OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERE – CSIRO (Original)

CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere

Citation

Dunse, B. L., N. Derek, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel and L. P. Steele, Australian and global HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride nitrogen trifluoride and sulfuryl fluoride emissions, Report prepared for Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Aspendale, Australia, iv, 33 pp., 2019.

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  1. Introduction i

  2. HFCs, PFCs, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride, sulfuryl fluoride and trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride measured at Cape Grim, Tasmania iv

  1. Global HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride and sulfuryl fluoride emissions xii

  2. Australian HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride imports, banks and emissions xv

  1. Australian HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride and sulfuryl fluoride emissions from atmospheric data xxv

    1. HFC, sulfur hexafluoride and sulfuryl fluoride emissions xxv
    1. PFC-14 emissions xxxiii

    2. Other PFC emissions xxxix

  1. Comparisons of NGA, ISC and NAME emission estimates xl

    1. HFC-134a xl
  2. HFC-125 xli

    1. HFC-143a xlii
    2. HFC-32 xliii
    3. HFC-152a xliii
    4. HFC-23 xliv
  3. HFC-227ea xlvi

    1. HFC-236fa, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc xlvii
    2. Total HFCs xlix
    1. Sulfur hexafluoride l

    2. Sulfuryl fluoride li

    3. Total HFCs, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions lii

Summary liv

References lx

=Figures

Figure 1. In situ observations of PFCs, HFCs, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride, sulfuryl fluoride and trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (1998 – 2018) showing baseline monthly mean data (dark green, Medusa; purple, ADS; blue, ECD) and total data (light green, Medusa; pink, ADS; blue, ECD) obtained from the GC-MS-Medusa, GC-MS-ADS and GC-ECD (SF6) instruments at Cape Grim and from Medusa measurements at CSIRO and SIO on the Cape Grim Air Archive (orange). 2011 and 2012 nitrogen trifluoride annual means are derived from global data (references: see text above; CSIRO unpublished Cape Grim Air Archive data). 5

Figure 2. Global HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride and nitrogen trifluoride emissions (left: k tonnes; right: M tonnes CO2-e) from global AGAGE atmospheric measurements (Rigby et al., 2014 and unpublished data 2018). CO2-e emission estimates use GWPs from the IPCC 4th Climate Assessment (AR4 GWPs). 6

Figure 3. Australian HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions (M tonne CO2-e) in the Inventory (DoEE, 2019). Note the impact on the reduction in emissions due to the refurbishment of potline #1 at the Kurri Kurri aluminium smelter in 2005-2006. Dashed lines are exponential and linear best fits. 11

Figure 4. Australian HFC-32, -125, -134a, -143a, -152a, -365mfc, sulfur hexafluoride and sulfuryl fluoride emissions (NGA, orange: DoEE, 2018; light brown: DoEE, 2019) compared to emissions calculated from Cape Grim data by interspecies correlation (ISC, blue) and from the UK Met. Office NAME (light blue) particle dispersion/InTEM inversion models. In the ISC calculations of HFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions, Australian emissions are scaled from Melbourne/Port Phillip emissions on a population basis (5.4, Australia/Port Phillip); in the InTEM 2011 calculations, Australian emissions are scaled from Victorian/Tasmanian emissions, also on a population basis; for the InTEM 2018 inversions, Australian emissions are scaled from Victorian/Tasmania/New South Wales emissions, also on a population basis. Also shown are Australian sulfuryl fluoride emissions from ISC and InTEM, scaled on a grain production basis. The data shown in red are emissions from the refrigerant bank and are show in red (Brodribb and McCann, 2015). 14

Figure 5. Monthly-mean PFC-14 concentrations observed in situ at Cape Grim (dark blue), 2004-2018. PFC-14 pollution episodes (light blue), typically lasting up to 12 hours in duration, are also seen at Cape Grim (Mühle et al., 2010). 15

Figure 6. Australian PFC-14 emission factors as reported in the National Inventory Report 2016 (NGA: DoEE, 2018) and as derived from atmospheric measurements at Cape Grim using NAME/TAPM (to 2011) and TAPM (to 2016) modelling. The grey band is the average (±1 sd) emission factor derived from NAME/TAPM. The Kurri Kurri emission factor is based on direct PFC-14 measurements made at the Kurri Kurri smelter in 2009 (Fraser et al., 2013). 16

