiment. Fluoride was the key chemical in atomic bomb production. Millions of tons of fluoride were needed for the manufacture of bomb-grade uranium and plutonium for nuclear weapons. Today, memos released under the Freedom of Information Act show that scientists from the atomic bomb program secretly shaped and guided the Newburgh fluoridation experiment. This reveals the US government conflict of interest and its motive to prove fluoride safe.


Oscar Ewing is put on the payroll of the Aluminum Company of America as an attorney, at an annual salary of $750,000.


Program “F” is implemented by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This is the most extensive US study of the health effects of fluoride – a key chemical component in atomic bomb production. One of the most toxic chemicals known to man, fluoride was found to have marked adverse effects to the central nervous system. But much of the information was classified “secret” in the name of national security because of fear that lawsuits would undermine full-scale production of atomic bombs.


With no new evidence of safety, and no stated reason, USPHS raised the maximum tolerance level of fluoride in public water supplies to 1.5 ppm.


Alcoa lawyer, Oscar Ewing, is appointed head of the Federal Security Agency, later HEW, a position that places him in charge of the USPHS. He is the second Alcoa executive (after Andrew Mellon) to direct the course of the Public Health Service, completing its mutation into a virtual pawn of big industry. Under Ewing, a national fluoridation campaign rapidly materializes, spearheaded by the USPHS. Over the next three years, eighty-seven cities were fluoridated. This included the control city of Muskegan in the original Michigan experiment, thus wiping out the most scientifically objective test of safety before the test was half over.Ewing’s public relations strategist was Edward L. Bernays, Sigmund Freud’s nephew, who pioneered Freudian theory toward advertising and government propaganda (see Bernays’ 1928 book, Propaganda). Because of Bernays, people would be induced to forget that fluorides were toxic poisons. Opponents to the fluoridation program were painted as deranged. In 1996 they would be painted as civil rights activists, crackpots, and right-wing loonies. As the newspapers were heavily influenced by industry advertisers, they became key dispensers of such propaganda.


The Donora Death Fog was the second major air pollution disaster in history. It was caused by the accumulation of stagnant hydrogen fluoride gas from steel and zinc smelters in a narrow industrialized valley. Six thousand of the 13,000 residents of this Pennsylvania town’s population became ill, and on the fourth day seventeen died. A leading forensic chemist, Philip Sadtler, investigated the tragedy and reported strong evidence of acute fluoride poisoning. His report appeared in Chemical and Engineering News under the headline, FLUORINE GASES IN ATMOSPHERE AS INDUSTRIAL WASTES BLAMED FOR DEATH AND CHRONIC POISONING OF DONORA AND WEBSTER. The USPHS whitewashed the incident in their report (see Public Health Bull. No. 306, Washington, D.C., 1949). Their conclusion was: No pollutant present could have caused the disaster. The following are excerpts from a critique of that report by Frederick B. Exner, MD:”A 173-page report tells us that there had been no unusual kind or amount of pollution, and that no pollution present could have caused the trouble. Sampling methods of doubtful reliability were applied at arbitrarily selected times and places, and the results averaged with no attempt at proper weighting. Calculations therefrom, replete with arithmetical errors and discrepancies, were combined with outright guesses to arrive at estimates of emission.They guess that 210 tons of coal burned in homes emit 30 lb. of fluorine but that 213 tons burned in the blooming-mill boilers emit only four lb. No possible reason for the difference is offered.On page 104, waste gas from the blast furnace contains 4.6 mg of fluorine per cubic meter. On page 108 it contains one-tenth as much.Calculations for open-hearth emission show a discrepancy of several thousand fold, with no way to know where the error lies.The biological studies and general air sampling are similarly inappropriate and meaningless. Air samples at twelve arbitrarily selected points between Feb. 16, and April 27, 1949, can tell us nothing about concentrations during the episode.”Test results of a study made of the Donora disaster by US Steel have been withheld from public view to this day. This is unmistakable evidence of an effort to cover up highly toxic HF emissions.


As a direct consequence of the Donora disaster, USPHS began quietly sampling fluorides in the air over 27 major cities across the country. This sampling turned up serious HF air pollution (up to 80 ppb) in the following twelve cities: Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Chicago, Cleveland, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Buffalo, Denver, Oklahoma City, and Indianapolis (see Register of Air Pollution Analyses, US Department of Health, Education and Welfare. USPHS, Washington DC, 1949-1961).


The new hydrogen fluoride air pollution data collected by the USPHS presented a major problem. Data gathered showed HF contamination up to 80 ppb, more than ten times what had been proposed for standards.Strong circumstantial evidence suggests that the camouflage strategy adopted more than a decade earlier by Alcoa in Pittsburgh was to influence the strategy adopted by the USPHS: If the nation’s twelve cities with the most serious HF air pollution were fluoridated, this expensive-to-correct problem would be camouflaged. Dental fluorosis could then be attributed to the water, and authorities could describe mottled teeth as an “acceptable trade-off” for the claimed caries preventing properties of fluoridated water. To bring this about, the Great Fluoridation Experiment underway in Grand Rapids and three other cities was declared a success in June 1950, five years before the experiment would be complete. Before a single tooth had fully developed under the influence of the experimental fluoridated water, USPHS claimed a reduction in tooth decay of between 50 and 60 percent. (Dean, H. T. et al., Studies on Mass Control of Dental Caries through Fluoridation of the Public Water Supply, Public Health Report 65, 1950).This “success” then allowed USPHS to rush out to fluoridate the twelve cities with major HF air pollution and thereby camouflage the toxic air problems. All twelve cities were fluoridated in the following five years. The same camouflage was to be carried out two years later by Alcoa in Australia.


