PERCHLORATE ABUNDANT IN DESERT

Perchlorate can be both man-made and naturally occurring.
Man-made perchlorate is used in rocket fuel, fireworks
and some fertilizers, and some contamination has
been found near military bases …

Perchlorate-Ab.-in-Desert

11 ApriL 2014

BJAndraski, WA Jackson, TL Welborn, JK Bohlke,
R Sevanthi, and DA Stonestrom.

Soil plant, and terrain effects, on natural
perchlorate distribution in a desert landscape.
Journal of Environmental Quality.

Naturally occurring perchlorate in a Nevada desert is four times higher than
previously reported and the amount falling from the atmosphere
is about 10 times higher than scientists thought, according to a
new federal study. It is the first to document how natural
perchlorate cycles from the air to land on plants.

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Levels of naturally occurring perchlorate are higher than expected in Nevada’s Amargosa desert.

Naturally occurring perchlorate in a Nevada desert is four times higher than previously reported and the amount falling from the atmosphere is about 10 times higher than scientists thought, according to a new federal study.

      The study is the first to document how natural perchlorate cycles from the air to land and plants. The findings can help communities pin down sources of the drinking water contaminant, which has been linked in some studies to disruption of thyroid hormones.

Perchlorate can be both man-made and naturally occurring. Man-made perchlorate is used in rocket fuel, fireworks and some fertilizers, and some contamination has been found near military bases and their contractors. As a result, the Pentagon and defense industries have been implicated in contamination of water supplies and food crops.

In the new study, U.S. Geological Survey and Texas Tech University scientists measured natural perchlorate in plant leaves, topsoil, rain and dust at a federal research site in southwestern Nevada’s Amargosa Desert. The soil had about 10 to 20 grams of the contaminant per 2.5 acres, which is about 4 times higher than previous studies that looked at deeper soil have reported.

Perchlorate-Abundant-in-Desert

Photos by  Ken Lund/

PERCHLORATE HAS BEEN LINKED TO EFFECTS ON THYROID HORMONES

      “We found that high levels of natural perchlorate can accumulate in shallow soil,” said Brian Andraski, a research hydrologist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Nevada and lead author of the study, which was published in the Journal of Environmental Quality. “If this native desert is ever converted to irrigation, or climate change leads to increased precipitation … the natural perchlorate is highly soluble [and] could flush to groundwater.”

The setting of drinking water standards for perchlorate has been highly controversial. California discovered the chemical was widespread in its drinking water about two decades ago, and in 2007 set a maximum contaminant level of 6 micrograms per liter for drinking water.

However, there is no federal drinking water standard for perchlorate. The Environmental Protection Agency announced plans in 2011 to regulate it but no standard has been set.

About 4 percent of  U.S. public water systems have detected perchlorate. Between 5 million and 17 million people may be drinking water with traces of the chemical, according to EPA estimates.

The amount of perchlorate found in the Mojave Desert, if flushed into groundwater, could contaminate about a quarter million gallons of water per acre under California’s standards.

The scientists also found that officials have been under-estimating how much natural perchlorate comes from the atmosphere because they’ve only looked at rainfall. By including dust, aerosols and other dry deposited materials, they reported that the atmosphere contributes 10 times more natural perchlorate than was previously reported in the Southwest U.S.

Leaves – mostly from the creosote bush – contain about 1 to 2 grams of perchlorate per 2.5 acres, the study found. The leaves are important to perchlorate cycling in the desert because they pick up the contaminant from the soil, and return it when the leaves fall.

“Our study identified high levels of natural perchlorate in desert soils and in the leaves of shrubs, and other research has documented that livestock and wildlife ingest soil and browse desert shrubs,” Andraski said. “The transfer of perchlorate from soil through plants to higher organisms may contribute to perchlorate exposure in a desert ecosystem.”

 [[ Environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures and infant serum thyroid function.  ]]

Some studies have linked perchlorate to effects on pregnant women’s iodine and thyroid hormones. But results have been mixed on whether these changes could affect children’s health. Maternal thyroid hormones are essential for fetal brain development.

10 April Perchlorate abundant in desert. Naturally occurring perchlorate in a Nevada desert is four times higher than previously reported and the amount falling from the atmosphere is about 10 times higher than scientists thought, according to a new federal study. Environmental Health News.

23 August Greener flares better for the environment. As regulation surrounding soil and groundwater contamination increase, the simple act of training on a military range can have wide reaching implications. Researchers are working to make the tools of the military a little more green and in their most recent work have replaced the perchlorate salts in flares.

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23 August Water company gets rid of dangerous chemical perchlorate without raising fees for customers. Thanks to a resin-based filtration system, the Fontana Water Company is providing clean water, free of the dangerous chemical perchlorate, to thousands of local homes. Fontana Herald News, California.

17 August Fontana Water Co. restores perchlorate-contaminated well. The water company for this city of 200,000 is about to restore water from a well that had been lost to pollution since 1997. The well had been capped because its perchlorate contamination levels were rapidly climbing to the state safe water drinking standard. San Bernardino County Sun, California.

21 June NASA making cleanup progress in Pasadena. A NASA-funded treatment plant in Pasadena has removed hundreds of pounds of toxic residue left over from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s early rocket-building days. The space agency agreed to pay for cleanup after perchlorates from rocket fuel was detected in several area wells. La Canada Valley Sun, California.

21 May Indio area under water emergency. The Indio Water Authority has begun providing water on an emergency basis to a neighborhood of more than 100 homes after samples taken from a well detected high levels of perchlorate. Palm Springs Desert Sun, California.

9 April Archaea feed on perchlorate. Microbes of the archaea group have been found to feed on perchlorate. The findings demonstrate that biological breakdown of perchlorate (ClO4–) into chloride is more widespread than previously realized. Chemical & Engineering News.

7 April Some deep-sea microbes are hungry for rocket fuel. Researchers in the Netherlands have found that a microbe from deep beneath the ocean can breathe a major ingredient in rocket fuel: perchlorate. All Things Considered, NPR.