Figure 7. Australian emissions of PFC-14 as recorded in the National Inventory Report 2017 (NGA: DoEE, 2019; uncertainty 27%:  DIICCSRTE, 2013) and as obtained from TAPM (scaled from Vic/Tas emissions) and NAME-InTEM (scaled from Vic/Tas/NSW emissions) modelling. 16

Figure 8. Australian PFC-116 emissions from the National Inventory Report 2017 (DoEE, 2019) and Australian PFC-116, PFC-218 and PFC-318 from atmospheric measurements at Cape Grim using NAME, TAPM and ISC modelling; error bars are ± sd. Australian PFC-116 (NAME) are from Vic/Tas data scaled by aluminium production, PFC-116 (TAPM/NAME PFC-14) are from Australian TAPM/NAME PFC-14 emissions (Table 5) and the observed PFC-116/PFC-14 ratio (0.10±0.01) in Australian smelter plumes; PFC-218 and PFC-318 are from NAME and ISC modelling, with Australian emissions obtained from regional emissions by population scaling. 18

Figure 9. Australian emissions of HFCs (-125, -134a, -143a, -23) and other HFCs (-32, -152a, -227ea, -236fa, -245fa, -365mfc) estimated from atmospheric data (ISC-InTEM) measured at Cape Grim, and in the Inventory (DoEE, 2019), expressed in units of M tonne CO2-e. 22

Figure 10. Australian and global sulfur hexafluoride imports and emissions (tonnes) from Cape Grim data using ISC and InTEM (Ganesan et al., 2014; Rigby et al., 2014) and from the Inventory (NGA: DoEE, 2019). 23

Figure 11.  Australian sulfuryl fluoride emissions (tonnes), scaled from SE Australian emissions based on grain production, derived from Cape Grim in situ data, using ISC and InTEM techniques; global emissions (tonnes) are from Rigby et al., 2014; Rigby, unpublished data. 23

Figure 12. Australian HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride emissions calculated from Cape Grim observations (ISC-InTEM) and in the Inventory (NGGI/NGA, ageis.climatechange.gov.au) in M tonne CO2-e. 24

Tables

Table 1. Concentrations (2017, 2018) and growth rates (2017-2018) for HFCs, PFCs, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride, sulfuryl fluoride and trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride measured in situ at Cape Grim, Tasmania or on air samples collected at Cape Grim (references: see text above; CSIRO unpublished Cape Grim Air Archive data). 3

Table 2. Australian HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride imports (tonnes; calendar years 2017, 2018, A. Gabriel, Department of Environment and Energy, 2019); PCE = pre-charged equipment. 7

Table 3. Australian HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluorideemissions (http://unfccc.int/national_reports/ annex_i_ghg_inventories/national_inventories_submissions/items/10116.php). HFC-23 emissions in 1995 from HCFC-22 production in Sydney. Not shown are small HFC-236fa emissions (0.005 tonnes in 2016). Note GWPs used are AR4. 9

Table 4. Australian HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride and sulfuryl fluoride emissions (tonnes, 2005-2016) from atmospheric data, collected at Cape Grim, Tasmania – emissions calculated by interspecies correlation (ISC) and from inversions using the UK Met Office NAME particle dispersion model and the InTEM inversion model (InTEM 2012, InTEM2018). For years when InTEM inversions are not available, ISC data are assumed. The emissions are 3-year running averages, i.e. ‘2010’ = average of 2009, 2010, 2011 emissions. Australian HFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions (ISC, InTEM) are scaled from regional emissions by population; GWPs (to calculate CO2-e emissions) are from the National Inventory Report 2015 (DoEE, 2017). PFC-14 emissions are the TAPM-InTEM average from Table 5. Australian PFC-116 emissions are from InTEM (Vic/Tas) scaled by aluminium production; Australian PFC-218 and PFC-318 emissions are from InTEM and ISC scaled by population; Australian sulfuryl fluoride emissions are from ISC and InTEM estimates of SE Australian emissions scaled by grain production. 12