Two years after the disaster in Donora, when the USPHS found serious HF air pollution across the country, their analytical method was changed from measuring the level of HF to measuring the level of fluoride ions in the air. Deception clearly motivated this change. Fluoride ions, like fluorine gas, are relatively rare toxic air emissions. By pretending that fluoride ions, not the far more harmful HF, was the concern in contaminated air, the USPHS avoided exposure of incriminating HF data which it thereby managed, once again, to ignore.


From 1950 to 1951, Alcoa advertises sodium fluoride for addition to water supplies.


The Journal of the American Dental Association, (30:447, 1950), features an article by Dr. G. J. Cox, University of Pittsburgh, who says, “To solve the esthetic problem for victims of mottled enamel, porcelain facings, jacket crowns, or even dentures may be required”. Note: The public is expected to bear the cost of what is being done to them while the dental industry profits.


Early in 1951 Oscar Ewing allocated $2 million to “promote fluoridation nationwide”.


Oscar Ewing was sponsoring a bill which the conservative American Medical Association claimed would be the first step toward socialized medicine. The AMA appealed to its members for a “fighting fund” to defeat the Bill and $3 million was raised. But at the AMA convention in Los Angeles, Ewing notified the committee that the bill was to be withdrawn. That same committee, which had never before considered the subject, suddenly released a statement saying that the AMA totally endorsed the “safety of fluoridation”. At that time there was not one published paper providing evidence to support the AMA endorsement. But from then on, the AMA left fluoridation to dentists – and to those powerful forces which were manipulating the dental trade association (ADA).


The ADA Journal instructs its dentists not to discuss their personal opinions about fluoride. Here is blatant evidence of ADA political bias.


In London, the greatest toxic fog disaster in history occurred from December 5-9 in a temperature inversion. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) gas was the culprit, as in the two earlier major disasters. During those five days there were 2,000 excess deaths in London, and some 10,000 more people were wiped out in the surrounding Thames Valley. Similar episodes, both before and after this one, occurred in London. In 1945, a noxious fog brought death to 600; in 1956, to 500; and in 1957, to 400 (Air Pollution, published on behalf of the World Health Organization, Columbia University Press, N.Y., 1961, p. 175).Shocking as it is, the toll of lives does not tell the whole story. Neither the assessments of the toxic air disasters, nor tests establishing maximum contaminant levels, take into account the widespread effects on mental function brought about by HF poisoning. Human behavior is exquisitely sensitive to minute traces of hydrogen fluoride – in the parts per billion range. In London, it is likely that millions were so affected. This includes symptoms of confusion, fatigue, partial loss of memory, and mental dullness and apathy. The condition identified in 1982 as chronic fatigue syndrome is currently of undetermined origin, and is now increasingly widespread. The same symptoms are caused by HF air pollution. Research on hydrogen fluoride is lacking, and funding is not available.


USPHS officials, Drs. Dean, Arnold and McClure, concentrate their efforts to introduce fluoridation into Australia and New Zealand, providing more evidence for an underlying industrial motivation.


Alcoa starts construction of the first aluminum smelter in Australia, two miles from the small town of Beaconsfield, Tasmania. The following year, Beaconsfield became the first town in all of Australia to install water fluoridation. Dental fluorosis could then be attributed to the water as an “acceptable trade-off” for prevention of caries (unproven). Beyond coincidence, here is more evidence of the industrial strategy to camouflaging airborne HF poisoning by fluoridating the water supply.


The Kettering Laboratory in Cincinnati has become the largest organization of its kind in the world with a staff numbering about 120. Its specified purpose is to investigate chemical hazards that develop in American industrial operations (to prevent a replay of the litigation that plagued European industry and gave American industry a competitive edge).


On Jan 26, Procter & Gamble ran a full page ad in the New York Times, proclaiming Crest toothpaste “an important milestone in medicine”, comparing it to Dr. Fleming’s discovery of penicillin. P & G published no evidence supporting their extravagant claims. Harold Hillenbrand, secretary of ADA responded saying there was no evidence that any fluoride paste could prevent tooth decay. Initially there was an FDA warning label on Crest, but it disappeared in 1958, without explanation, and did not reappear until nearly forty years later.


Alcoa announces the direct sale of sodium fluoride to cities and towns – for fluoridation of drinking water. A decade later, when it was found that phosphate fertilizer companies could sell fluorides from their smokestack scrubbers for even less money, Alcoa was priced out of the fluoride dumping market.


The American Dental Association receives $6,453,816 in federal funds, from 1957-1973.


The World Health Organization (WHO) establishes an Expert Committee in Geneva to study fluoridation. At least five of the seven committee members had promoted fluoridation in their own countries. The American proponent, Professor H. C. Hodge, had some of his research financed by the Atomic Energy Commission, which was confronted with serious fluoride disposal problems from uranium processing. Professor Ericsson, the member from Sweden and a prominent advocate of fluoridation in Europe, was the recipient of a USPHS grant and received royalties from Sweden’s toothpaste industry. Such are the sources of the WHO endorsement of fluoridation.


Reynolds Metals Co. built an aluminum smelter on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, upwind of a Mohawk Indian Reservation. Fifteen-hundred Mohawk Indians farmed on their island Reservation. Forty-five farmers had forty cattle barns and 364 dairy cattle. Cattle became lame and many cows died. In 1977, there were just 177 left. The farmers themselves were found to have muscular and skeletal abnormalities. The Mohawk way of life became the victim of a preventable man-made plague caused by hydrogen fluoride.

PART II   Chronology – 1960 to 1999



In Canada, the Committee on Fluoridation meets in Toronto. Dr. G. E. Hall guides the deliberations. His daughter was employed by an aluminum corporation with fluoride pollution problems. He was himself serving as honorary advisory director for a leading fluoridation promoting organization, and his University (U. of Western Toronto) was the recipient of grants from the US Public Health Service (three conflicts of interest). Predictably, fluoridation of all public water supplies throughout Canada was advocated.


