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…Untested chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to
brain development, and chemicals in existing use 
and all
new chemicals must therefore be tested 
developmental neurotoxicity…


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Lancet Neurol 2014; 13: 330–38
Published Online
February 15, 2014

Department of Environmental Medicine,
University of Southern Denmark,
Odense, Denmark (P Grandjean MD);
Department of Environmental Health,

Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
(P Grandjean); and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai,

New York, NY, USA
(P J Landrigan MD)
Correspondence to:

Dr Philippe Grandjean,
Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology,
Harvard School of Public Health,
401 Park Drive E-110, Boston,
MA 02215, USA
Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity
Philippe Grandjean, Philip J Landrigan

Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency.
Industrial chemicals that injure the developing brain are among the known causes for this rise in prevalence.

In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants:
lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene.

Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental neurotoxicants—manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and the polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

We postulate that even more neurotoxicants remain undiscovered.
To control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose a global prevention strategy.

Untested chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new international clearinghouse.


Disorders of neurobehavioural development aff ect 10–15% of all births,1 and prevalence rates of autism spectrum
disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder seem to be increasing worldwide.2 Subclinical decrements in
brain function are even more common than these neurobehavioural developmental disorders.
All these disabilities can have severe consequences3—they diminish quality of life, reduce academic achievement, and disturb
behaviour, with profound consequences for the welfare and productivity of entire societies.4

The root causes of the present global pandemic of neurodevelopmental disorders are only partly
understood. Although genetic factors have a role,5 they cannot explain recent increases in reported prevalence,
and none of the genes discovered so far seem to be responsible for more than a small proportion of cases.5

Overall, genetic factors seem to account for no more than perhaps 30–40% of all cases of neurodevelopment disorders. Thus, non-genetic, environmental exposures are involved in causation, in some cases probably by interacting with genetically inherited predispositions.

Strong evidence exists that industrial chemicals widely disseminated in the environment are important contributors to what we have called the global, silent pandemic of neurodevelopmental toxicity.6,7

The developing human brain is uniquely vulnerable to toxic chemical exposures, and major windows of
developmental vulnerability occur in utero and during infancy and early childhood.8 During these sensitive life stages, chemicals can cause permanent brain injury at low levels of exposure that would have little or no adverse effect in an adult.

In 2006, we did a systematic review of the published clinical and epidemiological studies into the neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals, with a focus on developmental neurotoxicity.6

We identified five industrial chemicals that could be reliably classified as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls, and toluene.

We also noted 201 chemicals that had been reported to cause injury to the nervous system in adults, mostly in connection with occupational exposures, poisoning incidents, or suicide attempts. Additionally, more than 1000 chemicals have been reported to be neurotoxic in animals in laboratory studies.

We noted that recognition of the risks of industrial chemicals to brain development has historically needed decades of research and scrutiny, as shown in the cases of lead and methylmercury.9,10

In most cases, discovery began with clinical diagnosis of poisoning in workers and episodes of high-dose exposure. More sophisticated epidemiological studies typically began only much later.

Results from such studies documented developmental neurotoxicity at much lower exposure levels than had previously been thought to be safe. Thus, recognition of widespread subclinical toxicity often did not occur until decades after the initial evidence of neurotoxicity.

A recurring theme was that early warnings of subclinical neurotoxicity were often ignored or even dismissed.11

David P Rall, former Director of the US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, once noted that “if thalidomide had caused a ten-point loss of intelligence quotient (IQ) instead of obvious birth defects of the limbs, it would probably still be on the market”.12 Many industrial chemicals marketed at present probably cause IQ deficits of far fewer than ten points and have therefore eluded detection so far, but their combined effects could have enormous consequences. In our 2006 review, 6 we expressed concern that additional developmental neurotoxicants might lurk undiscovered among the 201 chemicals then known to be neurotoxic to adult human beings and among the many thousands of pesticides, solvents, and other industrial chemicals in widespread use that had never been tested for neurodevelopmental toxicity. Since our previous review, new data have emerged about the vulnerability of the developing brain and the neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. Particularly important new evidence derives from prospective epidemiological birth cohort studies.

In this Review, we consider recent information about the developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals

 page 330 Vol 13 March 2014

Review to update our previous report. 6 Additionally, we propose strategies to counter this pandemic and to prevent the spread of neurological disease and disability in children worldwide.

Unique vulnerability of the developing brain

The fetus is not well protected against industrial chemicals. The placenta does not block the passage of many environmental toxicants from the maternal to the fetal circulation,13 and more than 200 foreign chemicals have been detected in umbilical cord blood.14 Additionally, many environmental chemicals are transferred to the infant through human breastmilk.13 During fetal life and early infancy, the blood–brain barrier provides only partial protection against the entry of chemicals into the CNS.15

 Moreover, the developing human brain is exceptionally sensitive to injury caused by toxic chemicals,6 and several developmental processes have been shown to be highly vulnerable to chemical toxicity. For example, in-vitro studies suggest that neural stem cells are very sensitive to neurotoxic substances such as methylmercury.16 Some pesticides inhibit cholinesterase function in the developing brain,17 thereby affecting the crucial regulatory role of acetylcholine before synapse formation.18 Early-life epigenetic changes are also known to affect subsequent gene expression in the brain.19 In summary, industrial chemicals known or suspected to be neurotoxic to adults are also likely to present risks to the developing brain.

Figure 1 shows the unique vulnerability of the brain during early life and indicates how developmental exposures to toxic chemicals are particularly likely to lead to functional deficits and disease later in life.

New findings about known hazards

Recent research on well-documented neurotoxicants has generated important new insights into the neurodevelopment consequences of early exposures to these industrial chemicals.

Joint analyses that gathered data for lead-associated IQ deficits from seven international studies20,21 support the conclusion that no safe level of exposure to lead exists.22

Cognitive deficits in adults who had previously shown lead-associated developmental delays at school age suggest that the effects of lead neurotoxicity are probably permanent.23 Brain imaging of young adults who had raised lead concentrations in their blood during childhood showed exposure-related decreases in brain volume.24 Lead exposure in early childhood is associated with reduced school performance25 and with delinquent behaviour later in life.26,27

 Developmental neurotoxicity due to methyl-mercury occurs at much lower exposures than the concentrations that affect adult brain function.28 Deficits at 7 years of age that were linked to low-level prenatal exposures to methyl-mercury were still detectable at the age of 14 years.29 Some common genetic polymorphisms seem to increase the vulnerability of the developing brain to methyl-mercury toxicity.30 Functional MRI scans of people exposed prenatally to excess amounts of methyl-mercury showed abnormally expanded activation of brain regions in response to sensory stimulation and motor tasks (fi gure 2).31 Because some adverse effects might be counterbalanced by essential fatty acids from seafood, statistical adjustment for maternal diet during pregnancy results in stronger methylmercury eff ects.32,33

Prenatal and early postnatal exposures to inorganic arsenic from drinking water are associated with cognitive deficits that are apparent at school age.34,35 Infants who survived the Morinaga milk arsenic poisoning incident had highly raised risks of neurological disease during adult life.36

The developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls has been consolidated and strengthened by recent fi ndings.37 Although little new information has been published about the developmental neurotoxicity of toluene, much has been learned about the developmental neurotoxicity of another common solvent, ethanol, through research on fetal alcohol exposure. Maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, even in very small quantities, has been linked to a range of neurobehavioural adverse effects in off spring, including reduced IQ, impaired executive function and social judgment, delinquent behaviour, seizures, other neurological signs, and sensory problems.38

Newly recognised developmental neurotoxicants

Prospective epidemiological birth cohort studies make it possible to measure maternal or fetal exposures in real time during pregnancy as these exposures actually occur, thus generating unbiased information about the degree and timing of prenatal exposures. Children in these prospective studies are followed longitudinally and assessed with age-appropriate tests to show delayed or deranged neurobehavioural development.

These powerful epidemiological methods have enabled the discovery of additional developmental neurotoxicants.

Early-life exposures to neurotoxic chemicals


Functional maturation

Neurological disease and degenerative changes

Figure 1: Effect of neurotoxicants during early brain development Exposures in early life to neurotoxic chemicals can cause a wide range of adverse effects on brain development and maturation that can manifest as functional impairments or disease at any point in the human lifespan, from early infancy to very old age. Vol 13 March 2014



Figure 2: Functional MRI scans show abnormal activation in the brain

Average activation during finger tapping with the left hand in three adolescents with increased prenatal methylmercury exposure (A) and three control adolescents (B). The control participants activate the premotor and motor cortices on the right, whereas participants exposed to methylmercury activate these areas bilaterally.31

 Cross-sectional data from Bangladesh show that exposure to manganese from drinking water is associated with reduced mathematics achievement scores in school children.39 A study in Quebec, Canada, showed a strong correlation between manganese concentrations in hair and hyperactivity.40 School-aged children living near manganese mining and processing facilities have shown associations between airborne manganese concentrations and diminished intellectual function41 and with impaired motor skills and reduced olfactory function.42 These results are supported by experimental findings in mice.43

A meta-analysis of 27 cross-sectional studies of children exposed to fluoride in drinking water, mainly from China, suggests an average IQ decrement of about seven points in children exposed to raised fluoride concentrations.44 ♦ Confounding from other substances seemed unlikely in most of these studies. Further characterisation of the dose–response association would be desirable.

 The occupational health literature45 suggests that solvents can act as neurotoxicants, but the identifi cation of individual responsible compounds is hampered by the complexity of exposures. In a French cohort study of 3000 children, investigators linked maternal occupational solvent exposure during pregnancy to defi cuts in behavioural assessment at 2 years of age.46 The data showed dose-related increased risks for hyperactivity and aggressive behaviour. One in every five mothers in this cohort reported solvent exposures in common jobs, such as nurse or other hospital employee, chemist, cleaner, hairdresser, and beautician. In Massachusetts, USA, follow-up of a well-defined population with prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (also called perchlor ethylene) in drinking water showed a tendency towards deficient neurological function and increased risk of psychiatric diagnoses.47

 Acute pesticide poisoning occurs frequently in children worldwide, and subclinical pesticide toxicity is also widespread. Clinical data suggest that acute pesticide poisoning during childhood might lead to lasting neurobehavioural defi cits.48,49 Highly toxic and bioaccumulative pesticides are now banned in high-income nations, but are still used in many low-income and middle- income countries. In particular, the organochlorine compounds dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and chlordecone (Kepone), tend to be highly persistent and remain widespread in the environment and in people’s bodies in high-use regions. Recent studies have shown inverse correlations between serum concentrations of DDT or DDE (which indicate accumulated exposures), and neurodevelopmental performance.50,51

 Organophosphate pesticides are eliminated from the human body much more rapidly than are organochlorines, and exposure assessment is therefore inherently less precise. Nonetheless, three prospective epidemiological birth cohort studies provide new evidence that prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides can cause developmental neurotoxicity. In these studies, prenatal organophosphate exposure was assessed by measurement of maternal urinary excretion of pesticide metabolites during pregnancy. Dose-related correlations were recorded between maternal exposures to chlorpyrifos or other organophosphates and small head circumference at birth—which is an indication of slowed brain growth in utero—and with neurobehavioural deficits that have persisted to at least 7 years of age.52–54 In a subgroup study, MRI of the brain showed that prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure was associated with structural abnormalities that included thinning of the cerebral cortex.55

Herbicides and fungicides might also have neurotoxic potential.56 Propoxur,57 a carbamate pesticide, and permethrine,58 a member of the pyrethroid class of pesticides, have recently been linked to neuro developmental deficits in children.

 The group of compounds known as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants and are structurally very similar to the polychlorinated biphenyls. Experimental evidence now suggests that the PBDEs might also be neurotoxic.59

Epidemiological studies in Europe and the USA have shown neurodevelopmental deficits in children with increased prenatal exposures to these compounds.60–62

Thus, the PBDEs should be regarded as hazards to human neurobehavioural development, although attribution of relative toxic potentials to individual PBDE congeners is not yet possible.