5 April Breathing perchlorate. About 20 years ago, investigators discovered that perchlorate, a synthetically produced chemical widely used in rocket propellants and explosives, was present at trace levels in many water supplies across the United States. Science.

27 March Goodrich Corp. to help clean up perchlorate in Rialto, California, groundwater. The Goodrich Corp. has agreed to pay at least $21.5 million to help clean up a giant perchlorate plume contaminating groundwater in the Rialto and Colton areas of San Bernardino County caused by Cold War-era munitions plants, federal authorities said Tuesday. Los Angeles Times.

8 February Hands off New Jersey’s drinking water. Would you like some perchlorate with your glass of water? Ever hear of it? It’s a component of rocket fuel. How about radon, the radioactive gas in some basements? These and other contaminants in New Jersey drinking water are permitted without restriction, thanks to Govs. Jon Corzine and Chris Christie. Newark Star-Ledger, New Jersey.

27 January Ten years after toxic plume, Morgan Hill and surrounding communities work to find normalcy. Ten years ago this month, community leaders were shocked by the discovery that a company that manufactured road flares here had disposed of toxic chemicals improperly, creating a 10-mile-long underground plume of perchlorate, a chemical used in rocket fuel. After a decade of cleanup work and millions of dollars in studies, however, the perchlorate problem is now slowly ebbing into history. San Jose Mercury News, California.

10 December EPA finishes hauling off contaminated soil on Barstow residential property. After removing 98 truckloads of perchlorate-contaminated soil, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on Friday purged a 5-acre parcel of residential property of a pollution source, which for a brief period in 2010 halted the drinking use of this city’s water supply. Contra Costa Times, California.

6 December $50 million and counting for Southern California pollution settlements. Court settlements totaling $51 million in the Rialto perchlorate pollution case could mean hundreds of dollars in refunds to residents who for years paid drinking water surcharges to help cover the cost of cleaning up the mess left by an array of industries. Riverside Press-Enterprise, California.

4 December Barstow: EPA to remove contaminated soil. Crews have begun excavating chemical-laden soil in and around a Barstow property believed to be the source of contamination that forced a shutdown of the city’s drinking water supply in late 2010. Crews hired by the U.S. EPA began work to remove 1,100 tons of soil contaminated with perchlorate. Riverside Press-Enterprise, California.

12 November Well dug in road in Valencia. The Army Corps of Engineers is drilling a well in Valencia as part of an ongoing effort to monitor water samples downstream from the Whittaker-Bermite property, said Jim Leserman, senior engineer and project manager of the perchlorate project for Castaic Lake Water Agency. Santa Clarita Signal, California.

27 October $5.7 million perchlorate settlement reached. Companies that produced fireworks at a Rialto, CA, industrial site where perchlorate contaminated the water supply have agreed to pay $5.7 million — the first of three settlements expected to total more than $100 million, officials said. Riverside Press-Enterprise, California.

21 October Iowa city residents face water question. A plume of perchlorate – an oxygen and chlorine compound that can affect the thyroid – is lurking beneath the ground on the south end of Hills, Iowa. As the plume shifts, Hills residents are left with a choice: Approve a municipal water utility or continue to do nothing and run the risk of more wells being affected by the perchlorate. Iowa City Press-Citizen, Iowa.

15 October Iowa town to vote on public water system. Nine years after the Environmental Protection Agency discovered perchlorate in some of Hills’ drinking water, the Iowa town of less than 800 is just one ballot measure away from installing a public water system that was voted down by the public in 2007 due to its cost. Cedar Rapids KCRG TV, Iowa.

28 September Rialto, Calif. residents to get perchlorate surcharge reimbursement. In California, Rialto’s City Council approved a payout schedule that could begin in a matter of months, as the city draws closer to reaching a settlement with several companies that used perchlorate during manufacturing at the B.F. Goodrich Superfund Site. San Bernardino County Sun, California.

( Perchlorate may be a problem for visitors to the planet Mars ! )

Perchlorate-Free Flares Undergo Qualification Testing

Perchlorate In Drinking Water

12 Endocrine Disrupters

 

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FLUORIDES – Toxic profile – U.S. Dept. of Health Services

You may be exposed by breathing, eating, or drinking
the substance, or by skin contact.

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 FLUORIDES – Toxic Profile – U.S. Dept. of Health Services

A Toxicological Profile for Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine,
Draft for Public Comment was released in September 2001.
This edition supersedes any previously released draft or final profile.

“However, the fluoride accumulates primarily
in the bones or shell rather than in edible meat.” ↓

ORIGINAL FULL TEXT – A large PDF file  → HERE

                                                                Extract from:

30 SEPTEMBER  2003 

 PUBLIC HEALTH STATEMENT

This public health statement tells you about fluorides, hydrogen fluoride,

and fluorine and the effects of exposure presented in the toxicological

profile. These profiles were specifically prepared by ATSDR for

hazardous substances which are most commonly found at

facilities on the CERCLA National Priorities List

(Superfund sites) and are intended to

describe the effects of exposure

from chemicals at these sites.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identifies
the most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation.

These sites make up the National Priorities List (NPL) and are the sites targeted for long-term federal clean-up activities. Fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine have been found in at least 188 of the 1,636 current or former NPL sites. However, the total number of NPL sites evaluated for these substances is not known. As more sites are evaluated, the sites at which fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine is found may increase. This information is important because exposure to these substances may harm you and because these sites may be sources of exposure.

When a substance is released from a large area, such as an industrial plant, or from a container, such as a drum or bottle, it enters the environment. This release does not always lead to exposure. You are exposed to a substance only when you come in contact with it. You may be exposed by breathing, eating, or drinking the substance, or by skin contact.