In August, the ADA suddenly endorses the “safety and effectiveness” of Crest fluoride toothpaste, with no scientific evidence available. P & G stock rose by $8 per share. Toothpaste manufacturers around the world, including Colgate-Palmolive, Unilever and Beechams, jumped aboard the fluoride bandwagon.


USPHS again raises the maximum tolerance level for fluoride in water supplies, this time to 2.4 ppm, in spite of the fact that one USPHS investigator said that at 1.5 ppm, the safety factor was zero.


At the bequest of its industrial sponsors, The Kettering Laboratory collected US research articles on fluoride and “sanitized” them by rewriting their findings in published abstracts in a book titled, The Role of Fluoride in Public Health. Sponsors included Alcoa, American Petroleum Institute, Columbia-Geneva Steel Company, The Du Pont Company, Harshaw Chemical Company, Kaiser Aluminum and Chemicals Corporation, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company, Reynolds Metals Company, and the Universal Oil Products Company – all concerned about regulations bearing on fluoride air pollution and worker health problems.This book of 158 sanitized abstracts was then distributed to all health agencies throughout the US, thus becoming the standard reference work for state and county health departments. Busy health professionals relied on these convenient and readily available abstracts, rather than searching the literature for the original (unsanitized) research. In this way, many key professionals throughout the country were duped on the issue of fluoride poisoning.


On October 15, the Pittsburgh Press reported that 98% of Pittsburgh school children 13-15 years of age had crooked teeth. It was not mentioned that chronic fluoride toxicity from childhood induces such malocclusion. Hydrogen fluoride poisoning from Alcoa aluminum smelters in the Pittsburgh area had not been monitored. Significantly, the Pittsburgh water supplies were fluoridated fifteen years earlier, in 1952.


EPA chemist Ervin Bellack noted that recovered phosphate fertilizer acid waste contains about 19% fluorine. He reported that this concentrated scrubber liquor, which is 23% fluorosilicic acid, could be used as a water fluoridating agent – instead of sodium fluoride. Further, this waste product was available in enormous quantities – enough to fluoridate the entire nation’s water supply. The EPA and USPHS approved and promoted this source of fluoride waste for public water supplies, without conducting any tests for safety.Note: Legal disposal of the scrubber liquor as a waste product would cost about $1.40 per gallon due its highly toxic contents. Instead, it could now be sold to municipal water departments for upwards of sixty cents per gallon. Its toxic contents are called out in detail in the supplier’s specification sheet.The amount of this scrubber liquor sold annually for water fluoridation has been above one hundred thousand tons for many years. The scale of this business is in the millions of dollars annually. In this perspective, it is easy to appreciate the lengths to which big industry will go to try to rationalize and legitimatize the scheme. Sad to say, it now permanently compromises the health of more than one hundred million Americans.The only answer ever given to the above charge is that “toxicity is a function of concentration”, and that at one ppm in water, fluoride is not harmful. This glib statement ignores the most important fact concerning fluoride poisoning: it accumulates in the body. Half the daily dosage will produce the same poisoning effects in twice the time period. Chronic fluoride poisoning is a time bomb that the majority of Americans now face in their senior years. It can both cause and aggravate arthritis, a condition which affects virtually all who reach the age of retirement.


Over 90% of toothpaste now contains fluoride. This is the result of an intensive advertising campaign backed by a profit oriented dental trade association which is mistakenly perceived as an unbiased authority. This advertising has tended to establish the image of fluoride as a beneficial, even essential element, while, in fact, it is officially rated more toxic than either lead or cadmium. Have Americans been brainwashed? You decide.


Germany bans water fluoridation.


Birmingham, Alabama, the steel capitol of the South, experienced a calamitous air pollution disaster. Thousands suffered smarting eyes and scratchy throats. Eight deaths were reported. Mayor George Seibels said the disaster was caused by stack gasses from steel works in the area. The emissions hung over the city for three days in a temperature inversion. Unfortunately, the city had no standards for hydrogen fluoride (HF) and never monitored the air for these gases. Newspapers throughout the country blamed the disaster on “high particulates,” but had no information on the particulates.GASP, a local environmental group turned to EPA for help, but no federal standards had been set, and even though human deaths occurred no one could be cited. Two months later the independent National Research Council hastily contrived a report for EPA stating, “Airborne fluoride currently presents no direct hazard to man.” This could be technically correct, if they were referring to ionic fluoride, which is rare in industrial emissions. The culprit in this disaster, however, was hydrogen fluoride, which NRC must have known. Furthermore, no committee can make a scientific judgement about safety when there are no standards and no data. Clearly, federal air pollution policies protect polluters and poison people.


The February issue of the ADA’s own Journal reports that dental incomes and dental costs per person are higher in fluoridated communities. Dentists don’t mention that fluorides embrittle rather than toughen tooth enamel. Resultant cracks and chipping make tooth repair more difficult – and more expensive. Also, fluoride makes enamel porous, thereby increasing the wear rate of the tooth surface. These facts alone warrant ruling out fluoride treatment for teeth.


Sweden bans fluoridation of public water.


The Netherlands constitution bans water fluoridation.


The CBS News almanac showed there were 76.7 dentists per 100,000 population in fluoridated cities, and only 59.2 in non-fluoridated cities. This was based on a study of thirty representative cities. The real surprise came in looking at the three US cities that have been fluoridated the longest: Grand Rapids, Michigan, Newburgh, NY, and Evanston, Illinois. These cities averaged 121 dentists per 100,000 population, which was more than double the national average – after 25 years on fluoridated water. It is easy to see why ADA promotes fluoridation so aggressively.