Other suspected developmental neurotoxicants

A serious difficulty that complicates many epidemiological studies of neurodevelopmental toxicity in children is the problem of mixed exposures. Most populations are exposed to more than one neurotoxicant at a time, and yet

 332 Vol 13 March 2014


most studies have only a finite amount of power and precision in exposure assessment to discern the possible effects of even single neurotoxicants. A further problem in many epi demiological studies of non-persistent toxicants is that imprecise assessment of exposure tends to obscure associations that might actually be present.63

Guidance from experimental neurotoxicity studies is therefore crucial. In the assessment of potential developmental neurotoxicants, we have used a strength of evidence approach similar to that used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for assessing epidemiological and experimental studies. Phthalates and bisphenol A are added to many different types of plastics, cosmetics, and other consumer products. Since they are eliminated rapidly in urine, exposure assessment is complicated, and such imprecision might lead to underestimation of the true risk of neurotoxicity. The best-documented eff ects of early-life exposure to phthalates are the consequence of disruption of endocrine signalling.64 Thus, prenatal exposures to phthalates have been linked to both neurodevelopmental deficits and to behavioural abnormalities characterised by shortened attention span and impaired social interactions.65 The neurobehavioral toxicity of these compounds seems to affect mainly boys and could therefore relate to endocrine disruption in the developing brain.66 In regard to bisphenol A, a prospective study showed that point estimates of exposure during gestation were linked to abnormalities in behaviour and executive function in children at 3 years of age.67

 Exposure to air pollution can cause neuro developmental delays and disorders of behavioural functions.68,69 Of the individual components of air pollution, carbon monoxide is a well-documented neurotoxicant, and indoor exposure to this substance has now been linked to defycient neurobehavioural performance in children.70 Less clear is the reported contribution of nitrogen oxides to neurodevelopmental defi cits,71 since these compounds often co-occur with carbon monoxide as part of complex emissions. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of hundreds of chemical compounds and is now a well- documented cause of developmental neurotoxicity.72

Infants exposed pre natally to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from traffic exhausts at 5 years of age showed greater cognitive impairment and lower IQ than those exposed to lower levels of these compounds.68

Perfluorinated compounds, such as perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulphonate, are highly persistent in the environment and in the human body, and seem to be neurotoxic.73 Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that these compounds might indeed impede neurobehavioural development.74

Developmental neurotoxicity and clinical neurology Exposures in early life to developmental neurotoxicants are now being linked to specific clinical syndromes in children. For example, an increased risk of attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder has been linked to prenatal exposures to manganese, organophosphates,75 and phthalates.76 Phthalates have also been linked to behaviours that resemble components of autism spectrum disorder.77 Prenatal exposure to automotive air pollution in California, USA, has been linked to an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder.78

The persistent decrements in intelligence documented in children, adolescents, and young adults exposed in early life to neurotoxicants could presage the development of neurodegenerative disease later in life. Thus, accumulated exposure to lead is associated with cognitive decline in the elderly.79

Manganese exposure may lead to parkinsonism, and experimental studies have reported Parkinson’s disease as a result of developmental exposures to the insecticide rotenone, the herbicides paraquat and maneb, and the solvent trichloroethylene.80 Any environmental exposure that increases the risk of neurodegenerative disorders in later life (figure 1) requires urgent investigation as the world’s population continues to age.81

The expanding complement of neurotoxicants In our 2006 review,6 we expressed concern that additional developmental neurotoxicants might lie undiscovered in the 201 chemicals that were then known to be neurotoxic to human adults, in the roughly 1000 chemicals known to be neurotoxic in animal species, and in the many thousands of industrial chemicals and pesticides that have never been tested for neurotoxicity. Exposure to neurotoxic chemicals is not rare, since almost half of the 201 known human neurotoxicants are regarded as high production volume chemicals. Our updated literature review shows that since 2006 the list of recognised human neurotoxicants has expanded by 12 chemicals, from 202 (including ethanol) to 214 (table 1 and appendix)—that is, by about two substances per year. Many of these chemicals are widely used and disseminated extensively in the global environment. Of the newly identified neuro developmental toxicants, pesticides constitute the largest group, as was already the case

See Online for appendix

Number Number Identified since 2006

known in known in

2006 2013

Metals and inorganic 25 26 Hydrogen phosphide82

compounds Organic solvents 39* 40 Ethyl chloride83

Pesticides 92 101

Acetamiprid,84 amitraz,85 avermectin,86 emamectin,87

fipronil (Termidor), [FLUORIDE] 88 glyphosate,89 hexaconazole,90

imidacloprid,91 tetramethylenedisulfotetramine92

Other organic compounds 46 47 1,3-butadiene93

Total 202* 214 12 new substances

 *Including ethanol.

Table 1: Industrial chemicals known to be toxic to the human nervous system in 2006 and 2013,

according to chemical group Vol 13 March 2014


Known in 2006 Newly identified

Metals and inorganic compounds Arsenic and arsenic compounds, Fluoride and manganese lead, and methylmercury Organic solvents (Ethanol) toluene Tetrachloroethylene

Pesticides None Chlorpyrifos and DDT/DDE

Other organic compounds Polychlorinated biphenyls Brominated diphenyl ethers

Total 6* 6

DDT=dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. DDE=dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene. *Including ethanol.

Table 2: Industrial chemicals known to cause developmental neurotoxicity in human beings in 2006 and

2013, according to chemical group

Number of IQ points lost

Major medical and neurodevelopmental disorders

 Preterm birth 34 031 025

Autism spectrum disorders 7 109 899

Paediatric bipolar disorder 8 164 080

Attention-defi cit hyperactivity disorder 16 799 400

Postnatal traumatic brain injury 5 827 300

Environmental chemical exposures

Lead 22 947 450

Methylmercury 1 590 000*

Organophosphate pesticides 16 899 488

Other neurotoxicants Unknown

IQ=intelligence quotient. Data from from Bellinger.94 *From Grandjean and


Table 3: Total losses of IQ points in US children 0–5 years of age associated with major risk factors, including developmental exposure to industrial chemicals that cause neurotoxicity 2006. In the same 7-year period, the number of known developmental neurotoxicants has doubled from six to 12 (table 2). Although the pace of scientific discovery of new neurodevelopmental hazards is more rapid today than in the past, it is still slower than the identification of adult neurotoxicants.

 The gap that exists between the number of substances known to be toxic to the adult brain and the smaller number known to be toxic to the much more vulnerable developing brain is unlikely to close in the near future.

This discrepancy is attributable to the fact that toxicity to the adult brain is usually discovered as a result of acute poisoning incidents, typically with a clear and immediate association between causative exposure and adverse effects, as occurs for workplace exposures or suicide attempts. By contrast, the recognition of developmental neurotoxicity relies on two sets of evidence collected at two different points in time: exposure data (often obtained from the mother during pregnancy), and data for the child’s postnatal neurobehavioural development (often obtained 5–10 years later). Because brain functions develop sequentially, the full effects of early neurotoxic damage might not become apparent until school age or beyond. The most reliable evidence of developmental neurotoxicity is obtained through prospective studies that include real-time recording of information about exposure in early life followed by serial clinical assessments of the child. Such research is inherently slow and is hampered by the difficulty of reliable assessment of exposures to individual toxicants in complex mixtures.

Consequences of developmental neurotoxicity

Developmental neurotoxicity causes brain damage that is too often untreatable and frequently permanent. The consequence of such brain damage is impaired CNS function that lasts a lifetime and might result in reduced intelligence, as expressed in terms of lost IQ points, or disruption in behaviour. A recent study compared the estimated total IQ losses from major paediatric causes and showed that the magnitude of losses attributable to lead, pesticides, and other neurotoxicants was in the same range as, or even greater than, the losses associated with medical events such as preterm birth, traumatic brain injury, brain tumours, and congenital heart disease (table 3).94

Loss of cognitive skills reduces children’s academic and economic attainments and has substantial long-term economic effects on societies.4 Thus, each loss of one IQ point has been estimated to decrease average lifetime earnings capacity by about €12 000 or US$18 000 in 2008 currencies.96 The most recent estimates from the USA indicate that the annual costs of childhood lead poisoning are about US$50 billion and that the annual costs of methylmercury toxicity are roughly US$5 billion.97 In the European Union, methylmercury exposure is estimated to cause a loss of about 600 000 IQ points every year, corresponding to an annual economic loss of close to €10 billion. In France alone, lead exposure is associated with IQ losses that correspond to annual costs that might exceed €20 billion.98 Since IQ losses represent only one aspect of developmental neurotoxicity, the total costs are surely even higher.

Evidence from worldwide sources indicates that average national IQ scores are associated with gross domestic product (GDP)—a correlation that might be causal in both directions.99 Thus, poverty can cause low IQ, but the opposite is also true. In view of the widespread exposures to lead, pesticides, and other neurotoxicants in developing countries, where chemical controls might be ineffective compared with those in more developed countries,100,101 developmental exposures to industrial chemicals could contribute substantially to the recorded correlation between IQ and GDP. If this theory is true, developing countries could take decades to emerge from poverty. Consequently, pollution abatement might then be delayed, and a vicious circle can result.

The antisocial behaviour, criminal behaviour, violence, and substance abuse that seem to result from early-life exposures to some neurotoxic chemicals result in increased needs for special educational services, institutionalisation, and even incarceration. In the USA, the murder rate fell sharply 20 years after the removal of lead from petrol,102 a finding consistent with the idea that 334 Vol 13 March 2014


exposure to lead in early life is a powerful determinant of behaviour decades later. Although poorly quantified, such behavioural and social consequences of neuro-development toxicity are potentially very costly.76

Prevention of developmental neurotoxicity caused by industrial chemicals is highly cost effective. A study that quantified the gains resulting from the phase-out of lead additives from petrol reported that in the USA alone, the introduction of lead-free petrol has generated an economic benefit of $200 billion in each annual birth cohort since 1980,103 an aggregate benefit in the past 30 years of over $3 trillion. This success has since been repeated in more than 150 countries, resulting in vast additional savings.

Every US$1 spent to reduce lead hazards is estimated to produce a benefit of US$17–220, which represents a cost- benefit ratio that is even better than that for vaccines.4 Furthermore, the costs associated with the late-life consequences of developmental neurotoxicity are enormous, and the benefits from prevention of degenerative brain disorders could be very substantial.

New methods to identify developmental neurotoxicants

New toxicological methods now allow a rational strategy for the identification of developmental neurotoxicants based on a multidisciplinary approach.104 A new guideline has been approved as a standardised approach for the identification of developmental neurotoxicants.105

However, completion of such tests is expensive and requires the use of many laboratory animals, and reliance on mammals for chemicals testing purposes needs to be reduced.106 US governmental agencies have established the National Center for Computational Toxicology and an initiative— the Tox 21 Program—to promote the evolution of toxicology from a mainly observational science to a predominantly predictive science.107

In-vitro methods have now reached a level of predictive validity that means they can be applied to neurotoxicity testing.108 Some of these tests are based on neural stem cells. Although these cell systems do not have a blood– brain barrier and particular metabolising enzymes, these approaches are highly promising. As a further option, data for protein links and protein–protein interactions can now be used to explore potential neurotoxicity in silica, 109 thus showing that existing computational methods might predict potential toxic eff ects.110 In summary, use of the whole range of approaches along with clinical and epidemiological evidence, when available, should enable the integration of information for use in at least a tentative risk assessment. With these methods, we anticipate that the pace of scientifi c discovery in developmental neurotoxicology will accelerate further in the years ahead.

Conclusions and recommendations

The updated findings presented in this Review confirm and extend our 2006 conclusions.6 During the 7 years since our previous report, the number of industrial chemicals recognised to be developmental neurotoxicants has doubled. Exposures to these industrial chemicals in the environment contribute to the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity.

Two major obstacles impede efforts to control the global pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity. These barriers, which we noted in our previous review 6 and were recently underlined by the US National Research Council,111 are: large gaps in the testing of chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity, which results in a paucity of systematic data to guide prevention; and the huge amount of proof needed for regulation. Thus, very few chemicals have been regulated as a result of developmental neurotoxicity.

 The presumption that new chemicals and technologies are safe until proven otherwise is a fundamental problem.111 Classic examples of new chemicals that were introduced because they conveyed certain benefits, but were later shown to cause great harm, include several neurotoxicants, asbestos, thalidomide, diethylstilbestrol, and the chlorofluorocarbons.112 A recurring theme in each of these cases was that commercial introduction and wide dissemination of the chemicals preceded any systematic effort to assess potential toxicity. Particularly absent were advance efforts to study possible effects on children’s health or the potential of exposures in early life to disrupt early development. Similar challenges have been confronted in other public health disasters, such as those caused by tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and refined foods. These problems have been recently termed industrial epidemics.113

To control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose a coordinated international strategy (panel).

Mandatory and transparent assessment of evidence for neurotoxicity is the foundation of this strategy.

Assessment of toxicity must be followed by governmental regulation and market intervention. Voluntary controls seem to be of little value.11

Panel: Recommendations for an international clearinghouse on neurotoxicity The main purpose of this agency would be to promote optimum brain health, not just avoidance of neurological disease, by inspiring, facilitating, and coordinating research and public policies that aim to protect brain development during the most sensitive life stages.