If you are exposed to fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine, many factors determine whether you’ll be harmed. These factors include the dose (how much), the duration (how long), and how you come in contact with it/them. [♦]

You must also consider the other chemicals you’re exposed to and your age, sex, diet, family traits,

lifestyle, and state of health.

♦ And nutritional status. 

Original document ↓ ↓ 

Full Original Document

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“The medical profession is being bought by the pharmaceutical industry,
not only in terms of practice of medicine, but also in terms of teaching
and research. The academic institutions of this country are allowing
themselves to be the paid agents of the pharmaceutical industry.
I think it’s disgraceful.” - 
Arnold Seymour Relman,

former editor-in-chief of the New England Medical Journal,
and professor of medicine at Harvard University.

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FLUORIDATION AND STRONTIUM 90

“Because of the affinity of strontium and fluoride to form
highly insoluble Sr90F2, the consumption of water
that has been artificially fluoridated may
increase the danger of  Strontium 90
to man and animals.”

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 KERWIN AND STRONTIUM 90 

F.-STRONTIUM

Iodine -131  And  Strontium 90.

In 1958 Barry Commoner [] and others showed that the teeth of every baby in the US had some level of strontium 90 accumulation as a direct result of fall-out from nuclear testing in the 1940s and 1950s.

An article published in a 1958 Dental Digest by Dr. James G Kerwin, Director of the Central Division of the Passaic Department of Health in New Jersey, sheds more light on the issue of strontium and fluoride interactions:

“Because of the affinity of strontium and fluoride to form highly insoluble Sr90F2, the consumption of water that has been artificially fluoridated may increase the danger of Strontium 90 to man and animals.”

“For obvious reasons it is necessary for the body to be able to get rid of any radioactive strontium as quickly as possible. Under normal circumstances the body does this, but only at a slow rate. If, however, fluoride has been consumed, for example, from artificial fluoridated drinking water, then Strontium-90 and the fluoride may precipitate as the highly insoluble Sr90F2 within the body. This means that the rate at which Strontium-90 is excreted or thrown off will be even slower than ordinarily occurs.” [♦♦]

“It is known that fluorides are powerful inhibitors of enzyme action, and that many types of enzymes are affected, including some that are essential for cellular oxidation…The wide variety of enzymes known to be poisoned by fluoride accounts for the different manifestations of fluorosis; that is, the different symptoms associated with fluoride poisoning. “

“Life processes are so delicately balanced that any change, any departure from the normally established order at the cellular level, is likely to be for the worse. Thus a combination of radioactive strontium and fluoride, forming Sr90F2, could do great harm. If the entire population of the United States received small doses of additional radiation from Strontium-90 which was combined with fluoride in the body, and thus was prevented from being excreted, it is likely that several thousands among the generation of ten million children may be definitely handicapped because of gene mutation due to internal radiation.”

“There is still another aspect to consider; that is, a population that is exposed generation after generation to an increasing amount of Strontium-90 and fluoride may quite likely exhibit a higher death rate coupled with a lower birth rate, both due to harmful radiations and the resulting mutations.”

Dr.-B-Commoner

  Barry Commoner was an American biologist, college professor,

and politician. He was a leading ecologist and among the

founders of the modern environmental movement.

One of Barry Commoner’s lasting legacies is his

four laws of ecology, as written in

The Closing Circle in 1971.

The-Four-Laws

         ♦

 ❝ …Radioactive elements are structurally similar to their non-radioactive counterparts, differing in the number of neutrons the atoms contain. This is why nutrition is important in preventing or blocking damage from exposure to radioactive elements.

If you do not obtain sufficient amounts of calcium, potassium, and other minerals in your diet, your body may absorb radioactive elements that are similar in structure to these nutrients.

For example, if you do not obtain enough calcium, your body will absorb radioactive strontium 90 or other elements that are similar in structure to calcium, if they are available. Similarly, if you obtain sufficient potassium from your diet, your body will be less likely to retain any radioactive cesium 137 it encounters, as this element is similar to potassium.

If the cells are able to obtain all nutrients they need from your diet,

they will be less likely to absorb radioactive substitutes,

which are then more likely to be discarded from the body… 

Brushing with Fluoride Can Give You a Radiant Smile:

It was easier to stop the nuclear tests in the
USA than to stop water fluoridation!

  The Secret History of the Atomic Bomb  

“ …It seems no accident that we are currently suffering from a national cancer epidemic, in which one of every five Americans dies of that dread disease. It would be plausible and prudent to assume that the radioactive fallout we’ve introduced into the global atmosphere, literally tens of tons of debris from bomb tests alone, is a significant factor in addition to industrial pollution and cigarette smoking. As early as the 1950s the American Linus Pauling and the Russian Andrei Sakharov—both Nobel prize winners—warned that literally millions of people would die worldwide because of these bomb tests…”

 Dr. Benjamin Spock

Dangerous Synergism – Fluorides & SR-90

DNA AND MITOCHONDRIAL TIME BOMBS: Uranium and Mercury

Cesium-137 – Eliminator – Free

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Bill Gates and his “plans” for plutonium

       See also →  Clear Intent – introduction ←more on nuclear weapons

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FLUORIDE AND INTELLECTUAL SUPPRESSION

When a person is attacked because their research, teaching
or public statements are threatening to a powerful
interest group,
this can be called suppression
of intellectual dissent.

Brian Martin, professor of Social Sciences at the University of Wollongong,
Australia. He is author of 15 books and hundreds of articles
on nonviolence,
 dissent, democracy and other topics.