From March 1980 to December 1980, the Houston Health Systems Agency allocated $1,399,822 federal tax dollars to promote fluoridation in Texas. The Texas Department of Health gave instructions to the Health Systems Agency on how to promote fluoridation. It stated: “A low profile of government pressure will be maintained. Convince citizens that they will receive personal health benefits without local tax money expenditures.” Here is evidence of the USPHS campaign.More than $94,000 was spent on media promotion of fluoridation in Portland, Oregon, and $5000 for the poll on why fluoridation failed to pass.Of a $90,000 federal grant for fluoridation, that city officials in Phoenix, Arizona had never requested, $38,000 was earmarked for media promotion. Here is more evidence of the USPHS campaign.


The Water Chemicals Codex is published from Washington DC showing all fluoride products used in public water supplies are lead contaminated. Further, it is widely known that fluorides are extremely corrosive and leach lead from pipe joints. When water stands in pipes, the lead contamination in the water can easily double or triple. It is also widely known that fluoride has a synergistic action on lead in the water, increasing lead’s absorption in the human body.


USPHS conducts its first group of studies on animal cancer and fluorides, mandated by the Congressional Hearings in 1977. The study lasts until 1984, and is then scrapped because of flaws in design and progress.


USPHS contracts a second set of studies on animal cancer and fluoride, mandated by the 1977 Congressional Hearings, eight years earlier. USPHS again contracts Battelle Memorial Institute in Ohio, which conducts a study lasting until 1987. The results are released in 1988.


The cost of dental services in the US rapidly increases – from $13.6 billion in 1979 to $27.1 billion in 1985 – in parallel with the increasing environmental saturation of fluoride from many sources. This is almost exactly a doubling of dental costs in six years. Inflation cannot account for changes on such a scale.


EPA raises the maximum contaminant level for fluoride in drinking water to 4 ppm (4mg per liter). It was raised by USPHS in 1961 to 2.4 ppm. Both of these official increases were made without any scientific evidence or rationale. The EPA professionals union thereupon initiated legal action to stop this political decision by EPA management.


Production of lead free gasoline in the US is growing rapidly. The process involves the use of HF to achieve high octane ratings without using lead. HF is now present in automotive exhaust gases instead of lead, even though it is more toxic than lead (see Townsend N. and Campbell D., Deadly Risks of Lead-free Petrol. New Statesman, 20 Ocober 1988).


A series of hydrogen fluoride accidents in Texas City, Texas, Torrance California, and Tulsa, Oklahoma, demonstrate that industrial hydrogen fluoride sites are a major public safety threat. Small amounts of HF liquid will release a dense ground hugging gas cloud, lethal for several miles. The first symptoms of exposure to trace amounts of HF are psychological, including confusion, fatigue, partial memory loss, and mental dullness.


Battelle Memorial Institute releases its studies on fluoride and animal cancer, for the USPHS, reporting highly specific fluoride-related cancers. The data is turned over by USPHS to the National Toxicology Program (NTP), who gives the data to the Experimental Pathology Labs, who reclassify and delete items damaging to the pro-fluoridation faction. The altered data is then submitted to the “pathology working group” on Dec 6, 1989, after a year of reworking – all this with the full knowledge of EPA. USPHS had data from the National Cancer Institute, as well as Procter and Gamble, indicating that fluoride causes bone cancer, but chose, likewise, to cover up those studies. By these inordinate delays spanning more than a decade, USPHS was able to make a travesty of the 1977 Congressional mandate.


Procter and Gamble spends $30 million advertising Crest on US television. On March 5th the ADA News published a photo of ADA President Mike Overbey accepting a check for $100,000 from Procter and Gamble: “to commemorate the 30th Anniversary of ADA’s recognition of Crest.”


Dr. William Marcus, a senior scientist at the US Environmental Protection Agency, was fired for exposing a coverup in a government study showing clear evidence that fluoride causes cancer.


Dr. Robert J. Carton, Vice President of the Union representing twelve hundred scientists, engineers, and lawyers at EPA headquarters, presented the Drinking Water Subcommittee of the Science Advisory Board of EPA with evidence of scientific fraud in the preparation of EPA’s fluoride in drinking water standard. No follow up by the Science Advisory Board was ever made.


Over 143,000 tons of toxic fluorides were dumped into US public drinking water this year. Most of it was fluorosilicic acid from the fertilizer industry, still untested by the federal government.


In December, Dr. William Marcus was vindicated when Administrative Law Judge, David A. Clark, Jr., ordered EPA to give him back his job, with back pay, legal expenses, and $50,000 in damages. EPA appealed, but the appeal was turned down in 1994, by Secretary of Labor, Robert Reich, who accused EPA of firing Dr. Marcus in retaliation for speaking his mind in public. Reich found, among other things, that EPA had shredded important evidence that would have supported Dr. Marcus in court. The original trial proceedings also show that EPA employees who wanted to testify on behalf of Dr. Marcus were threatened by their own management. EPA officials also forged some of his time cards, and then accused him of misusing his office time.


The Union of professionals at EPA headquarters in Washington, D.C., voted unanimously to co-sponsor a safe drinking water initiative that would reverse California’s 1995 mandatory fluoridation law. Local 2050 of the National Federation of Federal Employees has charged EPA management with “fraudulent alterations of data and negligent omission of facts to arrive at predetermined Agency positions regarding fluoride”. The above major news item on EPA went largely unreported across the country, clear evidence of the effective blackout on factual news concerning fluoride.


Administrative “mandates” for fluoridation have been rejected at the polls in Pennsylvania, Kansas, and Washington States and in several other communities within the last year. This indicates growing public concern and a new emergence of public awareness.


It was determined that over the past 50 years industries have released more than 25,000,000 tons of fluoride gases and particulates into the atmosphere. Arthritis, one of the most common physical symptoms of HF, is now found in the bulk of the senior population in the US. Why is this striking synchronism not being investigated? The answer is simple: Industry does not support it.