The main efforts would aim to:

Screen industrial chemicals present in human exposures for neurotoxic effects so that

hazardous substances can be identified for tighter control.

Stimulate and coordinate new research to understand how toxic chemicals interfere with brain development and how best to prevent long-term dysfunctions and deficits

•Function as a clearinghouse for research data and strategies by gathering and assessing documentation about brain toxicity and stimulating international collaboration on research and prevention

•Promote policy development aimed at protecting vulnerable populations against chemicals that are toxic to the brain without needing unrealistic amounts of scientific proof Vol 13 March 2014


The three pillars of our proposed strategy are:

legally mandated testing of existing industrial chemicals and pesticides already in commerce, with prioritisation of those with the most widespread use, and incorporation of new assessment technologies; legally mandated premarket evaluation of new chemicals before they enter markets, with use of precautionary approaches for chemical testing that recognise the unique vulnerability of the developing brain; and the formation of a new clearinghouse for neurotoxicity as a parallel to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This new agency will assess industrial chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity with a precautionary approach that emphasises prevention and does not require absolute proof of toxicity. It will facilitate and coordinate epidemiological and toxicological studies and will lead the urgently needed global programmes for prevention.

These new approaches must reverse the dangerous presumption that new chemicals and technologies are safe until proven otherwise. They must also overcome the existing requirement to produce absolute proof of toxicity before action can be started to protect children against neurotoxic substances. Precautionary interpretation of data about developmental neurotoxicity should take into account the very large individual and societal costs that result from failure to act on available documentation to prevent disease in children.114 Academic research has often favoured scepticism and required extensive replication before acceptance of a hypothesis,114 thereby adding to the inertia in toxicology and environmental health research and the consequent disregard of many other potential neurotoxicants.115 Additionally, the strength of evidence that is needed to constitute “proof” should be analysed in a societal perspective, so that the implications of ignoring a developmental neurotoxicant and of failing to act on the basis of available data are also taken into account.

Finally, we emphasise that the total number of neurotoxic substances now recognised almost certainly represents an underestimate of the true number of developmental neurotoxicants that have been released into the global environment. Our very great concern is that children [?]

Search strategy and selection criteria We identified studies published since 2006 on the neurotoxic effects of industrial chemicals in human beings by using the search terms “neurotoxicity syndromes”[MeSH], “neurotoxic”,“neurologic”, or “neuro*”, combined with “exposure” and “poisoning” in PubMed, from 2006 to the end of 2012. For developmental neurotoxicity, the search terms were “prenatal exposure delayed effects”[MeSH], “maternal exposure” or “maternal fetal exchange”, “developmental disabilities/chemically induced” and “neurotoxins”, all of which were searched for with the limiters “All Child: 0–18 years, Human”.

We also used references cited in the publications retrieved. worldwide are being exposed to unrecognised toxic chemicals that are silently eroding intelligence, disrupting behaviours, truncating future achievements, and damaging societies, perhaps most seriously in developing countries. A new framework of action is needed.


Both authors did the literature review, wrote and revised the report, and approved the final version.

Conflicts of interest

PG has provided paid expert testimony about mercury toxicology for the US Department of Justice. PJL has provided paid expert testimony in cases of childhood lead poisoning. We declare that we have no other conflicts of interest.


This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (ES09584, ES09797, and ES11687). The funding source had no role in the literature review, interpretation of data, writing of this Review, or in the decision to submit for publication. The contents of this paper are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. We thank Mary S Wolff (Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA) and Linda S Birnbaum (US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA) for their critical reading of the report.



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338 Vol 13 March 2014

 + ItQ decrement of about seven points for each sucessive generation.


Double Blue bar ss


 As from today, water fluoridation must be prohibited in all Member States of the EC 

Doug Cross

20th January 2014

(For the PDF version of this comment CLICK HERE ) 

The last legal loophole through which the British and Irish governments have been able to wriggle in their continued imposition of fluoridated water supplies finally closed today. The addition of fluorosilicic acid to any food is now completely banned throughout the entire European Community.

June 2013

This is not a recent event but seems to have been missed by the main media.


7  October 2012

Fluoride Accident South Korea

↓ This Video runs for 65 seconds ↓

Hydrogen Fluoride kills 5

↑ Warning, disturbing short video ↑

An estimated 8 tons of HF was released.
5 people including the 2 workers perished,
18 responders, workers, reporter wound-up in the hospital,
almost 3000 villagers from 2 villages downwind of the facility
were treated for irritation, exposure.

Five workers were killed and 18 others were injured in the blast at chemical maker Hube Global at the Gumi National Industrial Complex in the industrial city, about 200 kilometers southeast of Seoul.

 The gas leak has cost factories in the industrial complex about 17.7 billion won (US$15.9 million) in lost production, officials said. Hundreds of angry villagers in Gumi who suffered after the massive gas leak moved to a safer region with some residents reporting blood in their saliva. About 110 elderly people in Bongsan-ri village evacuated to a facility about 10 kilometers away.


Sorry this is a bit technical …
Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity:
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Anna L. Choi,1 Guifan Sun,2 Ying Zhang,3 and Philippe Grandjean1,4

Author information ► Article notes ►

Copyright and License information ►



Although fluoride may cause neurotoxicity in animal models and
acute fluoride poisoning causes neurotoxicity in adults,
very little is known of its effects on children’s neurodevelopment.


We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to investigatethe effects of increased fluoride exposure and delayed neurobehavioral development.Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Water Resources Abstracts, and TOXNET databases through 2011 for eligible studies. We also searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, because many studies on fluoride neurotoxicity have been published in Chinese journals only. In total, we identified 27 eligible epidemiological studies with high and reference exposures, end points of IQ scores, or related cognitive function measures with means and variances for the two exposure groups. Using random-effects models, we estimated the standardized mean difference between exposed and reference groups across all studies. We conducted sensitivity analyses restricted to studies using the same outcome assessment and having drinking-water fluoride as the only exposure. We performed the Cochran test for heterogeneity between studies, Begg’s funnel plot, and Egger test to assess publication bias, and conducted meta-regressions to explore sources of variation in mean differences among the studies.


The standardized weighted mean difference in IQ score between exposed and reference populations was –0.45 (95% confidence interval: –0.56, –0.35) using a random-effects model. Thus, children in high-fluoride areas had significantly lower IQ scores than those who lived in low-fluoride areas. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses also indicated inverse associations, although the substantial heterogeneity did not appear to decrease.


The results support the possibility of an adverse effect of high fluoride exposure on children’s neurodevelopment. Future research should include detailed individual-level information on prenatal exposure, neurobehavioral performance, and covariates for adjustment.


fluoride, intelligence, neurotoxicityA recent report from the National Research Council (NRC 2006) concluded that adverse effects of high fluoride concentrations in drinking water may be of concern and that additional research is warranted. Fluoride may cause neurotoxicity in laboratory animals, including effects on learning and memory (Chioca et al. 2008Mullenix et al. 1995). A recent experimental study where the rat hippocampal neurons were incubated with various concentrations (20 mg/L, 40 mg/L, and 80 mg/L) of sodium fluoride in vitro showed that fluoride neurotoxicity may target hippocampal neurons (Zhang M et al. 2008). Although acute fluoride poisoning may be neurotoxic to adults, most of the epidemiological information available on associations with children’s neurodevelopment is from China, where fluoride generally occurs in drinking water as a natural contaminant, and the concentration depends on local geological conditions. In many rural communities in China, populations with high exposure to fluoride in local drinking-water sources may reside in close proximity to populations without high exposure (NRC 2006).Opportunities for epidemiological studies depend on the existence of comparable population groups exposed to different levels of fluoride from drinking water. Such circumstances are difficult to find in many industrialized countries, because fluoride concentrations in community water are usually no higher than 1 mg/L, even when fluoride is added to water supplies as a public health measure to reduce tooth decay. Multiple epidemiological studies of developmental fluoride neurotoxicity were conducted in China because of the high fluoride concentrations that are substantially above 1 mg/L in well water in many rural communities, although microbiologically safe water has been accessible to many rural households as a result of the recent 5-year plan (2001–2005) by the Chinese government. It is projected that all rural residents will have access to safe public drinking water by 2020 (World Bank 2006). However, results of the published studies have not been widely disseminated. Four studies published in English (Li XS et al. 1995; Lu et al. 2000Xiang et al. 2003Zhao et al. 1996) were cited in a recent report from the NRC (2006), whereas the World Health Organization (2002) has considered only two (Li XS et al. 1995; Zhao et al. 1996) in its most recent monograph on fluoride.Fluoride readily crosses the placenta (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 2003). Fluoride exposure to the developing brain, which is much more susceptible to injury caused by toxicants than is the mature brain, may possibly lead to permanent damage (Grandjean and Landrigan 2006). In response to the recommendation of the NRC (2006), the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the U.S. EPA recently announced that DHHS is proposing to change the recommended level of fluoride in drinking water to 0.7 mg/L from the currently recommended range of 0.7–1.2 mg/L, and the U.S. EPA is reviewing the maximum amount of fluoride allowed in drinking water, which currently is set at 4.0 mg/L (U.S. EPA 2011).To summarize the available literature, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on increased fluoride exposure in drinking water associated with neurodevelopmental delays. We specifically targeted studies carried out in rural China that have not been widely disseminated, thus complementing the studies that have been included in previous reviews and risk assessment reports. Go to:


Search strategy. We searched MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA;, Embase (Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, the Netherlands;, Water Resources Abstracts (Proquest, Ann Arbor, MI, USA;, and TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network; National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA; databases to identify studies of drinking-water fluoride and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. In addition, we searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI; Beijing, China; database to identify studies published in Chinese journals only. Key words included combinations of “fluoride” or “drinking water fluoride,” “children,” “neurodevelopment” or “neurologic” or “intelligence” or “IQ.” We also used references cited in the articles identified. We searched records for 1980–2011. Our literature search identified 39 studies, among which 36 (92.3%) were studies with high and reference exposure groups, and 3 (7.7%) studies were based on individual-level measure of exposures. The latter showed that dose-related deficits were found, but the studies were excluded because our meta-analysis focused on studies with the high- and low-exposure groups only. In addition, two studies were published twice, and the duplicates were excluded.Inclusion criteria and data extraction. The criteria for inclusion of studies included studies with high and reference fluoride exposures, end points of IQ scores or other related cognitive function measures, presentation of a mean outcome measure, and associated measure of variance [95% confidence intervals (CIs) or SEs and numbers of participants]. Interpretations of statistical significance are based on an alpha level of 0.05. Information included for each study also included the first author, location of the study, year of publication, and numbers of participants in high-fluoride and low-fluoride areas. We noted and recorded the information on age and sex of children, and parental education and income if available.Statistical analysis. We used STATA (version 11.0; StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) and available commands (Stern 2009) for the meta-analyses. A standardized weighted mean difference (SMD) was computed using both fixed-effects and random-effects models. The fixed-effects model uses the Mantel–Haenszel method assuming homogeneity among the studies, whereas the random-effects model uses the DerSimonian and Laird method, incorporating both a within-study and an additive between-studies component of variance when there is between-study heterogeneity (Egger et al. 2001). The estimate of the between-study variation is incorporated into both the SE of the estimate of the common effect and the weight of individual studies, which was calculated as the inverse sum of the within and between study variance. We evaluated heterogeneity among studies using the I2 statistic, which represents the percentage of total variation across all studies due to between-study heterogeneity (Higgins and Thompson 2002). We evaluated the potential for publication bias using Begg and Egger tests and visual inspection of a Begg funnel plot (Begg and Mazumdar 1994Egger et al. 1997). We also conducted independent meta-regressions to estimate the contribution of study characteristics (mean age in years from the age range and year of publication in each study) to heterogeneity among the studies. The scoring standard for the Combined Raven’s Test–The Rural edition in China (CRT-RC) test classifies scores of ≤ 69 and 70–79 as low and marginal intelligence, respectively (Wang D et al. 1989). We also used the random-effects models to estimate risk ratios for the association between fluoride exposure and a low/marginal versus normal Raven’s test score among children in studies that used the CRT-RC test (Wang D et al. 1989). Scores indicating low and marginal intelligence (≤ 69 and 70–79, respectively) were combined as a single outcome due to small numbers of children in each outcome subgroup.