Table 5. Australian PFC-14, PFC-116, PFC-218, PFC-318 emissions (t: tonnes) and PFC-14, PFC-116 emission factors (g/t aluminium, 2005-2016) derived from atmospheric observations – remote (Portland, Pt Henry, Bell Bay) (3 yr averages, e.g. 2010 = average of 2009, 2010, 2011), using the TAPM and NAME models, directly, at Kurri Kurri. 17

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Cape Grim staff for the maintenance and operation of the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) instruments at Cape Grim and for the collection of the Cape Grim Air Archive; Dr D. J. Ivy (MIT USA), Dr B. R. Miller (SIO USA and NOAA USA), Dr D. E. Oram (UEA UK) and the late Mr L. W. Porter (BoM) for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the Cape Grim Air Archive; Dr A. J. Manning (UKMO) for synthetic greenhouse gas (SGG) emissions calculations (NAME-InTEM); Dr H. Wang (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA) and Dr M. Rigby (U. Bristol UK) for SGG emissions calculations (AGAGE 12-box model); Mr M. Hunstone (Department, of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources) and Ms. A. Gabriel (Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment) for SGG import and emissions data; Mr S. Walsh (EPA Victoria) for Port Phillip carbon monoxide emission and concentration data; CSIRO, BoM, NASA/Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment and RRA (Refrigerant Reclaim Australia) for funding in support of the Cape Grim AGAGE program.

1. Introduction

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), collectively described as synthetic GHGs (SGGs). SGGs are covered by Australia’s emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol (2013-2020) and the Paris Agreement (2021-2030). Both the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement are legally-binding instruments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). HFCs are used extensively in Australia, largely in air conditioning and refrigeration, initially as ‘ozone-friendly’ replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Minor uses of HFCs in Australia are as aerosol propellants, including metered dose inhalers (MDIs), as foam blowing agents, solvents, in fire extinguishers and others. 

Increasing HFC emissions are seen as a significant driver of climate change over the next 50 years (Velders et al., 2007, 2009, 2012, 2014, 2015; Estrada et al., 2013; Harris, Wuebbles et al., 2014; Myhre et al., 2014; Rigby et al., 2014). The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol entered into force 1 January 2019 and mandates a phase-down schedule for HFC production and consumption. With global adherence to this Amendment, radiative forcing from HFCs is expected to reduce from 0.22-0.25 W m-2 in the baseline scenario from Velders et al., 2015 to 0.13 W m-2 in 2050 (Montzka and Velders, 2018).

Perfluorocarbons are a by-product of the production of aluminium in Australia and overseas and, in addition, are used overseas in the electronics industry during the manufacture of integrated circuits and plasma screens. Refrigeration represents a very minor use of PFCs in Australia and overseas. 

Sulfur hexafluoride is used extensively in the electricity distribution industry, both in Australia and overseas, for dielectric insulation and current interruption in circuit breakers, switchgear, and other electrical equipment, and as a cover gas in metal production, for example magnesium. 

Nitrogen trifluoride is used internationally in the semi-conductor production industry, initially as a replacement for PFCs. DoEE (2019) has identified a small amount of specialty electronic components manufacturing, consuming around 20 kg of nitrogen trifluoride, which is destroyed in the process. Negligible amounts of electronics cooling fluids containing nitrogen trifluoride are consumed in Australia.

Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) and trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (CF3SF5) are potent synthetic greenhouse gases that are not part of the Kyoto Protocol/Paris Agreement suite of SGGs. Sulfuryl fluoride use in Australia is growing, largely as a replacement for phosphine (PH3) in grain fumigation at the farm level and at regional grain storage locations. While global emissions have been detected at Cape Grim, it is unlikely that trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride is imported into Australia

Australia’s mandated HFC production and import phase down began on 1 January 2018 and will reach an 85% reduction in 2036. In early 2010, the Australian Government made a commitment, in light of the Kyoto Protocol/Doha Amendment, to reduce its total GHG emissions by 5 per cent below 2000 levels by 2020. GHG emission reduction targets for implementation post-2020 have been announced by the Australian government: 26%-28% reduction from 2005 emissions by 2030. This includes the commitment to phase down Australian HFC imports by 85% by 2036. There are no global or Australian targets to phase-down sulfuryl fluoride or trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride emissions, as these gases are not controlled in the Kyoto Protocol, or the subsequent Paris Agreement, due to their relatively low emissions.