The financial motivation of dental trade organizations are high. In California, in September of this year, Delta Dental Plan of California pledged $100,000, and the California Dental Association pledged $30,000, to help fund-raising efforts for fluoridating the State of California.


Jan 21 Newswire/ — Y2KNEWSWIRE.COM today urged cities and municipalities to disconnect water fluoridation equipment during the Y2K rollover to prevent possible fluoride fatalities. Over the last 25 years fatalities have occurred when fluoride saturation levels ran too high; somedue to faulty flow control systems. In 1994, the New England Journal of Medicine published a study of a fatal fluoride overdose incident in Alaska, and dozens of verified fluoride “overfeeds” have occurred in cities and schools across the country. The risk of a fatal fluoride overdose is highest in schools, where the low body weight of children increases the risk. Saturation devices based on embedded systems or computer controls should be considered “unsafe” until proven otherwise.



13 February l999

U.S. Department of JusticeEnvironmental Crimes Division601 Pennsylvania Ave., NW 6th FloorWashington, DC 20004

Subject: Safe Drinking Water ActMaximum Contaminant Levelfor fluoride in drinking water

When EPA set the maximum contaminant level for fluoride in drinking water at four milligrams per liter, they based their calculation on incorrect dosage figures, which they described as 20 mg/day for 20 or more years. The calculation should have been based on a minimum of 10 mg/day for 10 or more years. This figure represents the total daily fluoride dosage according to the National Research Council which might cause crippling skeletal fluorosis.EPA also erred in failing to consider individual tolerances and lifetime exposures. Twenty years does not a lifetime make.EPA further violated the essence of the Safe Drinking Water Act in failing to consider arthritis (phase 1 and 2 skeletal fluorosis) as an “adverse” health effect … and in classifying disfiguring dental fluorosis as not an adverse health effect but merely “cosmetic.”EPA has set the MCL at a level too high to provide the legally required margin of safety. In addition to the errors mentioned above, EPA also neglected to consider background levels of fluoride which, unlike the situation fifty years ago, can be several times the dosage delivered in drinking water. In short, EPA has relied on outdated and inaccurate information.EPA must re-calculate the MCL according to law. Their minimum dosage figures 20 mg/day for 20 years for crippling skeletal fluorosis, were the result of an error in arithmetic, miscalculated by Harold C. Hodge, Ph.D., in 1953 and corrected by Dr. Hodge in 1979.

NAS/NRC corrected their figures in 1993. The minimum is currently estimated to be 10 mg/day for 10 years, or far less, on a daily basis, when ingested over a lifetime, or by individuals who are more vulnerable to the toxic effects of soluble fluorides. EPA management, however, has steadfastly ignored these facts.I am writing to you today to ask your assistance in forcing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to obey the law.References:

  • The Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f, et seq.

  • National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Fluoride, Federal Register, 50(220): 47142-47171, Nov 14, 1985.

  • National Academy of Sciences / National Research Council, HEALTH EFFECTS OF INGESTED FLUORIDE, 1993, p 59.

  • U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, REVIEW OF FLUORIDE BENEFITS AND RISKS, 1991, page 46.

  • See images of the USDHHS symptoms & NAS/NRC dosage figures at:


Philip Heggen

Thank you Philip





EPILOGUE  - The Approaching Confrontation

Alcoa responded to the human health issue in Pittsburgh with the initial plan to change public perceptions in order to protect industry. Andrew Mellon and Oscar Ewing, from Alcoa, the largest fluoride polluter, were both appointed to positions in control of the US Public Health Service. These appointments spanned the better part of two decades and had the effect of redirecting an agency established to protect people’s health into an agency to protect industry. EPA took on a similar role since its inception in 1971, led by William Ruckelshaus. At that time there existed a longstanding need for national standards on hydrogen fluoride emissions. During the first EPA press conference in January 1971, Mr. Ruckelshaus solemnly pledged to do so before the National Press Club. Neither he nor his successor, Russell Train, ever did.

Industry and these government agencies have been largely successful in obscuring the facts. This has been brought about by authoritarian endorsement and opinion, by making claims unsupported by valid science, and by repetition – the devices used by advertisers and propagandists. At the same time, opposition and even open discussion on the subject of fluoride pollution has been widely suppressed in the media. All of this has resulted in an erroneous public mindset. The best antidote is an investigation of the facts, and making this material widely available. Radio talk shows, television programming, and informative internet websites are now beginning to erode the deceptive mask constructed over decades by industry and their propagandists.

This historical review poses a challenge to the citizens of this country. Is this the Brave New World of Aldous Huxley? Has democracy become a total fiction? Tens of millions of people in this country now have mottled teeth, all caused by fluoride. The severity of dental fluorosis is increasing, as are the number affected. Are we actually being conditioned to accept this as normal and a mere “cosmetic effect”?

Recent studies have implicated fluoride in many chronic diseases, and also in more subtle impairments of the central nervous system. But current law is concerned with only one health effect: crippling skeletal fluorosis. To stop fluoridation we must first focus on enforcing existing law.

EPA is responsible for enforcing the Safe Drinking Water Act. That this Law is being subverted is incontestable. If EPA were forced to comply with the law, fluoridation of public water would clearly be illegal in America. A Congressional Investigation of the details of EPA’s violation of this Law could bury fluoridation nationally.


  1. Caldwell, Gladys and Philip Zanfagna, Fluoridation and Truth Decay, Top-Ecol Press, 1974

  2. Exner, F. B., Economic Motives Behind Fluoridation, Aqua Pura, Jan 1966

  3. Griffiths, Joel and Chris Bryson, Fluoride, Teeth, and The Atomic Bomb, 1997

  4. Ronsivalli, L. J., Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies, Mermakk Pub, 1998

  5. Smith, E. G., The Secret War and The Fluoride Conspiracy, Epeius Pub, Australia, 1997

  6. Valerian, V., Analytical Chronology of Fluoridation,Leading Edge International Research Group, 1997  ← HUGE RESOURCE HERE

  7. Government document summaries on fluoride, hydrogen fluoride, sodium fluoride, and fluorosilicic acid, obtained under the Freedom of Information Act.