Six of the 34 studies identified were excluded because of missing information on the number of subjects or the mean and variance of the outcome [see Figure 1 for a study selection flow chart and Supplemental Material, Table S1 ( for additional information on studies that were excluded from the analysis]. Another study (Trivedi et al. 2007) was excluded because SDs reported for the outcome parameter were questionably small (1.13 for the high-fluoride group, and 1.23 for the low-fluoride group) and the SMD (–10.8; 95% CI: –11.9, –9.6) was > 10 times lower than the second smallest SMD (–0.95; 95% CI: –1.16, –0.75) and 150 times lower than the largest SMD (0.07; 95% CI: –0.083, 0.22) reported for the other studies, which had relatively consistent SMD estimates. Inclusion of this study in the meta-analysis resulted with a much smaller pooled random-effects SMD estimate and a much larger I2 (–0.63; 95% CI: –0.83, –0.44, I2 94.1%) compared with the estimates that excluded this study (–0.45; 95% CI: –0.56, –0.34, I2 80%) (see Supplemental Material, Figure S1). Characteristics of the 27 studies included are shown in Table 1 (An et al. 1992; Chen et al. 1991Fan et al. 2007Guo et al. 1991Hong et al. 2001; Li FH et al. 2009; Li XH et al. 2010; Li XS 1995; Li Y et al. 1994; Li Y et al. 2003; Lin et al. 1991Lu et al. 2000Poureslami et al. 2011Ren et al. 1989Seraj et al. 2006Sun et al. 1991; Wang G et al. 1996; Wang SH et al. 2001; Wang SX et al. 2007; Wang ZH et al. 2006; Xiang et al. 2003Xu et al. 1994Yang et al. 1994Yao et al. 19961997; Zhang JW et al. 1998; Zhao et al. 1996). Two of the studies included in the analysis were conducted in Iran (Poureslami et al. 2011Seraj et al. 2006); the other study cohorts were populations from China. Two cohorts were exposed to fluoride from coal burning (Guo et al. 1991; Li XH et al. 2010); otherwise populations were exposed to fluoride through drinking water. The CRT-RC was used to measure the children’s intelligence in 16 studies. Other intelligence measures included the Wechsler Intelligence tests (3 studies; An et al. 1992Ren et al. 1989; Wang ZH et al. 1996), Binet IQ test (2 studies; Guo et al. 1991; Xu et al. 1994), Raven’s test (2 studies; Poureslami et al. 2011Seraj et al. 2006), Japan IQ test (2 studies; Sun et al. 1991; Zhang JW et al. 1998), Chinese comparative intelligence test (1 study; Yang et al. 1994), and the mental work capacity index (1 study; Li Y et al. 1994). Because each of the intelligence tests used is designed to measure general intelligence, we used data from all eligible studies to estimate the possible effects of fluoride exposure on general intelligence. Figure 1

Flow diagram of the meta-analysis.

Table 1 Characteristics of epidemiological studies of fluoride exposure and children’s cognitive outcomes.In addition, we conducted a sensitivity analysis restricted to studies that used similar tests to measure the outcome (specifically, the CRT-RC, Wechsler Intelligence test, Binet IQ test, or Raven’s test), and an analysis restricted to studies that used the CRT-RC. We also performed an analysis that excluded studies with co-exposures including iodine and arsenic, or with non-drinking-water fluoride exposure from coal burning.Pooled SMD estimates. Among the 27 studies, all but one study showed random-effect SMD estimates that indicated an inverse association, ranging from –0.95 (95% CI: –1.16, –0.75) to –0.10 (95% CI: –0.25, 0.04) (Figure 2). The study with a positive association reported an SMD estimate of 0.07 (95% CI: –0.8, 0.22). Similar results were found with the fixed-effects SMD estimates. The fixed-effects pooled SMD estimate was –0.40 (95% CI: –0.44, –0.35), with a p-value < 0.001 for the test for homogeneity. The random-effects SMD estimate was –0.45 (95% CI: –0.56, –0.34) with an I2 of 80% and homogeneity test p-value < 0.001 (Figure 2). Because of heterogeneity (excess variability) between study results, we used primarily the random-effects model for subsequent sensitivity analyses, which is generally considered to be the more conservative method [*] (Egger et al. 2001). Among the restricted sets of intelligence tests, the SMD for the model with only CRT-RC tests and drinking-water exposure (and to a lesser extent the model with only CRT-RC tests) was lower than that for all studies combined, although the difference did not appear to be significant. Heterogeneity, however, remained at a similar magnitude when the analyses were restricted (Table 2) .Figure 2 Random-effect standardized weighted mean difference (SMD) estimates and 95% CIs of child’s intelligence score associated with high exposure to fluoride. SMs for individual studies are shown as solid diamonds (), and the pooled SMD is Table 2 Sensitivity analyses of pooled random-effects standardized weighted mean difference (SMD) estimates of child’s intelligence score with high exposure of fluoride.Sources of heterogeneity. We performed meta-regression models to assess study characteristics as potential predictors of effect. Information on the child’s sex and parental education were not reported in > 80% of the studies, and only 7% of the studies reported household income. These variables were therefore not included in the models. Among the two covariates, year of publication (0.02; 95% CI: 0.006, 0.03), but not mean age of the study children (–0.02; 95% CI: –0.094, 0.04), was a significant predictor in the model with all 27 studies included. I2residual 68.7% represented the proportion of residual between-study variation due to heterogeneity. From the adjusted R2, 39.8% of between-study variance was explained by the two covariates. The overall test of the covariates was significant (p = 0.004).When the model was restricted to the 16 studies that used the CRT-RC, the child’s age (but not year of publication) was a significant predictor of the SMD. The R2 of 65.6% of between-study variance was explained by the two covariates, and only 47.3% of the residual variation was attributable to heterogeneity. The overall test of both covariates in the model remained significant (p = 0.0053). On further restriction of the model to exclude the 7 studies with arsenic and iodine as co-exposures and fluoride originating from coal burning (thus including only the 9 with fluoride exposure from drinking water), neither age nor year of publication was a significant predictor, and the overall test of covariates was less important (p = 0.062), in accordance with the similarity of intelligence test outcomes and the source of exposure in the studies included. Although official reports of lead concentrations in the study villages in China were not available, some studies reported high percentage (95–100%) of low lead exposure (less than the standard of 0.01 mg/L) in drinking-water samples in villages from several study provinces (Bi et al. 2010Peng et al. 2008Sun 2010).Publication bias. A Begg’s funnel plot with the SE of SMD from each study plotted against its corresponding SMD did not show clear evidence of asymmetry, although two studies with a large SE also reported relatively large effect estimates, which may be consistent with publication bias or heterogeneity (Figure 3). The plot appears symmetrical for studies with larger SE, but with substantial variation in SMD among the more precise studies, consistent with the heterogeneity observed among the studies included in the analysis. Begg (p = 0.22) and Egger (p = 0.11) tests did not indicate significant (p < 0.05) departures from symmetry. Figure 3 Begg’s funnel plot showing individual studies included in the analysis according to random-effect standardized weighted mean difference (SMD) estimates (x-axis) and the SE (se) of each study-specific SMD (y-axis). The solid vertical line indicates Pooled risk ratios. The relative risk (RR) of a low/marginal score on the CRT-RC test (< 80) among children with high fluoride exposure compared with those with low exposure (16 studies total) was 1.93 (95% CI: 1.46, 2.55; I2 58.5%). When the model was restricted to 9 studies that used the CRT-RC and included only drinking-water fluoride exposure (Chen et al. 1991Fan et al. 2007; Li XH et al. 2010; Li XS et al. 1995; Li Y et al. 2003; Lu et al. 2000; Wang ZH et al. 2006; Yao et al. 1996, 1997), the estimate was similar (RR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.65; I2 70.6%). Although fluoride exposure showed inverse associations with test scores, the available exposure information did not allow a formal dose–response analysis. However, dose-related differences in test scores occurred at a wide range of water-fluoride concentrations. Go to:


Findings from our meta-analyses of 27 studies published over 22 years suggest an inverse association between high fluoride exposure and children’s intelligence. Children who lived in areas with high fluoride exposure had lower IQ scores than those who lived in low-exposure or control areas. Our findings are consistent with an earlier review (Tang et al. 2008), although ours more systematically addressed study selection and exclusion information, and was more comprehensive in a) including 9 additional studies, b) performing meta-regression to estimate the contribution of study characteristics as sources of heterogeneity, and c) estimating pooled risk ratios for the association between fluoride exposure and a low/marginal Raven’s test score.As noted by the NRC committee (NRC 2006), assessments of fluoride safety have relied on incomplete information on potential risks. In regard to developmental neurotoxicity, much information has in fact been published, although mainly as short reports in Chinese that have not been available to most expert committees. We carried out an extensive review that includes epidemiological studies carried out in China. Although most reports were fairly brief and complete information on covariates was not available, the results tended to support the potential for fluoride-mediated developmental neurotoxicity at relatively high levels of exposure in some studies. We did not find conclusive evidence of publication bias, although there was substantial heterogeneity among studies. Drinking water may contain other neurotoxicants, such as arsenic, but exclusion of studies including arsenic and iodine as co-exposures in a sensitivity analysis resulted in a lower estimate, although the difference was not significant. The exposed groups had access to drinking water with fluoride concentrations up to 11.5 mg/L (Wang SX et al. 2007); thus, in many cases concentrations were above the levels recommended (0.7–1.2 mg/L; DHHS) or allowed in public drinking water (4.0 mg/L; U.S. EPA) in the United States (U.S. EPA 2011). A recent cross-sectional study based on individual-level measure of exposures suggested that low levels of water fluoride (range, 0.24–2.84 mg/L) had significant negative associations with children’s intelligence (Ding et al. 2011). This study was not included in our meta-analysis, which focused only on studies with exposed and reference groups, thereby precluding estimation of dose-related effects.The results suggest that fluoride may be a developmental neurotoxicant that affects brain development at exposures much below those that can cause toxicity in adults (Grandjean 1982). For neurotoxicants such as lead and methylmercury, adverse effects are associated with blood concentrations as low as 10 nmol/L. Serum fluoride concentrations associated with high intakes from drinking water may exceed 1 mg/L, or 50 µmol/L—more than 1,000 times the levels of some other neurotoxicants that cause neurodevelopmental damage. Supporting the plausibility of our findings, rats exposed to 1 ppm (50 µmol/L) of water fluoride for 1 year showed morphological alterations in the brain and increased levels of aluminum in brain tissue compared with controls (Varner et al. 1998).The estimated decrease in average IQ associated with fluoride exposure based on our analysis may seem small and may be within the measurement error of IQ testing. However, as research on other neurotoxicants has shown, a shift to the left of IQ distributions in a population will have substantial impacts, especially among those in the high and low ranges of the IQ distribution (Bellinger 2007).Our review cannot be used to derive an exposure limit, because the actual exposures of the individual children are not known. Misclassification of children in both high- and low-exposure groups may have occurred if the children were drinking water from other sources (e.g., at school or in the field).The published reports clearly represent independent studies and are not the result of duplicate publication of the same studies (we removed two duplicates). Several studies (Hong et al. 2001Lin et al. 1991; Wang SH et al. 2001; Wang SX et al. 2007; Xiang et al. 2003Zhao et al. 1996) report other exposures, such as iodine and arsenic, a neurotoxicant, but our sensitivity analyses showed similar associations between high fluoride exposure and the outcomes even after these studies were excluded. Large tracts of China have superficial fluoride-rich minerals with little, if any, likelihood of contamination by other neurotoxicants that would be associated with fluoride concentrations in drinking water. From the geographic distribution of the studies, it seems unlikely that fluoride-attributed neurotoxicity could be attributable to other water contaminants.Still, each of the articles reviewed had deficiencies, in some cases rather serious ones, that limit the conclusions that can be drawn. However, most deficiencies relate to the reporting of where key information was missing. The fact that some aspects of the study were not reported limits the extent to which the available reports allow a firm conclusion. Some methodological limitations were also noted. Most studies were cross-sectional, but this study design would seem appropriate in a stable population where water supplies and fluoride concentrations have remained unchanged for many years. The current water fluoride level likely also reflects past developmental exposures. In regard to the outcomes, the inverse association persisted between studies using different intelligence tests, although most studies did not report age adjustment of the cognitive test scores.Fluoride has received much attention in China, where widespread dental fluorosis indicates the prevalence of high exposures. In 2008, the Ministry of Health reported that fluorosis was found in 28 provinces with 92 million residents (China News 2008). Although microbiologically safe, water supplies from small springs or mountain sources created pockets of increased exposures near or within areas of low exposures, thus representing exposure settings close to the ideal, because only the fluoride exposure would differ between nearby neighborhoods. Chinese researchers took advantage of this fact and published their findings, though mainly in Chinese journals and according to the standards of science at the time.