The Australian National Inventory reported a total of 554.1 million tonnes (Mt) CO2-e emitted from all GHG sources in 2017 (not including land-use change), which was an increase from 2016 emissions (546.6 Mt) of 1.3% (DoEE, 2019). HFC emissions were estimated to be 12.3 Mt (12,253 k tonnes) CO2-e in 2017, 2.3% above 2016 emissions, while the sum of HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions was 12.6 Mt (12,632 k tonnes, Table 3) CO2-e, 1.9% above 2016 emissions. Although the total emission of Kyoto Protocol SGGs is only 2.3% of total Australian greenhouse gas emissions (DoEE, 2019), it is the fastest growing emissions sector (on a percentage basis) in the Australian National GHG Inventory (referred to subsequently as the Inventory).

In this Report, we estimate Australian emissions of HFCs, PFCs, sulfur hexafluoride and sulfuryl fluoride derived by inter-species correlation (ISC), inverse and forward atmospheric modelling techniques, using Cape Grim atmospheric observations. These so-called ‘top-down’ estimates are compared to estimates of HFCs, PFCs and sulfur hexafluoride emissions submitted by the Australian Government to the UNFCCC (DoEE, 2019), based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)-recommended ‘bottom-up’ methodologies (modified for Australian conditions where better data is available) for estimating national GHG. Australian HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions are compared to global emissions estimated from AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment; Prinn et al., 2000, 2018; Rigby et al., 2014 and updates) atmospheric observations.

Cape Grim in situ measurements of nitrogen trifluoride commenced in February 2015 and trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride in late-2010. Preliminary inspections of the data suggest that there are no significant Australian emissions of these species.

  1. HFCs, PFCs, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride, sulfuryl fluoride and trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride measured at Cape Grim, Tasmania

Concentrations of HFCs, PFCs, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride, sulfuryl fluoride and trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride have been measured in situ in the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere at Cape Grim, Tasmania, as part of the AGAGE program (Prinn et al., 2000, 2018) and/or in the Cape Grim Air Archive (1978-2018) at CSIRO (Aspendale), at the Scripps Institution for Oceanography (SIO, USA), and on a sub-set of the Cape Grim Air Archive at the University of East Anglia (UEA, UK) (Fraser et al., 2016). Other flask air samples from Cape Grim have been analysed at CSIRO, at SIO, at UEA and at the University of Heidelberg (Germany). The SGGs have been measured by CSIRO in situ in the atmosphere (baseline and non-baseline) at Cape Grim, Tasmania, since the late-1990s (HFCs, PFC-116: CF3CF3) and the mid-2000s (other PFCs, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfuryl fluoride).Nitrogen trifluoride (up to 2013) and trifluromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (up to 2008) have beenmeasured on the Cape Grim Air Archive. In situ measurements of nitrogen trifluoride and trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoridehave recently become available (February 2015 for nitrogen trifluoride and recently calibrated trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride going back to late 2010). These data are used, in conjunction with similar data collected from other Northern and Southern Hemispheric sites, to estimate global and regional concentration trends, atmospheric lifetimes, emissions and radiative forcings for these species:

HFCs Oram et al., 1996, 1998; Oram, 1999; O’Doherty et al., 2004, 2009, 2014; Greally et al., 2007; Stohl et al.,2009; Miller et al., 2010; Vollmer et al., 2011; Arnold et al., 2014; Fraser et al., 2014a, 2016; Krummel et al., 2014; Rigby et al., 2014; Fortems-Cheney et al., 2015; Lunt et al., 2015; Simmonds et al., 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018; Meinshausen et al., 2017; Leedham Elvidge et al., 2018; Liang et al., 2017; Montzka and Velders, 2018; Li et al., 2019

PFCs Oram, 1999; Fraser et al., 2007, 2011, 2013, 2016; Mühle et al., 2010; Ivy, 2012; Ivy et al., 2012; Laube et al., 2012; Oram et al., 2012; Kim et al., 2014; Krummel et al., 2014; Rigby et al., 2014; Wong et al., 2015; Trudinger et al., 2016; Meinshausen et al., 2017; Leedham Elvidge et al., 2018; Droste et al., 2018; Engel and Rigby, 2018; Li et al., 2019