Letters 1963 + Dr. Robin Warwick 2016


We all need clean water!





According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
“Airborne fluorides have caused more worldwide
damage to domestic animals than any other air pollutant.”
Most Damage Payments Are “Out-of Court” Settlements.


flowers in frame

Some Plants Are Very Sensitive to Fluoride Damage

Fluoride is considered to be the most phytotoxic pollutant and susceptible plant
species can be injured at ambient concentrations of about 0.8 pg F m4
(Weinstein and Alcsher-Herman, 1982).

Our List – Not Comprehensive

Alstroemeria,  |  Apricots,  |  Aspidistra spp.,  |  Calathea and Maranta spp.,  |   Chamaedorea elegans, |  Chiorophytum comosum Spider Plant,  |   Citrus,  |   Cordyline terminalis Good Luck Plant,  |   Corn,  | Chrysanthemums, |  Daylilies (Hemerocallis),  |   Dracaena spp.,  |   Gibasis pellucida Tahitian Bridal Veil,   |  Gladioli, | More on Gladioli,  |  Grapes,  |   Howea forsterana, |  Lilium spp.,  |  lichens (biomonitoring), | Mangos, | Maranta leuconeura  Prayer Plant,  |  Maize  |  Olive trees,   |  Parlor Palm,  |  Peaches,  |  Petunias,  |  Pine Trees (most),  |   Roses,  |  Snapdragons, |  Spathiphyllum spp .,  |   Tradescantia spp., |    Tulips,   | Yucca spp. |  Horse Chestnuts

“Fluoride and Tea Drinking”

            More info →  HERE  (Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association)

Some pine trees are very sensitive to fluorides and can be used
as bio-indicators for air [and water] pollution.

    Some ferns and rain forest plants can show sensitivity to
fluoride when watered on their foliage.

Fluoride-induced injury (air pollution) to coniferous forests can occur at a distance of 32 km from an emitting source, and total destruction of some species at 13 km distance. Fluorides are released into the air in both a gaseous state (as hydrogen fluoride and silicon tetrafluoride) and in solid particles. The particles fall on, and the gases are absorbed by, vegetation near the polluting industry [or volcano]. If this vegetation includes forage crops, which are fed to cattle, sheep, horses, pigs, or kangaroos. (The EPA says fluoride from Alcoa’s aluminium smelter at Portland [Victoria] is making kangaroos sick. 23 Feb. 2010), serious problems can ensue, since these animals, particularly cattle are vulnerable to fluoride. In fact, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Airborne fluorides have caused more worldwide damage to domestic animals than any other air pollutant.”

[See also: Fluoride Injury Symptoms In Epiphytic Lichens And Mosses  HERE ]
See more further down this page.

Huge compensation payments have been made, – mostly as ‘Out of court settlements‘.

❝  The thing to note with plants is that plants will readily absorb fluorine that is sprayed [(irrigation,) or falls] on the leaves. If flood [or drip] irrigation is used, the plants accumulate far less fluoride due to calcium absorption in the soil and the plant’s discriminatory uptake through the roots  ❞

– Dr. Miller.

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        ↓ Extract from research paper 

Q.  If crops are grown [in soil] where there is fluorine contamination do they take up the fluorine and pass the trouble on to somebody else ?

A.  [R. Allcroft] No, it is not a case of passing it on to somebody else. It has been shown that most plants do not take up fluorine from the soil. There are exceptions: the tea plant and the camellia which appear to be fluorine collectors. Most grasses and root crops do not take it up from soils. It is mostly a question of contamination of the surface, there-fore humans get off lightly because we do not eat grass. The inner parts of cabbages and similar crops are not high in fluorine, only the outer coverings which are removed. Cereal grains are also quite safe…

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f. tox in plants

Fluorine Toxicity in Plants

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…The mechanism by which these produce this
fluorinated compound is not yet known…

Dichapetalum cymosum

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“…Air pollution damage to vegetation


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 Recommended, very comprehensive.


Fluoride damage from city tap water is best avoided especially for rose buds.
Flowers should be placed in clean fluoride free water IMMEDIATELY after cutting.
Bougainvillea flowers WILL last in water only if this is done,
and the ends of the stalks are smashed.

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Faculty Research Lecture

No 151956

 35 Pages PDF — Utah University

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Russian Fluoridation Research

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Fluoride Concentration of Soil and Vegetables in Vicinity of Zinc Smelter…




L.H.Weinstein and A.W. Davison 


Fluoride content of edible Plants



We thank you for this large and comprehensive file ↓



Fluoride is one of the most common airborne pollutants and its phytotoxicity is well known.
Major sources of ai¡borne F. pollution are brickworks, aluminium smelters and phosphate
fertiliser factories. Fluoride is also an impurity in phosphatic fertilisers (2-3Vo) and
this is the major source of F. contamination in agricultural soils. Until recently F.
added to the soil was considered to adsorb strongly to the soil and therefore
was unavailable to the plant. However, some recent studies in agricultural
and industrial situations have shown increases in water extractable
 F. in soils, which could be potentially available to the plant.
Fluoride is considered one of the most 
toxic inorganic pollutants. 



Literature Review 

Fluoride and Plant Life


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Plants and Foods Containing Fluorine – Dr. Olree

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Page 46 of 136


Plants are exposed to fluoride in the soil, and in the air as a result of volcanic activity, natural fires, wind-blown dusts, pesticides or as emissions from processes in which fluorine-containing materials are burned, manufactured, handled, or used (US NAS, 1971).
The main route of entry of fluoride into animals is by ingestion, so plants are important vectors of the element in all ecosystems…

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It is well known that industrial installations producing bricks,
phosphate fertilizers, and glass, along with coal-fired power
stations and aluminium smelters, are the most important
sources of gaseous and particulate fluoride pollution,
as well as volcanoes.