This research dates back to the 1980s, but has not been widely cited

at least in part because of limited access to Chinese journals. [our emphasis]

In its review of fluoride, the NRC (2006) noted that the safety and the risks of fluoride at concentrations of 2–4 mg/L were incompletely documented. Our comprehensive review substantially extends the scope of research available for evaluation and analysis. Although the studies were generally of insufficient quality, the consistency of their findings adds support to existing evidence of fluoride-associated cognitive deficits, and suggests that potential developmental neurotoxicity of fluoride should be a high research priority. Although reports from the World Health Organization and national agencies have generally focused on beneficial effects of fluoride (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1999Petersen and Lennon 2004), the NRC report examined the potential adverse effects of fluoride at 2–4 mg/L in drinking water and not the benefits or potential risks that may occur when fluoride is added to public water supplies at lower concentrations (0.7–1.2 mg/L) (NRC 2006).

In conclusion, our results support the possibility of adverse effects of fluoride exposures on children’s neuro-development. Future research should formally evaluate dose–response relations based on individual-level measures of exposure over time, including more precise prenatal exposure assessment and more extensive standardized measures of neurobehavioral performance, in addition to improving assessment and control of potential confounders.

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Supplemental Material

(94 KB) PDF

Click here for additional data file.(106K, pdf)

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We thank V. Malik, Harvard School of Public Health,

for the helpful advice on the meta-analysis methods.

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This study was supported by internal institutional funds.The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests.

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  • • Xiang Q, Liang Y, Chen L, Wang C, Chen B, Chen X, et al. Effect of fluoride in drinking water on children’s intelligence. Fluoride. 2003;36(2):84–94.

  • • Xu YL, Lu CS, Zhang XN. Effect of fluoride on children’s intelligence. Endem Dis Bull. 1994;2:83–84. [in Chinese]

  • • Yang Y, Wang X, Guo X, Hu P. Effects of high iodine and high fluorine on children’s intelligence and the metabolism of iodine and fluorine. Chin J Pathol. 1994;15(5):296–298. Available: [accessed 20 August 2012] [PubMed]

  • • Yao LM, Deng Y, Yang SY, Zhou JL, Wang SL, Cui JW. Comparison of children’s health and intelligence between the fluorosis areas with and without altering water sources. Lit Inf Prev Med. 1997;3(1):42–43. [in Chinese]

  • • Yao LM, Zhou JL, Wang SL, Cui KS, Lin FY. Analysis of TSH levels and intelligence of children residing in high fluorosis areas. Lit Inf Prev Med. 1996;2(1):26–27. [in Chinese]

  • • Zhang J, Gung Y, Guo J. Beijing: Captial Institute of Pediatrics Heatlh Research Office; 1985. Children Intelligence Scale Handbook.

  • • Zhang JW, Yao H, Chen Y. Effect of high level of fluoride and arsenic on children’s intelligence. Chin J Public Health. 1998;17(2):57. [in Chinese]

  • • Zhang M, Wang A, Xia T, He P. Effects of fluoride on DNA damage, S-phase cell-cycle arrest and the expression of NF-κB in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Toxicol Lett. 2008;179:1–5. [PubMed]

  • • Zhao LB, Liang GH, Zhang DN, Wu XR. Effect of a high fluoride water supply on children’s intelligence. Fluoride. 1996;29(4):190–192.

 [*] Human variability

Articles from Environmental Health Perspectives are provided here courtesy of

National Institute of Environmental Health Science – Thank you AFS

                 See also:



106 Fluoride Vol. 36 No. 2 106-112 2003 Research Report

My Views on the Fluoridation of Water 

Fluoridation, 1979 Scientific Criticisms and Dangers

Philip R.N. Sutton Former Senior Lecturer in Dental Science
University of Melbourne Australia

  Fluoridation Philip Sutton  

An Inconvenient Tooth – Fluoride Documentary

↓     ↓

A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards


Committee on Fluoride in Drinking Water
Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology
Division on Earth and Life Studies


→ →  NRC_2006  ← ←







Vitamin C Reduction of F. Induced Embro-Toxicity In Rats

These findings suggest that vitamin C significantly reduced the
severity and incidence of fluoride-induced embryo toxicity in rats.

Vit C Rats F. Verma

Jai Research Foundation, Vapi, Valvada 396 108, India Oral administration of sodium fluoride (40 mg/kg body weight) from day 6 to 19 of gestation caused, as comparedto control, significant reductions in body weight, feed consumption, absolute uterine weight and number of implantations. Significantly higher incidenceof skeletal (wavy ribs, 14th rib, <6 sternal centre, dumbell-shaped second and fifth sternebrae, incompleteossification of skull and thickening of tibia) and visceral (subcutaneous haemorrhage) abnormalities were also observed in NaF-treated dams than that of control. Oral administration of vitamin C (50 mg/kg bodyweight) and vitamin E (2 mg/0.2 ml olive oil/animal/day) from day 6 to 19 of gestation along with NaF significantly ameliorates NaF-induced reductions in body weight, feed consumption, absolute uterine weight (only with vitamin E treatment) and number of implantations. Ascompared with NaF-treated alone, the total percentage of skeletal and visceral abnormalities were significantly lowered in fluoride plus vitamin C-treated animals. Vitamin E was less effective. These findings suggest that vitamin C significantly reduced the severity and incidence of fluoride-induced embryo toxicity in rats.

Key Words: fluoride • vitamins • embryo toxicity • amelioration

Human & Experimental Toxicology, Vol. 20, No. 12, 619-623 (2001)


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…going by the above evidence, fluorinated drugs seem to pose
a number of risks associated with the fluorine or fluoride
contained in them. It raises even more concern when
fluoride itself is present in many industries and
products, including food and drinks… 

Prof. Abdul Razak

Professor Dzulkifli Abdul Razak

National Poison Centre
University Sains Malaysia – 
2 Sept. 2001


Following the recent withdrawal of the cholesterol-lowering drug Lipobay, there is now a new perspective to the issue, the drug being a fluoride-containing compound. The drug, also known by its generic name, cerivastatin, is one of the many such compounds pulled off the shelves in the last few years.

Cerivastatin was taken off because of at least 40 deaths worldwide, 31 in the US alone. According to a recently released commentary by a Canadian group, Parents of  Fluoride Poisoned Children, a series of fluoride containing drugs or so-called fluorinated drugs have been withdrawn from the market in the last 10 years due to their toxic effects on human beings. One notable example is the combination “Fen-Phen” (a generic combination of fenfluramine and phentermine, the former being a fluorinated drug type) which was said to have weight-reducing effects. Others are dexfenfluramine (Redux) and fenfluramine (Pondimin).

There are at least eight other examples of fluorinated drugs withdrawn so far, because serious side effects on the heart, and for suspected adverse influence on thyroid hormone activity.

They include, last year, cisapride (Propulsid) because of its severe side-effects on the heart. In 1999, two drugs were withdrawn.

These were an anti-allergy drug, astemizole (Hismanal); and grepafloxacin (an antibiotic, Raxar) because they too were associated with similar adverse events.

In 1998, patients with congestive heart failure using the drug mibedrafil (Posicor) showed a trend to higher mortality, causing it to be withdrawn.

Alredase (Tolrestat, an anti-diabetic) was withdrawn in 1997 after the appearance of severe liver toxicity and deaths among several patients. In the same year too fenfluramine (part of Fen-Phen) and dexfenfluramine were withdrawn.

In 1993, flosequinan (Manoplax, a heart drug) was withdrawn when it was shown that the beneficial effects on the symptoms of heart failure did not last beyond the first three months of therapy. After that, patients had a higher rate of hospitalization than patients taking a placebo.

Of the many fluorinated drugs that remain in the market some carry warnings of serious cardiac toxicity, for instance halofantrine, a schizonticidal drug. More specifically, other fluorinated drugs, although they have not yet been withdrawn, are known to cause muscle wasting or rhabdomyolysis; like cerivastatin.

For instance, the PFPC commentary noted that the fluorinated antibiotic fluoroquinolone, used to treat infections, is reported to cause tendonitis and rhabdomyolysis. In fact product information for such antibiotics (enoxacin, fleroxacin, norfloxacin, sparfloxacin, and tosufloxacin) was amended in Japan in October 1994, to state that rhabdomyolysis may occur. Reportedly, the tragic story involving fluorinated drugs (the fluorophenyls in particular, initially limited to industrial use involving dyes and pesticides) can be traced way back to the 1930s when they were used to treat hyperthyroidism.

The use followed a discovery by IG Farben (Bayer) and Knoll’s scientists that all fluoride compounds can interfere with thyroid hormone activity.

In the liver especially, organic fluoride compounds undergo extensive transformation, mainly via oxidative demethylation, involving the thyroid hormone (T3) mediated P-450 enzyme system. And the resulting metabolites may have higher activity and/or greater toxicity than the original compound.

The activity of organic fluoride compounds on the P-450 enzyme system is critical as it relates to the elimination of many other drugs. Inhibition of these enzymes can cause other drugs to accumulate to dangerous levels in the body, leading to hazardous drug interactions. In many cases fluorinated drugs are being implicated as documented in hundreds of well-established studies.

Moreover, adds PFPC, the metabolites produced by organic fluoride compounds in the liver can be transferred to the fetus through various pathways, including circulatory via placental passage, gastrointestinal via fetal swallowing, and respiratory secondary to fetal lung absorption. This may lead to congenital abnormalities as in the case of fluconsazole (Diflucan).

In short, going by the above evidence, fluorinated drugs seem to pose a number of risks associated with the fluorine or fluoride contained in them. It raises even more concern when fluoride itself is present in many industries and products, including food and drinks, without any rigorous evaluation or monitoring.

Of  late, we have managed to label all toothpastes containing fluoride in this country. But this is clearly a minuscule effort in the attempt to regulate the use of fluoride as an inherent poison. We need to do more now.

For more information, contact the National Poison Centre at Universiti Sains Malaysia,
tel: 04-657 0099, fax: 04-656 8417,

USM Uni Logo

Source: New Sunday Times (Focus) 2 September 2001

More info on fluorinated medications  → HERE




The apoptotic effect was partially reduced by the PKA inhibitor H89.
 NaF induced a weak but sustained increase in PKC activity,
 the PKC activat or TPA induced a transient effect.

Human & Experimental TOXICOLOGY


( A549 CELLS )


Refsnes MSchwarze PEHolme JALåg M.

Division of Environmental Medicine,
Norwegian Institute of Public Health,
Geitmyrsvn. 75,
PO Box 4404 Nydalen,
N-0403 Oslo,


 In the present study, possible mechanisms involved in fluoride-induced apoptosis in a human epithelial lung cell line (A549) were examined. Sodium fluoride (NaF) induced apoptosis in the A549 cells, with a maximum at 5-7.5 mM after 20 hours of exposure. The number of cells with plasma membrane damage (PI-positive cells) increased moderately up to 5 mM, but markedly at 7.5 mM. Deferoxamine (an Al3+ chelator) almost completely prevented these NaF-induced responses, which may suggest a role for G protein activation.

The apoptotic effect was partially reduced by the PKA inhibitor H89. NaF induced a weak but sustained increase in PKC activity, whereas the PKC activat or TPA induced a transient effect. TPA, which enhanced the NaF-induced PKC activity, was not apoptotic when added alone, but facilitated the NaF-induced apoptosis and the increase in PI-positive cells. PKC down regulation induced by TPA pretreatment almost completely prevented the NaF-induced apoptosis and the increase in PI-positive cells. Pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, which abolished the PKC activity after 3 hours, enhanced the NaF-induced apoptosis. KN93 (a CaM kinase II inhibitor) and W7 (a calmodulin inhibitor) seem to reduce the apoptotic effect of NaF, whereas BAPTA-AM (a Ca2+ chelator) was without effect. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein also markedly reduced the NaF-induced apoptosis, whereas the PI-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin augmented the response. In conclusion, the present results suggest that NaF induces an apoptotic effect and an increase in PI-positive A549 cells via similar mechanisms, involving PKC, PKA, tyrosine kinase and Ca2+-linked enzymes, whereas PI-3 kinase seems to exert a counteracting effect.

PMID: 12723891 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2003 Mar;22(3):111-23.