Brian-Martin

Professor Brian Martin

f-intellectual For full paper 

  INTELLECTUAL SUPPRESSION  

  Justice ignited: the dynamics of backfire 

More of his works ↑

prof-mirowski

 Professor Philip Mirowski

(He does not mention the ‘F’. word,
but he shows us how science may have lost its way –
“privatization of knowledge, – Universities are commercial-
and curiosity is engineered out”…)

Philip Mirowski Economics and Policy Studies 
400 Decio Faculty Hall Notre Dame, IN

46556 574.631.7580. Philip.E.Mirowski.1@nd.edu 

↓  OTHER EXAMPLES ↓

Aust. Defence Bases Contaminated With Fluoride Chemicals

Nobel Laureate in Physics; “Global Warming is Pseudoscience”

BIASES THE 2016 NHMRC DRAFT REPORT

We recommend you watch this

Burzynski: Cancer Is Serious Business,-FDA

  Up-Date on Allergies and Vaccines  

 →  More here on Vaccines  

Aluminium Adjuvants In Vaccines

DOLLAR TOUG WAR

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Famous Last Words on “SECRECY”

$ometimes $cience is for $ale!

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This is a bit of a back down 

WHO Extracts from – Environmental Health Criteria 227-Fluoride

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FLUORIDATION AND LEAD CONTAMINATION

The fluoridation of water, with lead-contaminated fluoride, a
substance also capable of leaching lead from water pipes and fittings.

AFS F:lead ff

Lead-Mine-wide-

 An Old Lead Mine

Silicofluorides contain more lead than sodium fluoride. 
Compared with NaF, SiFs cause more lead to be leached from
brass pipe and fittings and from the lead solder used to solder 
copper pipe and cast iron water mains. For all these reasons
SiFs should be disallowed as fluoridation materials.

Fluoride-Lead-s

Original  HERE 

HeadingF.-Lead-by-F.-Frech

The fluosilicates are the by-products of the phosphate fertilizer industry.
In the manufacture of this kind of fertilizer, phosphorus is obtained from phosphate rock,
which has to be broken down with sulfuric acid.

(1) Fluorine occurs naturally in combination with the phosphates.

(2) In these two facts lie the keys to the presence of lead in the fluosilicates.

Step One: Sulfuric acid is prepared by either of two ways, the lead chamber process

(3) or the contact method.

(4) In its purest form (made by the contact method) it is used in pharmaceuticals; in its lowest grade (produced by the lead chamber process) it is used by the fertilizer industry.

(5) It is also frequently recovered for re-use, but this form is too impure for any purpose except the manufacture of fertilizer, for which it is quite suitable.

(6) In the lead chamber process purification is carried out only to the extent of removing substances that could clog the machinery.

(7) Of the common metals, only lead is resistant to cold sulfuric acid in concentrations up to 100%. But in hot acid the resistance is up to about 70%.

(8) The lead chamber type uses heat (about 600 C) and isn’t cooled during the process. That’s why a certain amount of lead is leached during this procedure.

If a pure product is needed, the contact method is used, but it’s more expensive, more complicated. In the making of fertilizer, however, a pure grade is not necessary. After all, neither fertilizer nor its by-products were intended for human consumption.

Step Two: Fluorine, which is a highly reactive element capable of joining with any other element except oxygen, is able to leach lead from the contaminated sulfuric acid. In the past hydrofluosilicic acid was simply neutralized and discarded. The picking up of lead wouldn’t have been a problem. But eventually it was decided that the acid, being already in solution, would be better, simpler to use, and less expensive than sodium fluoride.

(9) The lead contamination, apparently, was forgotten (if, indeed, it had ever been noticed.)

Sodium fluoride is also lead-tainted (and with arsenic, as well.) Aluminum ore (bauxite) is usually contaminated with lead and arsenic (and a number of other elements.) In order to obtain a pure product, these have to be removed.

(10) They become part of the major by-product of aluminum refining, sodium fluoride.

Another way in which fluoridation contributes to lead in the water is through its action on whatever lead pipes may still be in existence in older homes. Any lead pipes would be old lead. These are ordinarily covered by a protective coating made by the lead itself which is impervious to diluted acids (as all of them would be in water.) Water acts slowly on lead, forming lead hydroxide, but the action is slight if the water contains carbon dioxide or carbonates or sulfates which interact with lead to form these protective coatings.

(11) It’s interesting that the lead pipes in Roman aqueducts, 2000 years old, are still in such good shape the numbers and letters engraved on them are clearly legible.

(12) In fluoridated water, though, it’s a different matter. Fluorine can and does destroy the protective coatings; it can and does leach lead. A pediatrics textbook published in 1964

(13) noted that the incidence of lead poisoning had been rising in certain metropolitan areas in Eastern United States. The blame was laid on old lead paint flaking from walls and woodwork. But most of the lead chips were old before 1964; some children chewed them long before then. But a new source of lead had arisen–unnoticed: The fluoridation of water, with lead-contaminated fluoride, a substance also capable of leaching lead from the pipes. Although there were scattered places fluoridating throughout the nation, larger numbers of eastern metropolitan communities were doing so.

Today one in nine children under the age of six is said to have unacceptably high blood lead levels

(14) even though lead paint was banned in 1978 (and hadn’t been used extensively since the 1950′s!) Lead in gasoline has been phased out, and lead solder hasn’t been permitted on copper tubing since 1986 (eight years ago.) The EPA says that lead stabilizes in five years. So except for fluoride use, any pipes, whether of lead or lead-soldered, should not now be hazardous. The most revealing statistics, though, are the high blood lead levels in 400,000 newborns each year. Newsweek in its article on lead and the threat to children

(15) said that pregnant women passed this toxic substance to their unborn children by eating, drinking, or breathing it. But even though pregnant women do sometimes have weird cravings, it’s not likely more than a tiny percentage would be chewing paint chips, nor would a significant number of them be engaged in renovating old houses. The lead is in the water–and in foods and beverages prepared with the water.

The EPA estimates that 10-20% of the lead in children comes from the water.

(16) That agency, which knows of the lead contamination of fluoride products, insists the amount is too small to be of regulatory concern. What they have overlooked, though, is that it concentrates in the body tissues, and over time, would add up to quite a lot. In addition, it becomes concentrated in products processed with the water. The 10-20% directly from the water can easily become three or four times as much.