SF6 Maiss et al., 1996; Oram, 1999; Fraser et al., 2004, 2014a, 2016; Levin et al., 2010; Rigby et al., 2010, 2014; Sturges et al. 2012; Ganesan et al., 2014; Krummel et al., 2014; Meinshausen et al., 2017; Leedham Elvidge et al., 2018; Engel and Rigby, 2018

NF3 Weiss et al., 2008; Arnold et al., 2013; Rigby et al., 2014; Meinshausen et al., 2017

SO2F2 Muhle et al., 2009; Krummel et al., 2014; Meinshausen et al., 2017

CF3SF5 Sturges et al., 2012

 

The abundances and trends of HFCs, PFCs, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride, sulfuryl fluoride and trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride in the global background atmosphere, as measured at Cape Grim, Tasmania, or in the Cape Grim air archive, are shown in Table 1 (2017-2018) and Figure 1 (1998-2017).

The major HFC in the background atmosphere at Cape Grim (and around the globe) is HFC-134a (95.6 ppt in 2018), followed by HFC-23 (30.4 ppt), HFC-125 (24.6 ppt), HFC-143a (21.6 ppt), HFC-32 (15.2 ppt) and HFC-152a (4.7 ppt). The global annual rate of increase of HFC-134a has increased from 6.0 ppt (2016-2017) to 6.2 ppt (2017-2018); the HFC-23 growth rate (0.86 ppt, 2016-2017) has increased to 1.21 ppt (2017-2018); the HFC-143a annual increase (1.7 ppt, 2016-2017) has remained steady at 1.7 ppt (2017-2018); the HFC-125 annual increase (2.6, 2016-2017) has increased to 3.0 ppt/yr (2017-2018). HFC-152a concentrations had stopped growing in the background atmosphere however, for the last three years the concentrations have been increasing again, with an annual increase of 0.174 ppt/yr (2017-2018); the HFC-32 increase (2.1 ppt, 2016-2017) has increased to 2.7 ppt (2017-2018).

The annual growth in total HFCs has increased from 13 ppt/yr (2016-2017) to 15 ppt/yr (2017-2018). Total HFCs in the atmosphere are growing currently (2017-2018) at 8%/yr.

The cumulative concentration of the minor HFCs (HFC-245fa, HFC-227ea, HFC-236fa, HFC-365mfc, HFC-4310mee) is 5.3 ppt (2018), 2.7% of the total HFC concentration in the background atmosphere (197 ppt, 2018). The minor HFCs (HFC-245fa, HFC-227ea, HFC-236fa, HFC-365mfc, HFC-4310mee) are growing in the background atmosphere with a cumulative annual growth rate of 0.39 ppt (2017-2018). 

Table 1. Concentrations (2017, 2018) and growth rates (2017-2018) for HFCs, PFCs, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride, sulfuryl fluoride and trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride measured in situ at Cape Grim, Tasmania or on air samples collected at Cape Grim (references: see text above; CSIRO unpublished Cape Grim Air Archive data).

Species

Formula

Concentration

Growth

Species

Formula

Concentration

Growth

 

 

2017

2018

ppt/yr

%/yr

 

 

2017

2018

ppt/yr

%/yr

HFCs

 

 

 

 

 

PFCs

 

 

 

 

 

HFC-134a

CH2FCF3

89.4

95.6

6.2

6.7

PFC-14

CF4

83.1

84.0

0.95

1.1

HFC-23

CHF3

29.2

30.4

1.21

4.0

PFC-14(a)1

CF4

49.0

49.9

0.95

1.9

HFC-143a

CH3CF3

19.9

21.6

1.7

8.2

PFC-116

C2F6

4.6

4.7

0.094

2.0

HFC-125

CHF2CF3

21.7

24.6

3.0

12.7

PFC-318

c-C4F8

1.6

1.6

0.066

4.1

HFC-32

CH2F2

12.5

15.2

2.7

19.1

PFC-218

C3F8

0.64

0.65

0.018

2.7

HFC-152a

CH3CHF2

4.5

4.7

0.174

3.8

PFC-5114

C6F14

0.30

0.31

0.009

2.9

HFC-245fa

CHF2CH2CF3

2.3

2.5

0.20

8.4

PFC-3110

C4F10

0.19

0.19

0.002

1.1

HFC-227ea

CF3CHFCF3

1.3

1.4

0.12

9.1

PFC-41122

C5F12

0.12

0.12

0.0

0.0

HFC-365mfc

CH3CF2CH2CF3

0.94

0.99

0.054

5.6

PFC-61162

C7F16

0.12

0.12

0.0

0.0

HFC-43-10mee

C5H2F10

0.26

0.27

0.007

2.6

PFC-71182

C8F18

0.09

0.09

0.0

0.0

HFC-236fa

CF3CH2CF3

0.16

0.17

0.013

7.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

total HFCs

 