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FLUORIDE-Corrosion – Oak Ridge National Laboratory…

The Nuclear Industry Is Well Informed About Fluorides & Corrosion.



the-secret-city  Oak Ridge World War 11 Secret City   A city born of war in 1942, existed for seven years as a truly “Secret City.”  Oak Ridge, Tennessee was not shown on any maps, did not allow any visitors other than by special approval, had guards posted at the entrances to the city and required all residents to wear badges at all times when outside their homes. Oak Ridge, Tennessee was born as a direct result of the letter written by Albert Einstein to then President Roosevelt in 1939 citing the urgent need to develop the capability to sustain a chain reaction of uranium.  From this letter came the plan for our nation to create an atomic weapon that would be more powerful than any weapon in the history of the world.  The Manhattan Project, created to develop this amazing new atomic weapon, spent 60 cents of every dollar in Oak Ridge!  The “Secret City” grew to a population of 75,000, was the fifth largest city in Tennessee and was not even on the map.
This project used fluorides, and the documents below confirm that fluorides are corrosive.


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 Effect of Fluoride Corrosion on Stainless Steel

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Doc. ‘B’  Full text  ↓  ↓  ↓ 


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See also → HERE 

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Oak ridge NL f

Doc. E – Many more documents available → HERE  -

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Link to this site ↓ ↓ 

The staff of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) visited

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on July 30, 2002, to review the

safety of sodium fluoride (NaF) traps stored in

Building 30l9A,a defense nuclear

facility at ORNL. 

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Dentists F. corrosion

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The US ship, the MV Cape Ray, was fitted out with two $5m (£3m)
mobile hydrolysis systems, developed in 2013 by US military
researcher, specifically to deal with the chemicals.

sarin symbol s


  SARIN = Isopropyl-Methyl-Phosphoryl-Fluoride

SYRIA CONFLICT:- Sarin Gas Chemicals Destroyed …


The MV Cape Ray was fitted out with mobile hydrolysis
system specifically to deal with the chemicals. see below ♦ 

Continue reading the main story:

The international chemical weapons watchdog says that all the precursor chemicals for sarin gas removed from Syria have been destroyed.

The 580 tonnes of chemicals were neutralised on board a specially built American ship in the Mediterranean Sea.

The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) said the ship’s crew have now begun to neutralise 22 tonnes of sulphur mustard.

The process is part of a Russian-US deal to eliminate Syria’s arsenal.

The deal was drawn up after hundreds of people died in a sarin attack in the Ghouta area outside Damascus on 21 August last year.

The US ship, the MV Cape Ray, was fitted out with two $5m (£3m) mobile hydrolysis systems, developed in 2013 by US military researcher, specifically to deal with the chemicals.

A UN team was sent into Syria to oversee the removal of President Assad’s chemical stockpile OPCW chief ambassador Ahmet Uzumcu announced the completion of this stage of the process on Wednesday.

The two hydrolysis systems neutralised the precursor chemicals – methylphosphonyl difluoride – by mixing them with fresh water and “reagents” and then heating the mixture to reduce its toxicity.

Once the ship has processed the remaining sulphur mustard chemicals, all of the resulting effluents will be transported to Finland and Germany for disposal at land-based facilities.





Sarin contains F. ff

            Sarin is also known as GB. 

        Isopropyl methylfluorophosphate


• dimethyl methylphosphonate

 • phosphorus trichloride

• sodium fluoride

• alcohol


symbol 4 sarin copy        


“Sir Richard Doll was paid by chemical companies.
He denied the (proven) carcinogenic effects of Agent Orange.
Though some people may have been shocked, I was not surprised at all
Doll was one of the fervent promoters of fluoridation”.



Public health officials argued that putting fluoride in would bring huge reductions in the appalling tooth decay among a sweet-toothed nation. Catherine McColl, a Glasgow pensioner disagreed. She secured legal aid to fight Strathclyde Region and the case lasted three years. The epidemiologist Sir Richard Doll later described his time as an expert witness as the worst two weeks of his life. The issue remains controversial to this day.

Source: Lord Jauncey. Opinion of Lord Jauncey in causa Mrs Catherine McColl (A.P) against Strathclyde Regional Council. The Court of Session, Edinburgh, 1983.

“If fluoride is a medicine, evidence on its effects should be subject to the standards of proof expected of drugs, including evidence from randomised trials.” 

“There have been no randomised trials of water fluoridation.”


 Sir Richard Doll

Extract from Wikipedia:

After his death, controversy arose over some of his work because his papers, held at the Wellcome Library, showed that for many years he had received consultancy payments from chemical companies whose products he was to defend in court. These include US $1,500 per day consultancy fee from Monsanto Company for a relationship which began in 1976 and continued until 2002. He also received fees from the Chemical Manufacturers Association, Dow Chemicals, and ICI. Some donations, including a £50,000 gift from asbestos company Turner and Newall, were given in public ceremony to Green College Oxford where his wife was Warden [citation needed], but most fees and payments remained undisclosed to the public, Oxford University and colleagues until his death. His defenders point out that his connections to industry were widely known by those in the field, that he did his work before formal disclosure of commercial interests became commonplace and that on occasion, he came to conclusions that were unpalatable to the companies who consulted him. His own view, as reported by Richard Peto, was that it was necessary to co-operate with companies for access to data which could prove their products to be dangerous.


Extract from Nexus Magazine – May 2007

In Global News last issue [vol. 14, no. 21] you published the fact that Sir Richard Doll was paid by chemical companies. He denied the (proven) carcinogenic effects of Agent Orange. Though some people may have been shocked, I was not surprised at all. Doll was one of the fervent promoters of fluoridation. When Dean Burk and John Yiamouyiannis (I allude to them from here as B&Y) in 1975 published their findings about the 10 per cent extra death rate from cancer in fluoridated cities, the whole fluoridation lobby hastened to disclaim their findings. Of course, Doll was among them. Here is part of what happened.

In order to refute B&Y’s findings, the group claimed that B&Y had not corrected their figures for age, race and sex and that, when these corrections were made, the increase in the cancer death rate disappeared. (I follow closely Yiamouyiannis’ book - Fluoride: The Aging Factor.) During the fall of 1977, two congressional hearings were held. The Hoover group opposed B&Y.

It was then discovered that Dr Hoover and other National Cancer Institute
officials had purposely withheld information from B&Y and,
moreover, clandestinely sent erroneous data to Dr Leo Kinlen
and Sir Richard Doll, professors at Oxford University,
who published the erroneous data as if they were their own.
Thus the illusion was wilfully created that independent research
by two eminent professors had confirmed the data of the
Hoover group, which was completely untrue.
Precise calculation later confirmed the findings of B&Y,
estimating in excess of 10,000 extra cancer deaths a year in the
USA caused by fluoridation.

My dear deceased friends Dean Burk and John Yiamouyiannis would
    have been pleased with your publication about Richard Doll.
Sincerely Yours
           Hans C. M., Haarlem, The Netherlands

Fluoride: Lies, Brown Envelopes, Subterfuge And More Lies 

See also ‘Scottish Dental’ → HERE

♦ See our Rogue’s Gallery’

Editor’s note:

There is NO fluoridation in Wales.


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Comments are closed.


 We Have Included This Info On Arsenic Because
 The F. Used In Drinking Water Also Contains Arsenic

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Some 19.6 million Chinese people are at risk of consuming
arsenic-contaminated groundwater beyond the maximum
threshold set by the World Health Organization…

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 Original → Here 


Environmental Health Perspectives

Synopsis by Lindsey Konkel 

Mice exposed in the womb and after birth to high levels of arsenic were more susceptible to influenza than unexposed mice, according to a new study by Australian researchers. These co-exposures could be an important factor in the development of chronic lung problems later in life, according to the researchers.

Mice exposed in the womb and after birth to high levels of arsenic were more susceptible to influenza than unexposed mice, according to a new study by Australian researchers.

More than 200 million people globally are exposed to arsenic in drinking water that exceeds a U.S. and international standard, according to the World Health Organization.

FEMA  (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

 More than 200 million people globally are exposed to arsenic in drinking water that exceeds U.S.  and internation standards.

Arsenic is an element that is naturally found in soil, and it often taints ground water. It also can come from farm runoff and industrial waste.

Mice exposed in the womb or as newborns to arsenic and influenza were less able to fight infection, had an increased inflammatory response in their airways and altered lung mechanics. These co-exposures could be an important factor in the development of chronic lung problems later in life, according to the researchers.

Cancer has been the biggest concern related to arsenic contamination of water supplies. But previous studies in animals or humans also have suggested that prenatal arsenic exposure may increase susceptibility to respiratory infections or impair lung growth and immune system development. The current study examines how arsenic exposure modifies the mouse body’s responses to influenza infection.

The mice in the study drank water contaminated with 100 parts per billion of arsenic, 10 times higher than a standard set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and WHO. However, some regions in the United States have groundwater that routinely exceeds 50 parts per billion, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. And some countries have severe arsenic problems, particularly Bangladesh, where arsenic reaches as high as 3,000 parts per billion.

The researchers compared the exposed pregnant mice to others that drank arsenic-free water. After their offspring were born, exposure continued to either arsenic-clean or contaminated water.

One week after birth, some mouse pups were inoculated with influenza virus. Mice exposed to both arsenic and influenza had a greater inflammatory response and produced more immune cells than mice exposed to either arsenic or influenza. One week after the influenza infection, arsenic-exposed mice showed higher levels of the virus in their blood than unexposed mice.

“Those mice exposed to both arsenic and influenza had the greatest deficits in lung mechanics,” wrote the study authors from the Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, University of Western Australia and University of Queensland.

An increase in airway responsiveness is one hallmark of asthma.

“These data demonstrate how exposure to arsenic in early life can alter the response to influenza infection resulting in both acute and long-term effects on respiratory health,” they wrote.

While the study suggests that the mouse lung is highly sensitive to arsenic exposure early in life, what these data mean for humans remains unclear. Further research is needed to determine if arsenic-exposed populations are at a greater risk of sickness and death from lower respiratory infections, the authors conclude.

23 August Millions face arsenic contamination risk in China, study finds. Nearly 20 million people in China live in areas at high risk of arsenic contamination in their water supplies, according to a study published on Thursday. The Guardian, United Kingdom.

23 August New predictive method pinpoints arsenic hotspots. European and Chinese researchers have built a model to predict the presence of arsenic groundwater contamination in China and elsewhere where millions are at risk, according to work published Thursday. Agence France-Presse.

23 August Statistical tool predicts arsenic risk in Chinese wells. Arsenic is found naturally in rocks and soil, but exposure to it presents a major public health problem, especially in regions where untreated groundwater is the only reliable source of drinking water. Scientists have deployed a new statistical tool that can help predict the greatest risk of contamination. Voice of America.

23 August Lead, arsenic and mercury found in pills sold online. A warning has been issued about unlicensed Chinese medicines available over the internet which have high levels of lead, mercury and arsenic. Dublin Irish Independent, Ireland.

22 August Young mice exposed to arsenic more susceptible to influenza, respiratory infections. Mice exposed in the womb and after birth to high levels of arsenic were more susceptible to influenza than unexposed mice, according to a new study by Australian researchers. Environmental Health News.

21 August Tornillo water high in arsenic, could cause health risks. The El Paso Equal Voice Network and U.S. Rep. Pete Gallego, D-Texas, hosted a community meeting to address complaints of dirty water in Tornillo, after the El Paso County Tornillo Water Improvement District said the drinking water there exceeds the maximum contaminant level for arsenic. El Paso KFOX TV, Texas.

20 August Heavy metals found in Chinese medicines. Health regulators have issued a warning over some Chinese medicines, saying they contain “dangerously high” levels of lead, mercury and arsenic. Britain’s Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency said the unlicensed traditional Chinese medicines included some meant for children. Press Association.

16 August EPA to inspect Colorado milling site. Mining inspectors have found heavy pollution from mercury and arsenic inside an unpermitted gold mill on the west side of Mancos, Colorado. It’s “one of the uglier cases of using hazardous chemicals and illegal milling” that state mining regulators have seen, said Julie Murphy, a lawyer for the state Division of Reclamation, Mining and Safety. Cortez Journal, Colorado.

16 August Arsenic remains in China from thousands of Japanese arms. Toxic arsenic remaining in thousands of destroyed Japanese chemical weapons sits in storage at a Chinese armed forces compound in the city of Nanjing, located in eastern China, Kyodo News reported on Thursday. National Journal.

15 August Oregon Superfund cleanup nearing pivotal stage. As recently as 1990, the McCormick and Baxter Creosoting Co. dumped toxic chemicals into the river at its plant a mile south of the St. Johns Bridge — everything from the wood-treatment substance creosote to pentachlorophenol, arsenic, copper, chromium, zinc and other contaminants — which subsequently seeped into the soil and riverbed. Portland Tribune, Oregon.