The EPA lists as health problems caused by lead the following conditions: Interference with formation of red blood cells, anemia, kidney damage, impaired reproductive function, interference with Vitamin D metabolism, impaired cognitive performance, delayed neurological and physical development, elevations in blood pressure.

(17) The agency also suggests lead my be a carcinogen, possibly causing kidney tumors and lymphocytic leukemia.

(18) Furthermore, it’s a known scientific fact that lead poisons the bone marrow.

(19) Surely, then, it would be prudent to avoid even “a little bit of lead,” assuming that’s all fluoridation contributes.

But the evidence shows it’s much more than that. Let us tell you a tale of two cities–Tacoma, Washington, and Thurmont, Maryland. Both of them saw significant decline in lead levels only six months after fluoridation was stopped. (In Tacoma, that was due to equipment problems, in Thurmont, it was a temporary ban by the city council.) Tacoma registered a drop of nearly 50%

(20); in Thurmont it was 78%.

(21) To the best of our knowledge, no other explanations were offered. In Thurmont the ban is now permanent.

(22) In Tacoma, we’re told, a battle continues over whether or not to resume fluoridating.

We have more points to add. As we’ve already mentioned, the EPA says that lead may be implicated in causing leukemia. A booklet published by the Leukemia Society in 1987 noted that chemicals which damage the bone marrow can cause leukemia. The Book of Popular Science, 1974, pointed out that bone marrow is poisoned by lead.  [link added by us]

(23) Are we to believe, then, nothing is wrong with putting a little bit of lead into the water (from which it will also enter, more concentrated, food and beverages prepared with the water?)

The EPA permits lead-contaminated fluorides to be added; they do not require it. Thus, any community, anywhere, could halt the program any time, with the consent of its citizens, who surely would consent if given the facts.

Lead-tainted fluorides are waste products mainly of the aluminum and phosphate fertilizer industries, largely from US companies. But we’ve learned that in some communities sodium fluoride imported from Japan or sodium silicofluoride from Belgium are used. Neither of these nations fluoridates its own water supplies.

(24) (Don’t you get the feeling we’re in the same category as a Third World country becoming a toxic waste dump for others?) In California recently the Attorney General and two environmental groups have sued the makers of brass pumps containing lead which could contaminate water from wells.

(25) But who is suing companies who sell lead-tainted products to cities for their fluoridation purposes? Who is suing the EPA for allowing it? Where are the lawsuits against the US Public Health Service and the Centers for Disease Control for adamantly promoting it?

In conclusion, there’s still the matter of lead being leached from old pipes. Anyone who argues that fluoridation had nothing to do with it will have to explain those well-preserved lead pipes from more than 2000 years ago in unfluoridated Roman water. 

REFERENCES:

(1) Book of Popular Science, Grolier, Inc., 1974, Vol.7, 63.
(2) Ibid.
(3) Book of Popular Science, Vol. 3, 167-169.
(4) Book of Popular Science, Vol. 7, 62.
(5) Encyclopedia Brittanica, 1957, Vol.21, 545.
(6) Ibid., 545.
(7) Ibid., 546.
(8) Ibid., 545A
(9) Book of Popular Science, Vol. 7, 63-64.
(10) Encyclopedia Americana, 1945, Vol. 1, 456.
(11) Encyclopedia Brittanica, 1957, Vol.1, 715.
(12) Book of Popular Science, Vol. 3, 39.
(13) Textbook of Pediatrics, Nelson WS, MD, WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia,London, 1964, 1557.
(14) Newsweek, “Lead and Your Kids,” July 15, 1991.
(15) Ibid.
(16) Ibid.
(17) Federal Register, Bol. 56, No. 110, June 7, 1991, 264.
(18) Ibid., 265-70.
(19) Book of Popular Science, Vol. 3, 74.
(20) Letter from the Tacoma Public Utilities, Dec. 2, 1992.
(21) Fluoride Report, newsletter, April, 1994, 5.
(22) Ibid.
(23) Book of Popular Science, Vol. 3,74.
(24) Letter from Tacoma Public Utilities, May 22, 1992.
(25) Kansas City STAR, April 19, 1994

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Lead in Plumbing Products and Materials 

 by – MP Taylor, PJ Harvey and AL Morrison

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See also 

FLUORIDE LEAD AND PIPES

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Plumb-solvency Exacerbated by Fluoridation-Dr. Geoff Pain

Global Decline in Tooth Decay
correlates with reduced Airborne Lead
(Pb) but water Fluoridation prevents further progress.

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Lead Poisoning At Mount Isa And Fluoridation

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Chloramine + Lead Pipes + Fluoride = Contaminated Tap Water +

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LEAD CONTAMINATION FROM AVIATION FUEL

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Water Fluoridation Targets Black Americans

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MORE INFO ON FLUORIDES AND LEAD ON OUR POST  

Water Treatment With Silicofluorides And Lead Toxicity

 Council LEAD Project NSW

 — THE DISAPPEARING  SPARROW—

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There is a custom of using pipes for electrical grounding.

This accelerates lead corrosion and  also increases lead in drinking water.

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MORE INFORMATION ON LEAD & FLUORIDATION – by John MacArthur 

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The fatal attraction of lead

For millennia lead has held a deep attraction for painters, builders, chemists and winemakers – but it’s done untold harm, especially to children. And while it’s no longer found in petrol, you’ve still got several kilograms of it in your car.

Element number 82 is one of a handful that mankind has known for millennia. The oldest pure lead, found in Turkey, was made by early smelters more than 8,000 years ago.

That’s because lead is very simple to produce. It often comes mixed up with other more coveted minerals, notably silver. And once the ore is out of the ground, thanks to its low melting point, the lead can easily be separated out in an open fire.

One place lead has long been mined is the Derbyshire Dales, at the southern end of the UK’s Peak District National Park.

Lead mine DerbyshireDisused lead mine in Derbyshire UK

As well as its tourist-friendly natural beauty, the area’s volcanic and limestone geology also provided the perfect conditions for mineralising the lead sulphide ore called galena.