182

197

15

8.1

total PFCs

 

90.7

91.8

1.1

1.2

HFC fluorine

 

676

732

56

8.0

total PFC(a)

 

56.6

57.7

1.1

2.0

sulfur hexafluoride

SF6

9.0

9.4

0.36

3.9

PFC fluorine

 

389

394

5.2

1.3

sulfuryl fluoride

SO2F2

2.2

2.3

0.11

4.9

nitrogen trifluoride3

NF3

1.5

1.7

0.18

11.3

trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride

CF3SF5

0.17

0.17

0.002

1.3

total fluorine

 

1126

1190

64

5.5

1 PFC-14 (a) = CF4 (anthropogenic) = total CF4 – natural CF4 (= 34.1 ppt, Trudinger et al., 2016)

2 extrapolated from 2011 data (Ivy et al., 2012)

3 estimated from Cape Grim and global data; assumed = 2011-2012 growth rate (Arnold et al., 2013)

Global HFC data have shown that the total level of HFCs in the background atmosphere is consistent with total emissions from ‘bottom-up’ inventories, but there are significant differences between atmospheric data and emissions inventories for individual HFCs. For HFC-134a, global emissions from atmospheric observations are seasonal (NH summer maximum, Fortems-Cheiney et al., 2015) and 20%-30% lower than inventory estimates of emissions (2007-2012, Fortems-Cheiney et al., 2015, Lunt et al., 2015), whereas HFC-31, HFC-125, HFC-143a global emissions are 20%-30% higher than inventory estimates (Lunt et al., 2015). Over-reporting of HFC-134a, HFC-32 and HFC-125 emissions (10%-100%, 2004-2014, Simmonds et al., 2015; Hu et al., 2017) and under-reporting of HFC-143a emissions (40%-60%, 2007-2012, Simmonds et al., 2015) have occurred in the USA inventory compared to emissions based on atmospheric observations. The global growth rate of HFC-23 emissions slowed significantly, reaching a minimum in 2009, when resources under the Kyoto Protocol (the Clean Development Mechanism – CDM) were used to improve HCFC-22 (CHClF2) production methods and capture the co-produced but waste HFC-23. The cessation of CDM funding has resulted in global HFC-23 emissions growing again (Simmonds et al., 2018).

Regional inverse studies have shown that the growing levels of HFCs in the background global atmosphere result from growing emissions from China/East Asia (Fortems-Cheiney et al., 2015), offset by declining HFC emissions from developed countries (USA, Europe).

HFC replacement chemicals (HFC-1234yf – CF3CFCH2, HFC-1234ze – CF3CHCHF) have been detected in urban and background atmospheres in Europe (Switzerland: Dubendorf and Jungfraujoch, Vollmer et al., 2015) since 2013-2014 at the sub-ppt level and have recently been measured in Cape Grim air.

Total fluorine from HFCs reached 732 ppt in 2018 growing at 8%/yr (2017-2018). The major PFC in the background atmosphere at Cape Grim (and around the globe) is PFC-14 (CF4: 84.0 ppt in 2018, about 40% of which is naturally-occurring), followed by PFC-116 (4.7 ppt), PFC-318 (1.6 ppt), PFC-218 (0.65 ppt), PFC-5114 (0.31 ppt) and PFC-3110 (0.19 ppt). The cumulative concentration of three minor PFCs (PFC-4112, PFC-6116, PFC-7118) observed at Cape Grim is 0.33 ppt (2018, extrapolated from 2011 data). The total PFC concentration in the background atmosphere is 91.8 ppt (2018), currently growing at 1.1 ppt/yr (1.2%/yr). The total anthropogenic PFC concentration in the background atmosphere is 57.7 ppt growing at 2%/yr.