15 August Japan yet to dispose of arsenic from wartime chemical weapons in China. Japan has yet to dispose of arsenic residue from chemical weapons its Imperial army abandoned in China at the end of World War II, a source close to bilateral relations said Wednesday, noting there are calls for the arsenic to be sent to Japan. Kyodo News, Japan.

14 August Water quality centre in city. An international centre for drinking water quality in Calcutta will be tasked with research on drinking water technologies, health impacts of water contaminants — with special focus on arsenic and fluoride — and the chemistry of sediments. Calcutta Telegraph, India.

10 August Court rules county liable for storm water pollution. The U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals has ruled that Los Angeles County is liable for the level of pollution found in its storm water. The decision, released Thursday, is a win for environmental groups who say the county was responsible for needed cleanup of arsenic, cyanide, lead and mercury. Santa Clarita Signal, California.

A recently published study by researchers at the University of Texas at Arlington found elevated levels of arsenic and other heavy metals in groundwater near natural gas fracking sites in Texas’ Barnett Shale. ProPublica.

8 August Water contamination rises in Texas after natural gas drilling. Researchers comparing samples from Barnett water wells with those predrilling data report that wells near natural gas production sites have elevated levels of arsenic, selenium, and strontium. Chemical & Engineering News.

6 August Friendly bacteria to detox arsenic. A new study has identified bacterial strains capable of oxidising toxic arsenic into a less toxic form, offering a feasible and affordable solution to the problem of arsenic in soil and water. Science and Development Network.

6 August UTA study finds contaminants in ground water near gas wells. High levels of contaminants, including arsenic are present, according to a University of Texas at Arlington study, in private water wells near gas operations. The study is one of the first water quality studies completed in North Texas since gas drilling expanded. Dallas KTVT TV, Texas.

4 August Contaminant found in most US rice causes genetic damage. It’s been more than a decade since scientists first raised an alarm about arsenic levels in rice. A study released last week has shown the first direct link between rice consumption and arsenic-induced genetic damage. Discover.

1 August Health testing, legal issues, to be discussed at Black Leaf meeting. Residents of the Park Hill area can learn about proposed testing of lead and arsenic in their bodies at a community meeting tomorrow, organized by Louisville Metro Councilman David James. Louisville Courier-Journal, Kentucky.

31 July Something in the air: How global warming is spreading toxic dust.   Scientists say several towns in the western United States could become a major source of airborne arsenic poisoning due to global warming and breakneck human expansion. ClimateWire.

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                        ♦  Editors note see:  THE SECRET LIFE OF DUST”





The info in the papers below is probably a little distorted by population, food and water moving beteen counties. Also in the fluoridated areas some households may have water filtration equipment. Both of these factors could influence the results, suggesting that the damage from fluoridation is probably even more than these papers would suggest.



Last update 5 Feb.  2017


Environmental Health logo f

Exposure To Fluoridated Water And Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Prevalence Among Children And Adolescents In The United States:
An Ecological Association.
Ashley J. Malinand & Christine Till

New – Link to original text  →  HERE


M&F Cretins f



Judith Litteton ff

Paleopathology of Skeletal Fluorosis m

Original  → HERE  

Ann Choi
Research Scientist
Department of Environmental Health
401 Park Drive
Landmark Center East #3-112-15
Boston, MA 02215


John Y

The National Health Federation
P.O. Box 688, Monrovia, California 91017
Washington,  D.C.,  20002

ABSTRACT: Vitamin C plays an important role in the orderly deposition of fluoride into various tissues. In higher fluoride areas, Vitamin C increases fluoride excretion and normalizes soft and hard tissue fluoride levels and thus prevents the development of fluorosis.  At lower fluoride levels, Vitamin C increases the incorporation of fluoride into teeth.  Fluoridation of water systems in not the solution to optimal incorporation of fluoride into teeth; in cases of Vitamin C deficiency, fluoridation may lead to fluorosis.

(21)  Hardwick & Bunting, J. Dent. Res. 50 (Supplement, Pt. 1), 1212 (1971)

– 7 August 1974 –

While fluoridation of public water systems has been advocated and encouraged by the national and state public health services, a number of questions concerning the need to add fluoride to public waters have gone unanswered.

Mother’s milk, containing as little as 0.01 to 0.05 ppm fluoride confers as much caries resistance on the child as other infants consuming 1 to 2 ppm fluoride present in commercially prepared formulas (1, 2).

In unfluoridated areas, containing natural fluoride levels of 0.1 to 0.5 ppm and even less, there exists a certain part of the population that are free of caries.  In fact, in Nigeria, a population has been found where over 98% of the population is caries free and the fluoride level in their water is within the above range (3).

In a study at Great Lakes Naval Base, the previous life-long residence of caries-free recruits, were examined to determine if any trace elements could be correlated with the low incidence of caries.

The level of fluoride in the drinking water was NOT [our emphasis] implicated.

It has also been noticed that primitive areas in which the people of the area eat unrefined food have a relatively low caries rate as compared to later when these areas became “civilized” and their diets begin to consist of more refined foods.

In these cases, caries rates often soar and addition of fluoride to the water supply is unable to restore the previous caries rate (5, 6, 7).

In areas and among people where nutrition is poor, mottling is observed at levels below the 1 ppm level used to fluoridate public water systems (at levels as low as 0.4 ppm fluoride).

This has been noticed in India (8) as well as among American Negroes whose mottling rate, in the 1-ppm range is higher than that of whites in the same area.

In a comprehensive study in Japan, the fluoride levels associated with the lowest incidence of caries ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 ppm  (9).

In the 1930’s it was found that the ingestion of fluoride causes scurvy-like symptoms and that this was associated with a decrease in the Vitamin C levels of various tissues. Similarities in the symptoms of scurvy and mild fluorosis were also observed  (10, 11).

In 1954, in an area containing 0.34 to 0.8 ppm fluoride in the water, 23% of the children 4-7 years old exhibited mottling (dental fluorosis). The Vitamin C contents in blood for normal children (without mottling) averaged 0.78 mg %. In the mottled enamel group, the blood Vitamin C levels of most children were extremely low (0.15 to 0.3 mg % in 29%, and 0.0 to 0.15 mg % in 31%. Treatment of these subjects with Vitamin C brought substantial improvement  (12).

  NOTE → In 1964-65, the death rate of guinea pig population in Australia had reached epidemic proportion. (The Guinea pig is the only non-primate known that cannot synthesize its own Vitamin C). This death rate was eventually attributed to slightly higher levels of fluoride in feed pellets. Symptoms of sub-acute Vitamin C deficiency were observed. Fluorosis was diagnosed as the cause of death (13). In rats and mice (both of which synthesize their own Vitamin C, no such death rate was reported. U.S.P.H.S. experiments are performed with rats – they do not use guinea pigs (14). Both in the U.S. (15) and Russia (16) Vitamin C is recognized as being capable of retarding the development of fluorosis.

In guinea pigs exposed to fluoride, Vitamin C was found to normalize altered blood Ca, P, and sugar levels, as well as fluoride levels and ash contents in teeth and bone, and fat glycogen, and fluoride levels in the liver. Fed to men exposed to elevated fluoride uptakes, 100mg of Vitamin C increased the excretion of fluoride from 3-5.5 mg/day to 6-8.5 mg/day (17).

Most important, however, are the following findings:

1.) in guinea pig, fluoride added to the diet cannot make teeth more insoluble (caries-resistant) than the addition of  Vitamin C to the diet and-

2.)  in low fluoride areas, dietary supplementation with Vitamin C leads to fluoride deposition in teeth equal to the of higher fluoride areas (18, 19).

In conclusion, it appears that Vitamin C is and essential factor in the deposition of fluoride in, as well as the exclusion of fluoride from, various tissues in the body.

While increased fluoride in teeth had been correlated to caries-resistant of teeth, adequate Vitamin C levels in the diet in areas of 0.1 to 0.5 ppm fluoride (and even 0.01 to 0.05 ppm in the nursing infant) leads to adequate uptake by the teeth. Indeed in animals that manufacture there own Vitamin C (e.g. rats), Fluoride is found not to have a caries protective effect until it reaches levels of 10-20 ppm (14); at these levels it acts as a strong antibacterial in the mouth.

The indiscriminate fluoridation of water systems is not the solution to the problems of tooth decay. In the absence of sufficient Vitamin C, fluoridation will lead to Vitamin C depletion, dental fluorosis, and to abnormal levels of metabolites in blood tissues.

Adequate intake of  Vitamin C may explain why people or populations in low fluoride areas can be caries-free.


(1)           Y. Ericsson, U. Ribelius, Caries Research 5, 78 (1971);

(2)           F.J. McClure, Personal communication.

(3)           A. Sheiham, British Dental Journal 123, 144 (1967;

(4)           J.P. Quinn, NDRI-PR-68-03, (June 1968) 11pp. US Nat.Tech. Inf.

   Serv. Reo. No. AD0839 129;

(5)           S.J. Barnaud Journal 2, Med. Trop. 29, 593 (1969);

(6)           J.A. Cran, Australian Dental Journal 2, 277 (1957);

(7)           F. Prader, Schweiz. Mschr. Zahnhk. 71 885 (1961);

(8)           R.S. Nanda, Indian Journal of Dental Research 60, 1470 (1972);

(9)           Y. Imai, Koku Eisei Gakkai Zasshi 22, 144 (1972);

(10)          P.H. Phillips, J. Biol. Chem. 100, (Proc. Am. Soc. Biol. Chem. 

   Lxxix (1933);

(11)          P.H. Phillips, F.J. Stare, C.A. Elvenhem, J. Biol.

   Chem. 106, 41 (1934);

(12)          N.A. Ivanova, Voprosy Okhrany Materinstva I

    Detstva 4, 29 (1959);

(13)          F.F.V. Atkinson, G.C. Hard, Nature 211, 429 (1966);

(14)          N.M. Stiles, National Institute Of Dental Research,

   Personal Communication;

(15)          J.W. Suttie, P.H. Phillips, The Pharmacology and
                 Toxicology of Fluorine,

  J.C. Muhler, M.K. Hine, Ed.  (Bloomington, Indiana

   University Press,  1959) pp 70-7;

(16)          V.S. Andreeva Voprosy Okhrany Materinstva I Detstva 4, 25 (1959);

(17)          R.D. Gabovich, P.N. Maistruck, Voprosy Pitaniya 22, 32 (1963);

(18)          D. J. Thompson, P. H. Phillips, J. Dent. Res. 45, 845 (1966);

(19)          D. Triers, C.G. Elliott, M.D. Smith, J. K. Dent.

  Res. 47, 1171   (1968);

(20)        W. Buttner, Advances in fluorine Research and
                 Dental Caries Prevention,
                 J. L. Hardwick, H.R.Held, K.G. Konig, Ed.
                 (New York Pergamon Press, 1965) pp. 19-30;


Watch also 


by John A. Yiamouyiannis



Department of Zoology, University School of Sciences,

Gujarat University,
Ahmedabad 380 009, India
R J Verma, D M Guna Sherlin
Jai Research Foundation, Vapi,
Valvada 396 108, India

Oral administration of sodium fluoride (40 mg/kg body weight) from day 6 to 19 of gestation caused, as compared to control, significant reductions in body weight, feed consumption, absolute uterine weight and number of implantations. Significantly higher incidence of skeletal (wavy ribs, 14th rib, <6 sternal centre, dumbell-shaped second and fifth sternebrae, incomplete ossification of skull and thickening of tibia) and visceral (subcutaneous haemorrhage) abnormalities were also observed in NaF-treated dams than that of control. Oral administration of vitamin C (50 mg/kg body weight) and vitamin E (2 mg/0.2 ml olive oil/animal/day) from day 6 to 19 of gestation along with NaF significantly ameliorates NaF-induced reductions in body weight, feed consumption, absolute uterine weight (only with vitamin E treatment) and number of implantations. As compared with NaF-treated alone, the total percentageof skeletal and visceral abnormalities were significantly lowered in fluoride plus vitamin C-treated animals. Vitamin E was less effective.

These findings suggest that vitamin C significantly reduced the severity and incidence of fluoride-induced embryotoxicity in rats.  ♦

Key Words: fluoride • vitamins • embryotoxicity • amelioration
Human & Experimental Toxicology, Vol. 20, No. 12, 619-623 (2001)

Our note: Unlike humanrats produce vitamin C .



The Case Against Fluoride

book pro

The book concludes that, if proposed today, fluoridation of drinking water to prevent tooth decay would stand virtually no chance of being adopted, given the current status of scientific knowledge.