For 100 million years the lead just sat there harmlessly, locked up in the rock. Then, 3,000 years ago, people began to dig it up. And then the Romans arrived. And soon enough boatloads of Derbyshire ingots were being shipped back to the Continent.

The Romans were the first to exploit lead on an industrial scale. Ice cores in Greenland contain traces of lead dust from 2,000 years ago, carried on the wind from giant Roman smelters. One of the largest, located in Spain, was operated by tens of thousands of slaves.

Lead found dozens of uses throughout the Empire. Being apparently insoluble, it was used to line aqueducts and make water pipes – the word “plumber” derives from the Latin for lead, plumbum.

Roman lead pipes

The Romans excelled at plumbing, unfortunately they used lead pipes

“I think of it as the plastic of the past,” explains Derbyshire lead mining historian Lynn Willis. “It’s flexible, you can cast it into thin sheets, solder it into pipes.”

The metal was malleable and seemingly impervious to corrosion, and so – just like modern plastics – it became ubiquitous. And not just in Roman times.

“In a large house in the 17th Century you might find the table covered with [lead tableware], the cisterns holding the water, the drains, the pipes.”

Lead has a long association with the building trade, providing a waterproof material for roofing, window frames, and for sealing stone walls. And a heavy lump of lead on a string formed the plumb-line builders used to ensure those walls were vertical.

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The metal was found to have other magical properties. Lead carbonate, for example, has provided a cheap, durable paint since ancient times. Known today as “flake white”, it was prized by Old Masters such as Rembrandt because of the steadfastness of its colour and the beautiful contrasts it would bring to their oil portraits.

Meanwhile, glassmakers learned that adding in some lead oxide would yield glassware such as wine decanters that would glisten, because the lead refracted the light across a wider arc.

Unfortunately, a leaded crystal wine decanter turns out to be a singularly bad idea, according to Andrea Sella, chemistry professor at University College London, especially if the wine (or sherry, port or brandy) is held in it for a long time.

“The lead slowly dissolves out into the wine itself. The intriguing thing is that you get a compound that used to be known as ‘the sugar of lead’.”

This compound, lead acetate, not only looks like sugar, it also has an intensely sweet flavour, Prof Sella explains.

“One of the curious things is that the drink that you would put into your decanter would over time gradually become sweeter.”

But lead, of course, is also toxic. Once inside the body, it interferes with the propagation of signals through the central nervous system, and it inveigles its way into enzymes, disrupting their role in processing the nutritious elements zinc, iron and calcium.

And so history is littered with examples of people, often unwittingly, enhancing the flavour of their beverages with lead, with horrendous consequences for the health of the end-consumers.

The citizens of Ulm in Germany were plagued by agonising stomach cramps in the 1690s. But it was soon noted at a local monastery that some of the monks, who happened to abstain from drinking the popular local wine, were being spared by God.

The source was eventually identified as a lead oxide sweetener added to the wine – and then eliminated via what was possibly the world’s first formal ban on the use of lead.

In England, these same stomach cramps became known as “Devon colic” after a similar 17th Century outbreak, this time caused by the lead used in local cider presses.

Gout could also be brought on by lead poisoning, and became a hallmark of the English nobility in the 18th Century. The apparent cause this time was the 1703 Methuen Treaty between England and Portugal, better known as the “Port Wine Treaty”.

It cemented military friendship and favourable trade terms between the two nations, stimulating a booming trade in port. Guess what the wine came laced with? Lead acetate.

Lead-induced gout was all too familiar to the Romans too. They associated it with the morose god Saturn, who ate his own children.

The link was apt. Chronic lead exposure causes depression, headaches, aggression and memory loss. It can also cause sterility, and some suggest this explains the common failure of Roman aristocrats, such as Caesar Augustus, to produce a natural heir.

How were the Romans poisoned? Tiny amounts of lead in water pipes dissolve into soft water (the lime-scale from hard water stops this process). The Romans also handled lead in the form of coins, pots and dishes. And they used it in paints and cosmetics.

However, the biggest probable source was once again wine, specifically a sweetener-cum-preservative the Romans called sapa or defrutum.

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The Romans boiled concentrated grape juice down in lead pots into a syrup that helped extend the life of wines. Why lead pots? According to the winemaker Columella, “brass vessels give off copper rust, which has an unpleasant flavour.”

The outcome is clear from bones in ancient Roman cemeteries, which contain lead levels more than three times the modern safe limit recommended by the World Health Organization.

-  SOME KEY FACTS ON LEAD -

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  • The Babylonians used the metal for plates on which to record inscriptions

  • Malleable, ductile, and dense, it is a poor conductor of electricity

  • Symptoms of lead poisoning include abdominal pain and diarrhoea followed by constipation, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, and general weakness

  • Resistant to corrosion

Whether this contributed to the apparent madness of emperors such as Caligula and Nero, and the eventual collapse of the Empire remains a contentious question among classical scholars.

But it’s clear that the Industrial Revolution unleashed a new wave of lead poisoning far greater than anything in ancient times, and this time it was the working classes rather than aristocrats who bore the brunt.

Derbyshire lead miners for example were often marked by a black line across their gums – brought on apparently by the chemical reaction between lead in the miners’ blood and sulphur released by bacteria in the mouth, after they had eaten certain kinds of food, including eggs.

The worst affected were those employed in smelting or in the manufacture of lead-based paints, who found themselves surrounded daily by lead fumes.

Person suffering from lead poisoningA black line on the gums is one sign of lead poisoning

Take the Sheffield paintworks, for example. After three months at the works, employees typically developed a skull-like complexion of pallid skin and dark recessed eyes, Willis says. Melancholy, pain, infertility and death followed.

“In the 1870s, the doctor reported that six people out of 70-80 had died the previous year,” says Willis. But he also noted that in his father’s time in the 1830s they had died “like sheep”.