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LICHENS – In the vicinity of an aluminum factory, lichens accumulated 400–600 μg F/g of dry weight (as compared to less than 10 μg/g in un- contaminated regions) [40]. The symptoms of toxic fluoride action include chlorosis, necrosis, weakening and loss of thalli binding to rocks and tree bark. The most sensitive to fluoride are fru- ticose lichens, whose survival decreased to 1% for 4 years of observations. The majority of foliose lichen species also lost up to 88% of biomass, whereas crustose lichens were the most resistant to fluoride action and gradually occupied areas of dying lichens of other species.

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The analysis of fluorine content in Etnean vegetation focused on two of
the most widespread tree species in the area: Chestnut (Castanea Sativa) and
Pine (Pinus Nigra). Pine were generally of the subspecies Laricius (Corsican Pine), the
subspecies Austriaca (Austrian Pine) was sometimes used (where Laricius was absent).

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[ 'Plants Of The Bible' is not fluoride related. ]


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Blue-green algae increased by the use of glyphosate.

We all need clean water to bath in!









Boyne Smelter Queensland – fluoride emissions

Image of Boyne Smelter


The Burning / Smelting Of Many Materials

Will Release Fluorides Into The Environment.

The amount released will depend on the material being burnt or smelted e.g. “dirty” brown coal releases more F. into the air than the hard “clean” coal anthracite.  -  Fluorides are released into the environment via coal combustion and process waters and waste from various industrial processes, including steel manufacture, primary aluminium, copper and nickel production, phosphate ore processing, phosphate fertilizer production and use, glass, brick and ceramic manufacturing, and glue and adhesive production, oil refining, car exhausts and welding.


The use of the fluoride-containing pesticide, sulfuryl fluoride as a food fumigant (trade name ProFume ®) as well as the fluoridation of drinking water, also contribute to the release of fluoride from anthropogenic sources. Based on available data, phosphate ore production and use, as well as aluminium manufacture are the major industrial sources of fluoride release into the environment.

Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) is a radiatively active industrial chemical released into the atmosphere in significant (ktonne/year) quantities. The potential for SO2F2 to contribute to radiative forcing of climate change needs to beassessed. Long path length FTIR/smog chamber techniques were used to investigate the kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O3 with SO2F2, in 700 Torr total pressure of air or N2 at 296 ± 1 K. Upper limits of k(Cl + SO2F2) < 9 × 10−19, k(OH + SO2F2) < 1.7 × 10−14 and k(O3 + SO2F2) < 5.5 × 10−24 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 were determined. Reaction with Cl atoms, OH radicals, or O3 does not provide an efficient removal mechanism for SO2F2. The infrared spectrum of SO2F2 is reported and a radiative efficiency of 0.196 W m−2 ppbv−1 was calculated. Historic production data estimates are presented which provide an upper limit for expected atmospheric concentrations. The radiative forcing of climate change associated with emissions of SO2F2 depends critically on the atmospheric lifetime of SO2F2.3 + SO2F2) < 5.5 × 10−24 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 were determined. Reaction with Cl atoms, OH radicals, or O3 does not provide an efficient removal mechanism for SO2F2. The infrared spectrum of SO2F2 is reported and a radiative efficiency of 0.196 W m−2 ppbv−1 was calculated. Historic production data estimates are presented which provide an upper limit for expected atmospheric concentrations.

The radiative forcing of climate change associated with emissions of SO2F2 depends critically on the atmospheric lifetime of SO2F2.

Further research is urgently needed to define the magnitude of potential non-atmospheric sinks.

          See also→ FLUORIDES – Toxic Profile -U.S. Dept. of Health Services

NEW ↓ research on pesticide residue ↓


Hydrofluoric Acid Leak – Hube Global Chemical Plant-South Korea



National Pollutant Inventory – fluoride emissions (Australia)


Yes you can have fluoride gold!






Distributing fluoride evenly, via thousands of  kilometres of trunk mains,
water pipes, and control valves is, a hydraulic impossibility.
Some of Brisbane’s old water mains contain lead,
which the fluorides release into the water.
The few links below testify to the damage
fluorides can do to various metals.

corrosion & rust Rust strip a

Rust strip c

David Cunningham (Patton)


Dentists F. corrosion



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    Distributing fluoride EVENLY, via many thousands of  kilometres of  the complex system of trunk mains, water pipes, and control valves is a hydraulic impossibility. Readings [Fluoride concentrations] taken at various locations in the water supply system will vary. Dead-ends will often read very high. Because fluorides are corrosive, fibro mains will release asbestos, concrete lined pipes will absorb some fluoride, erode, and reset the concrete down-line during low use times (slow flow), forming partial blockages at bends and junctions. Corrosion of domestic pipes, water meters, hot water systems, washing machines, car radiators, fire mains, valves, soldered fittings and back-flow prevention equipment, will be accelerated. The concentration of fluorides in cooling towers (air conditioning.) will increase due to evaporation, therefor increasing corrosion rates with GREATER risk of  biofilm and  legionnaire’s disease which often breeds under the corrosion.

Accelerated corrosion/rust can also result in staining of water (laundry). Fluoride will leach various heavy metals into the water, from lead solder joints, copper, brass and plastic fittings. The risk of leaks, spills, burst water mains, and-over feeds, and subsequent political cover-ups, is historic and to be expected as occurred in Brisbane, May 2009.  - Fluoride is tasteless but can release ‘tastes’ from pipes etc.  Some of Brisbane’s old water mains contain lead, which the fluorides will release into the water.