In part one of  The Case Against Fluoride“The Ethical and General Arguments Against Fluoridation”: The requirement for the informed consent of the patient before administration of a medication is a basic human right. Yet with fluoride, which is added to drinking water as a therapeutic intervention, no such permission is sought or given. The process is enforced on every member of the population. The authors explore this fact in the context of medical ethics. Another aspect is the efficacy of fluoridation as a therapy, which, the authors argue, is marginal at best and deleterious at worst. The fluoride used for water fluoridation is not of pharmaceutical grade, but is in fact a chemical waste by-product. The lack of any rigorous studies as to the efficacy of fluoridation programs, the authors contend, means that the whole process is experimental.

There is no control of  “dose”— how much fluoride anyone receives from the water.

In the case of water fluoridation, according to the above authors, the chemicals that go into the drinking water that more than 180 million people drink each day in the United States are not even pharmaceutical grade, but rather a hazardous waste product of the phosphate fertilizer industry. It is illegal to dump this waste into the sea or local surface water, and yet it is allowed in our drinking water. To make matters worse, this program receives no oversight from the Food and Drug Administration, and the Environmental Protection Agency takes no responsibility for the practice. And from an ethical standpoint, say the authors, water fluoridation is a bad medical practice; individuals are being forced to take medication without their informed consent; there is no control over the dose and no monitoring of possible side effects.

Acute high oral exposure to fluoride may lead to nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, drowsiness, headaches, polyuria and polydipsia, coma, convulsions, cardiac arrest, and death.

Historically, fluoride was quite expensive for the world’s premier chemical companies to dispose of, but in the 50s and 60s, Alcoa and the entire aluminum industry—with a vast overabundance of the toxic waste—somehow sold the FDA and our government on the insane (but highly profitable) idea of buying this poison and then injecting it into our water supply as well as into the nation’s toothpastes and dental rinses. Consider also that when sodium fluoride is injected into our drinking water, its level is approximately one part-per-million (ppm), but since we only drink one-half of one percent of the total water supply, the hazardous chemical literally “goes down the drain” and voila—the chemical industry not only has a free hazardous waste disposal system, but we have also paid them with our health and our pocketbooks for the process.

The aluminum and phosphate fertilizer industries were not alone. The American government’s atomic weapons program was also producing huge amounts of fluoride and was getting sued by famers for the damage done to their cattle.



A Bibliography of Scientific Literature on Fluoride

↑ ↑ ↑ Very Large File ↑ ↑ ↑

by Paul Connett, PhD
Professor Emeritus of Environmental Chemistry,
St. Lawrence University, Canton,

Currently, I am traveling in Italy giving presentations on waste management. I have been forwarded a copy of your editorial ridiculing any notion that fluoridation could possibly cause any health problem and that practice is extremely effective at reducing tooth decay.

I will leave your councilors to judge the quality of the evidence that I will share with them on March 14. I write now because I am upset with the bullying tone you have adopted with one of your councilors, Amy Valentine. It is well known that if people are unable to answer a disturbing message they begin by attacking the messenger. You have chosen to do so in this case using the authority of local dentists, the American Dental Association and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, on this particular issue all these sources are highly suspect because of their very aggressive and long-term promotion of this practice.

It is simply not enough to parrot the phrase that fluoridation is “safe and effective” to win the case. It is incumbent on those who support this most unusual practice (what other chemical is added to the public water supply to treat people rather than treat the water?), which has been rejected by most industrial countries, to provide the scientific evidence for their claims.

To offset the 23 studies from India, Iran, Mexico and China which have shown that high doses of fluoride are associated with lowered IQ in children, where are the studies of the IQ of children living in Plattsburgh or any other fluoridated community in the U.S.? I am not aware of any. Why have they not been done?

The key question, of course, is whether there is an adequate margin of safety between the levels which have caused this harm in other countries and the levels experienced by children in this country drinking uncontrolled amounts of fluoridated water. The lowest level estimated at which IQ was lowered in one of these studies was 1.8 ppm (Xiang et al., 2003). Can you find a single toxicologist or pharmacologist who will tell you that offers an adequate margin of safety for all children exposed to fluoridated water at 1 ppm? For that matter, will they also tell you that there is an adequate margin of safety for all the other health effects discussed in the 507-page report by the National Research Council, “Fluoride in Drinking Water” published in March 2006? Three of the authors of that report don’t think so and have stated so in public.

On the issue of effectiveness, where is the peer-reviewed, published, scientific evidence that the teeth of children in Plattsburgh are “sturdier” than children in non-fluoridated communities in the area? You have none — only anecdotal reports. In fact, a study commissioned by the N.Y. Department of Health, which examined tooth decay in third graders, found absolutely no relationship between tooth decay averaged by county and percentage of the county’s population drinking fluoridated water! Meanwhile, the data collected by the World Health Organization shows no difference in tooth decay in 12 year-olds between fluoridated and non-fluoridated countries .

In my view adding fluoride — a known toxic substance — to the public drinking water at 250 times the level naturally present in mother’s milk (0.004 ppm) is both reckless and foolish, especially now that even promoters of fluoridation like the CDC admit that fluoride works topically, not systemically, i.e. it works by acting on the surface of the tooth not from inside the body (CDC, 1999, 2001).

Not only did your editorial writer question my concerns about fluoride’s ability to damage the brain, but he or she also questioned my suggestion that fluoride also damages the teeth. That’s strange because the CDC has reported that 32 percent of American children have dental fluorosis, a mottling and discoloration of the teeth caused by ingesting fluoride before the permanent teeth have erupted.

While the largest proportion of children thus affected have the condition in its very mild form, over 3-4 percent of children have the condition in its moderate or severe forms, in which 100 percent of the enamel is affected. Moreover, while these enamel defects can be covered by expensive veneers (about $1,000 per tooth) the worrying aspect about this is that it is generally agreed that dental fluorosis is the first indication that the child’s developing body has been over-exposed to fluoride.

Thus, the key question then becomes, while the fluoride is damaging the growing tooth by some systemic mechanism, what other tissues might it be damaging without this obvious and visible telltale sign? This underlines the significance of the IQ studies from countries which do not have a fluoridation program to protect.

So let’s examine the science here, please, not just the reiteration of long-held beliefs.

 → Fluoridation Omission And Errors  
Philip R.N. Sutton
Former Senior Lecturer in Dental Science
University of Melbourne



  My Views on the Fluoridation of Water  


  2011 Study – Neurodegenerative changes from

fluoride of brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve 

Indian research rats brains...


↓  25 July 2013 ↓

Impact of fluoride on neurological development in children.

Malta & F.

Full text →  HERE
Go on to: 





“Professor Martin’s claim that, although there are nearly two thousand known places in the U.S.A. where water is naturally fluoridated, and that “some have 12 or 13 parts per million—with no adverse effects and with a markedly high standard of dental health,” is simply propaganda without any scientific proof…

Noel Martin f

The Architect of Fluoridation in Australia

Professor Noel Martin was the champion of fluoride tablets here in Australia. Before a Royal Commission in Tasmania Martin claimed that tablets taken to the amount of 1.5 mg of fluoride per day in the last six months of pregnancy would improve the teeth of their children remarkably.

Some of Professor Martin’s positions from which he influenced the propagation of fluoridation in Australia were: Dean of Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney; member of the Dental Board, NSW; member, Australian Dental Advisory Council; deputy chairperson, Australian Dental Examining Committee; member of the NSW Health Commission’s Professional Services Advisory Committee: member of NHMRC’s Dental Health Committee; editor, Dental Journal Australia; dental consultant, World Health Organization; and member of  WHO’s Expert Committee on Dental Health.

“The damage done by this man is still perpetuated by the above listed,

and much quoted organisations…



    ↓ original ↓

  T H E   N E W   T I M E S  

Registered at the G.P.O., Melbourne,

for transmission by Post as a Newspaper

“Ye shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free”

Vol. 25, No. 16  MELBOURNE, FRIDAY 14th August 1959

[Notice the date]

The New “Scientists”

One of the most terrifying features of our Brave New World” is the manner in which so- called scientists are prepared to use blatantly false propaganda to assist Governmental bodies to extend their powers over the individual. A classic case has been brought to our attention in which a prominent Australian advocate of fluoridation, Professor Noel Martin of the Sydney University, answers questions for a West Australian paper.

The Weekend Mail, a Perth newspaper, of June 6, 1959, introduces Professor Martin “as a recognized authority on the control of dental caries by means of fluoridation of water” and invites him to answer a number of questions. In answer to the question, “Will all people on the system get the same dose strength?” Professor Martin said: “It has been conclusively established by the New York School of Engineering that, despite claims to the contrary, there is practically no variation in the distribution of fluoride in water supplies. This is a favorable argument among the ‘antis’ but it has no basis in fact.”

The truth is that the New York School of Engineering has never published any data whatever supporting Professor Martin’s claims. Professor Martin obviously is merely parroting a news release by Dr. Hilleboe, the New York State Health Officer, an active advocate of fluoridation who has been thwarted by the opposition of the water engineers of New York City, who have published data showing that it is impossible to overcome variations in the amount of fluorine in the water at each individual tap. Some of the strongest opposition to fluoridation has come from water engineers. Examination of the files of the Journal of the American Water Works Association reveals the basis of the opposition. In the August 1953, issue of the Journal a census revealed the mounting evidence of the corrosive damage to water equipment. And there were many complaints that “the chemical flow is too free to permit accurate control.”

Investigations in a number of American centres, some of them large, some of them small, have proved beyond all argument that there are tremendous variations in the dosage people would be obtaining from different taps. Graphs compiled by independent investigators have con- firmed the water engineers’ views. Sampling tests in Hastings, New Zealand, and in Yass, N.S.W., have also demonstrated considerable variability.

In answer to a question concerning the famous American Medical-Dental Ad Hoc Committee opposing fluoridation, Professor Martin made the remarkable reply that “When these claims were being investigated by the World Health Organization, only two men appeared for these 1500 eminent people—and both were well-known cranks. There is just no documented proof of their claims of toxic elements in one part per million of fluoridated water, or of their other claims. I notice that they use as references for their claims many of the world’s fore- most scientists who are urging fluoridation.”


Professor Martin’s reply is “remarkable” because the claims of the Ad Hoc Committee have never even been investigated by the World Health Organization, still less refuted. No representatives of the Ad Hoc Committee have ever appeared before the World Health Organization. In fact, the eighteen members of the World Health Organization Executive Board conducted no hearings at all on fluoridation, but a committee of six declared supporters of fluoridation presented a report, which was then authorized for publication.

Commenting on Professor Martin’s complaint that opponents of fluoridation have used as references the work of known supporters of fluoridation, Dr. F. B. Exner, co- author with Dr. G. L. Waldbott of the book The American Fluoridation Experiment., writes in a letter: “As for using the writings of proponents in support of my claims, I do so consistently and deliberately. If I quote Dr. Clive McKay against Dean, the hearer can still choose which ‘authority’ to believe. But when Dean (a fluoridationist) contradicts himself, or misquotes his own data, or publishes data which condemns fluoridation, the proponents cannot very well challenge the source of my material.”

Professor Martin’s claim that, although there are nearly two thousand known places in the U.S.A. where water is naturally fluoridated, and that “some have 12 or 13 parts per million—with no adverse effects and with a markedly high standard of dental health,” is simply propaganda without any scientific proof. Out of the total number of 1903 centres listed by the American Public Health Service as having natural fluoride in the water, only 282 of these, with a total population of 808,760, have fluoride within the range advocated by the fluoridators as the ideal for preventing tooth decay. There are only four communities listed with more than 8 pmm. of fluoride, with a total population of less than 1500.

These places all have badly fluorised teeth and data concerning teeth has been published for only one centre, Bruneau. And this was the result of an investigation in 1929. There has been no investigation at any time of the general health of the people in these communities. There has been only one study of general health in a high fluoride centre that of Bartlett as compared with Cameron, a low-fluoride centre. This study showed that the death rate in Bartlett was, if the people over 65 in both centres were ignored, six times as high as the corresponding rate in Cameron. Opponents of fluoridation like Dr. Exner do not claim that the difference in death rate was due to fluoride, but to say, “that a study in which a six to one difference is casually dismissed as ‘not significant’ with no investigation or reason, is not a scientific study at all, but merely window-dressing for a propaganda campaign.”

 Professor Martin, so far from speaking as a scientist, emerges as

a propagandist prepared to distort or ignore truth in

order to advance a totalitarian policy”.