Given that lead poisoning had been around so long, the actions of the chemist Thomas Midgley Jr appear to have been reckless in the extreme. He is the man who put lead in petrol.

In 1921 as a brilliant young chemist at General Motors he discovered that adding the compound tetra-ethyl lead made engines run more efficiently, eliminating the uncontrolled knocking of early motorcars.

The product was marketed as the benign-sounding “ethyl”. When challenged about the dangers of the lead content, Midgley called a press conference at which he poured the chemical over his hands and breathed in its vapour for a full minute, claiming he could do so every day without ill effect.

In reality, both before and after this incident Midgley spent months plagued by the effects of lead poisoning. GM’s ethyl plant in New Jersey, meanwhile, was forced to close after several workers went mad and some died. The press renamed ethyl “looney gas”. Midgley was a tragic individual.

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Later in life he contracted polio and became bed-ridden, so he designed a system of pulleys to raise himself up – only one day he became entangled in them and died of asphyxiation.

However, the greatest tragedy was his legacy. IT WAS MIDGLEY WHO INVENTED CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS – CFCs the refrigerant gases later found to be responsible for opening up the hole in the ozone layer and increasing the incidence of skin cancer. And cars – far more of them than Midgley could have conceived of in the 1920s – would continue to belch out lead bromide fumes for decades.

Although this was a far more dilute source of poisoning than Roman sapa or the fug of a Victorian paintworks, it was incomparably more far-reaching, affecting every city on the planet. And this time the victims were children.

It was another American, the paediatric psychiatrist Herbert Needleman, who was responsible for finally getting the lead taken out of petrol. [However not in all aviation fuels.]

In the 1970s and 1980s he discovered that even very low levels of lead exposure did irreversible damage to infants, including unborn babies. As they grew up, their IQs were lower, they had trouble concentrating, and often dropped out of school.

As young adults, data suggested, they were more likely to become bullies, delinquents, criminals, teenage parents, drug addicts, unemployed, and so on. Needleman concluded that the lead had permanently weakened their ability to resist dangerous impulses.

mapped closely to when their respective crime statistics peaked two decades later.

Thanks in large part to Needleman’s work, the US began phasing out tetraethyl lead in 1975, and most of the planet followed suit. Yet it is only now that the possible scale of the harm done by lead poisoning is becoming apparent.

That’s because many academics now believe leaded petrol was responsible for a global crime wave that peaked in the 1990s.

One such is economist Jessica Wolpaw Reyes of Amherst College in the US. “When we had leaded generations in the 1960s and 1970s, they would have been far more likely to commit crimes, especially violent crimes, in the 80s and 90s,” she says.

She found that the timing of when petroleum companies phased out leaded petrol in individual US states between 1975 and 1996

Graph showing correlation between lead exposure and violent crime in USA

Other studies looking at the difference between countries worldwide found similar results. However, the link between lead and crime is still disputed, witplenty of other explanations forwarded for the global drop in crime rates.

FIND OUT MORE:

In Elementary Business, BBC World Service’s Business Daily goes back to basics and examines key chemical elements – and asks what they mean for businesses and the global economy.

All paints, even durable lead-based ones, are prone to crumble eventually. But being a chemical element, the lead never breaks down or disappears. Instead, the dust can be inhaled, or the sweet-tasting flakes can be consumed by a curious toddler.

In the UK the ban has extended beyond bulk household paints to include artists’ suppliers, such as the 150-year-old L Cornelissen in London’s Bloomsbury.

“It is a traditional paint and has passed the test of many, many centuries,” says the shop’s owner, Nicholas Walt, ruefully. “Petrol’s pretty dangerous too, but we’ve learned how to handle it, and it’s a shame that we can’t do the same with flake white.”

Lead can still be found as a radiation shield at your doctor’s surgery, or as a roof lining material in northern Europe. It’s also being used to waterproof and immobilise subsea electric cables for offshore windfarms.

But the biggest use by far is, ironically enough, still in your car. Almost 90% of lead is used to make batteries. Some of them sit in hospitals or mobile phone beacons to provide back-up power in case the grid goes down. But most of them are used to start people’s cars every morning.

Lead is not the most obvious metal for a car battery. Coming from the bottom of the periodic table, it is exceptionally dense, and a great weight to carry around – about as far from a lithium battery as you can get.

However, unlike other batteries, it will provide the initial surge of energy needed to get your engine moving, again and again for years, without breaking. Even hybrid and fully electric cars typically contain a lead acid battery to complement their main lithium or metal-hydride one.

And now for the good news: Unlike a can of leaded petrol, a lead-acid battery is a sealed unit. The lead never escapes. And that remains true even at the end of the battery’s life.

“Lead has the highest recycling rate of any metal,” says Dr Andy Bush, head of the International Lead Association.
“The recycling rate in Europe and North America [for batteries] is 99%.”

He says this isn’t just because of environmental regulations. Lead is a very easy metal to recycle.

Batteries for recycling
Recycled batteries

That much is clear from a visit to the HJ Enthoven recycling plant at Darley Dale – a last vestige of the Derbyshire lead mining industry.

They take lead batteries, then smash them to pieces in a contained unit. That makes extracting the metallic lead a simple task as it just sinks to the bottom. Lead is also recovered from the sulphurous electrolyte fluid.

All that molten lead is then poured into ingots that can be sent straight back to a battery manufacturer. Even the recovered plastic gets turned back into battery casings.

“It’s a completely closed loop,” says the plant’s manager, Peter Allbutt. “This is a material that is recyclable again and again and again.”

All the same, you may still be surrounded by lead that doesn’t form part of this loop. It remains in some old pipes and in older layers of household paint.

Amazingly, a handful of countries – Iraq, Yemen, Burma, North Korea – continue to use leaded petrol. And there are many more countries in the world, including India and China, which are still getting to grips with the pollution from their lead smelting industries.

And in some places it’s found its way into the earth.