     ( See also →  Chlorine dioxide )


Rust strip c

Asbestos water pipes will release more fibres as fluoride eats into the walls of these pipes.

Rust strip c

SAN FRANCISCO – on 29 November 1960 a 200-foot portion of a 50-foot wide street collapsed after an almost-new water main burst. After an analysis of the pipe by Griffin-Hasson laboratories in Los Angeles, it was discovered that fluoridation chemicals had corroded the pipe, which showed a fluoride concentration of 22,000 ppm on the pipe.

Rust strip c

Professor J. B. Polya, University of Tasmania, said:
Since all but the most expensive materials for the reticulation of fluoridated water (rubberised pipes or Monel metal ) react with fluorides, the concentration of fluoride at delivery points may differ greatly from concentrations ot the mixing point. MORE by POLYA
            ♥ Monel metal – an alloy of nickel and copper and other metals (such as iron and /or manganese and/or aluminium.

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Original → HERE


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Heading-F. induced corr. steel rebars..


Rust strip c


Rust strip c


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Alum. – Aluminium sulphate was removed from Sydney
water supply 1994 suspected of causing Alzheimer’s disease.


 Corrosion Control Engineer Explains Fluoride Action


Fluoridation Equipment Failures (some)




Water Hardness in Australia   


Fluoride increases the electrical conductivity of water.
In general, the higher the electrical conductivity of water, the higher its ability to allow corrosion to occur to metals it contacts. Where steel pipes or fittings are connected to brass, bronze or copper fittings, pipes or tanks, an electrogenic (corrosive) action takes place in the presence of fluoridated water, between the steel and the other metals. The steel becomes anodic while the brass, bronze or copper is cathodic, and the steel corrodes. This is called bi-metallic corrosion, and it occurs whenever two different metals are electrically (mechanically) connected in the presence of an electrolyte like fluoridated water


Not a good idea to wash your valuable

‘Tucker car’ in fluoridated water!



 More Tucker Cars

With just 51 built, you’ve likely never seen a Tucker 48 on the road.
But if you were to be blessed enough to see one, you’d be looking 
at a high-performance, ahead-of-its-time grand tourer
worth over $1,000,000 US today.







The most powerful court in America is not
the United States Supreme Court but,
The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania.




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Judge John P. Flaherty, [ on right ]

Now a Supreme Court Judge presided over the trial in the case of

Paul Aitkenhead v. Borough of West View, No. GD-4585-78.

The city was sued over fluoridation. On 16 November 1978,

Judge Flaherty handed down his decree. The critical

parts of his opinion read as follows:

❝ Over the course of five months, the court held periodic hearings, which consisted of extensive expert testimony from as far away as England. At issue was the most recent time-trend study of Dr. Burk and Dr. Yiamouyiannis, which compared cancer mortality in ten cities which fluoridated their water systems with ten cities which did not fluoridate over a period of twenty-eight years from 1940 to 1968.

The study concluded that there was a significant increase
in cancer mortality 
in the fluoridated cities.❞

Contrary to what has been said by promoters of artificial fluoridation of public water supplies, Judge Flaherty’s jurisdiction to make and enter his findings on November 16, 1978 was expressly sustained and upheld as appears in Aitkenhead v. West View, 397 Atl. 2d 878 (Pa. Cmwlth. 1979). Nor were his findings ever disturbed on appeal.

In 1988, Justice Flaherty re-affirmed his convictions

that fluoridation is a very dangerous practice.

In a letter dated January 26, 1988 to Ms. Evelyn Hannan, he stated,

❝  It has been years now since the case involving fluoridation was before me as a trial judge, but since that time nothing I have seen changes my view of the serious hazards occasioned by public fluoridation. To the contrary, what I have read convinces me all the more that in-depth, serious, scientific effort should be undertaken before further expanding a questionable practice. Those who belittle critics of fluoridation do the public a mis-service, yet it seems in the face of strong, uncontradicted prima facie evidence, that is the tactic most often employed.

Whether government has the right to force what it perceives as a benefit to the public was not directly before me in the case, but that also is to be pondered.

My hope is that groups such as yours will spur the scientific community into an objective posture on this issue.

I enclose an essay which was sent to me a few years ago focusing on the issue presented by analyzing epidemiological law data. Perhaps resolution of this narrow question will provide the answer. ❞

More recently, some people have pointed out that Judge Flaherty’s decision was overturned on appeal and they assumed that therefore fluoridation wasn’t really proved to be harmful. Now a member of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, Justice Flaherty clarified that his decision to end fluoridation was overturned only on the grounds that his court did not have jurisdiction to decide the issue.


John P. Flaherty, Jr. (Born 19 November 1931)

was a Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania
from 1978 to 2001 and Chief Justice of the Court from 1996 to 2001.
He retired at the end of 2001.

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In November 1994 the Victorian Parliament passed an amendment to the Fluoridation Act by changing the Constitution to stop the Supreme Court from hearing cases against Artificial Fluoridation. If you are poisoned by fluoride in Victoria tough luck, there is no protection under law.


The Tasmanian Government in 1995 passed a Bill through the Lower House to prohibit the holding of meetings on the subject of Flouridation anywhere at all in Tasmania. Called the Consequential Amendments Bill it was later withdrawn but is being re-worded. Outside of Tasmania, no outcry, no boycotts, why?


A draconian law was enacted in NSW in 1989. Because of this law, a Council cannot cease Fluoridation of its own water supply, after requests by public demand, unless it gets permission from the Health Department. And there is little chance of that.

Australia is a signatory to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966). This U.N. law states that ‘no one shall be subjected without his consent to medical or scientific experimentation.’ The Health Dept. cannot produce one double blind scientific study which proves absolutely the safety and efficacy of fluoridation. It seems we are all experimental subjects.

If fluoridation is so safe or effective, why this repressive legislation ?

Why don’t we hear about it in the media?

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