In the Derbyshire Dales, the average lead content in the region’s soil, at 0.05%, is 10 times the UK national average. In some hotspots – downwind from old smelters, or where miners dumped their spoils – it can be as high as 3%.

And it will just continue to sit there, until someone cleans it up.

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Faraday observed in the 1830s that lead fluoride when

heated to red hot conducts electricity similar to platinum.

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THE SECRET HISTORY OF LEAD

Well put together recommended reading by us.

Full text  → HERE

EXTRACT: … Lead was outlawed as an automotive gasoline additive in this country in 1986–more than sixty years after its introduction–to enable the use of emissions-reducing catalytic converters in cars (which are contaminated and rendered useless by lead) and to address the myriad health and safety concerns that have shadowed the toxic additive from its first, tentative appearance on US roads in the twenties, through a period of international ubiquity only recently ending. Since the virtual disappearance of leaded gas in the United States (it’s still sold for use in propeller airplanes), the mean blood-lead level of the American population has declined more than 75 percent. A 1985 EPA study estimated that as many as 5,000 Americans died annually from lead-related heart disease prior to the country’s lead phaseout…

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More Dangers of Lead – Children

Lead poisoning is a national problem. In children under the age of 6, the threshold for elevated blood lead levels is just 5 micrograms per liter. Because there is no safe level of exposure, even this seemingly small amount is enough to be damaging, especially to children.

Lead was once commonly used in fuel, household paint and plumbing materials, and is still often found in older buildings. Lead is a known neurotoxin, and children are especially susceptible to its effects. It can cause irreparable damage to almost all organ systems in the human body, but is most known for its ability to disrupt cognitive development and cause learning disabilities.
The neurological effects of lead are generally the most immediate, but this does not mean that other ill effects cannot occur, even later in life. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease, childhood lead poisoning can contribute to other health issues later in life such as kidney issues, hypertension, reproductive difficulties and it can also affect the health of future offspring. So not only can lead poisoning harm children, it can set the stage for your children’s children to have health issues.

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See also our six postings below  ↓ ↓ ↓

Lead Poisoning At Mount Isa And Fluoridation

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http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-10-06/efforts-to-manage-mount-isa-lead-exposure-questioned/6830098   

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http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-10-06/mining-town-students-perform-poorly-due-to-contamination/6829792  

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http://www.ibtimes.com.au/pregnant-womens-exposure-lead-may-have-lasting-effects-can-be-passed-grandkids-1471841  

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 Water Treatment With Silicofluorides And Lead Toxicity

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LEAD IN AVIATION FUEL – Fluoridation Queensland

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FLUORIDE AND CRETINISM

… The goiter prevalence was 91% and dental fluorosis 20.80%.
The average level of iodine in drinking water was
5.21 mg/l, and that of fluoride 0.88 mg/l…

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THE RELATIONSHIP OF A LOW-IODINE AND

HIGH-FLUORIDE ENVIRONMENT TO

SUBCLINICAL CRETINISM*

IN XINJIANG (China)

by

Lin Fa-Fu, Aihaiti, Zhao Hong-Xin,

Lin Jin, Jiang Ji-Yong, Maimaiti, and Aiken.

extract:

… Xinjiang Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Research;

Office of Leading Group for Endemic Disease Control of Hetian Prefectural

Committee of the Communist Party of China; and County Health and

Epidemic Prevention Station, Yutian, Xinjiang.

   Cretinism* in iodine-deficiency areas is well known, yet the milder forms of somatic and psychomotor maldevelopment and thyroid dysfunction caused by iodine deficiency may be more difficult to detect. DeQuervain, in 1936, called this milder form “semi-cretinism,” while in 1980 Laggasse used the term “cretinoidism.” It was formally named “subclinical endemic cretinism” at a symposium on subclinical cretinism held in Xinzhou, Shanxi province in 1985.

Currently, attention is being focused on these disorders in China and abroad. The Hetian prefecture in Xinjiang has reportedly been one of the Asian areas most severely affected by iodine deficiency disorders (IDD).

During the period 1987-1989, we made a systematic survey of subclinical endemic cretinism in this district under a UNICEF aid Project.

Materials and Methods

General conditions and selection of affected areas – The entire region of Xinjiang in central Eurasia is affected by iodine deficiency. The study area, located between the southern border of Tarim basin and the northern slope of Kunlun Mountains, is arid with sandy soil and an annual precipitation less than 50 mm. The cultivated alluvial plain extends from south to north with a steepening gradient. The geographical distributions of endemic goiter and endemic fluorosis are characterized by marked vertical zones. The inhabitants are of lower socioeconomic status, with an annual mean income of about 200 yuan (RMB) per person.

Area with high fluoride and low iodine levels (Area A) – In the township Xinyuan in the lower reaches of Kliya river in the county of Yutian, north of the highway, we examined 250 schoolchildren, aged 7-14 years. The goiter prevalence was 91% and dental fluorosis 20.80%. The average level of iodine in drinking water was 5.21 mg/l, and that of fluoride 0.88 mg/l.

Area with low iodine level (area B) – In the townships of Langan and Jiayi in the alluvial plain before the mountains and to the south of the highway, we examined 256 schoolchildren, aged 7-14 years. The goiter prevalence was 82% and dental fluorosis of 16.00%. The average water iodine level was 0.96 mg/l and that of fluoride 0.34 mg/l. …

* CRETINISM is the condition wherein the child has severely stunted physical growth due to untreated congenital iodine deficiency while myxedema is a form or cutaneous and dermal edema due to increased deposition of the connective tissue components. The subcutaneous tissues are seen in hypothyroidism and Grave’s disease.

   EFFECT OF HIGH-FLUORIDE WATER

          ON INTELLIGENCE IN CHILDREN CLICK HERE ↓  ↓  ↓  ↓

 FLUORIDE LOWERS IQ

Reports of this problem are surfacing in parts of

Australia where water fluoridation has been operating for many years!

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