The annual rate of increase of PFC-14 in the atmosphere increased from 0.84 ppt (2016-2017) to 0.95 ppt (2017-2018), 0.2 ppt higher than the decadal average annual increase of 0.75 ppt (2009-2018). The anthropogenic component (from aluminium production and the electronics industries) of atmospheric PFC-14 is growing at 1.9%/yr. The annual rate of increase of PFC-116 (CF3CF3) is 0.094 ppt (2017-2018), slightly higher than the decadal average annual increase (0.08 ppt, 2009-2018); the PFC-218 annual increase (0.018 ppt, 2017-2018) is higher than the decadal annual average (0.016 ppt, 2009-2018); the PFC-318 annual increase (0.066 ppt, 2017-2018) is higher than the 9-year average annual increase (0.05 ppt, 2010-2018). The minor PFCs (PFC-3110, PFC-4112, PFC-5114, PFC-6116, PFC-7118) are growing in the background atmosphere with a cumulative annual growth rate likely to be of the order 0.01-0.02 ppt (2013-2018).

Total fluorine from PFCs reached 394 ppt in 2018, growing at 1.3%/yr (2017-2018).

The measured amount of PFC-14 in the global atmosphere is significantly higher than that calculated due to the accumulated emissions from the aluminium and semiconductor industries (Muhle et al., 2010). There appears to have been significant under-reporting of emissions by the semiconductor industry over the past decades and a recent under-reporting of emissions by the aluminium industry, possibly associated with the rapid growth in aluminium production in China (Kim et al., 2014). Under-reporting of PFC emissions from the aluminium industry may be due to the assumption that PFC emissions only occur during so-called ‘anode effect events’, whereas there may be quasi-continuous PFC emissions throughout the aluminium production process (Wong et al., 2015). PFC-14 emissions have been shown to respond to economic/industrial activity, with enhanced emissions during WWII due to the demand for aluminium for aircraft, and reduced emissions during the recent GFC (Trudinger et al., 2016).

Annual mean sulfur hexafluoride levels reached 9.4 ppt in 2018 at Cape Grim, growing at 0.36 ppt/yr (3.9%/yr, 2017-2018), similar to the 2016-2017 annual average growth rate. The decadal annual average growth rate is much lower at 0.32 ppt/yr (2009-2018). Annual mean sulfuryl fluoride levels reached 2.3 ppt in 2018 at Cape Grim, growing at 0.11 ppt/yr (4.9%/yr), close to the 10-yr average growth rate (0.09 ppt/yr, 2009-2018). Trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride stopped growing in the Cape Grim atmosphere in 2007 (0.16 ppt), as seen in UEA Cape Grim Air Archive measurements (Sturges et al., 2012), following 3M’s decision to cease PFOS production (Santaro, 2000). In situ measurements at Cape Grim have recently been calibrated (SIO-14 scale) and show annual mean concentrations of 0.17 ppt in 2017 and in 2018. The current measurement precision is (±0.004 ppt, 1 standard deviation). If there is no further production/release of trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride, its concentration in the atmosphere should remain effectively constant due to its very long atmospheric lifetime (800 yr). With zero emissions, atmospheric concentrations should decline by only 0.05% (<0.001 ppt)/yr. Given the uncertainty in the measurements, a longer record is required to define a possible trend in this species.

Nitrogen trifluoride is growing rapidly in the background atmosphere. In February 2015, in situ measurements of nitrogen trifluoride began at Cape Grim. The mean concentration of nitrogen trifluoride is 1.5 ppt for 2017 and 1.7 ppt for 2018, growing at 0.18 ppt/yr (11%/yr). Following the recent inclusion of nitrogen trifluoride into the post-Kyoto Protocol ‘basket’ of GHGs (Paris Agreement), it is anticipated that the current rapid growth rate will decline as alternatives are introduced into the semiconductor manufacturing industry.

pastedGraphic.png

Figure 1. In situ observations of PFCs, HFCs, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride, sulfuryl fluoride and trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (1998 – 2018) showing baseline monthly mean data (dark green, Medusa; purple, ADS; blue, ECD) and total data (light green, Medusa; pink, ADS; blue, ECD) obtained from the GC-MS-Medusa, GC-MS-ADS and GC-ECD (SF6) instruments at Cape Grim and from Medusa measurements at CSIRO and SIO on the Cape Grim Air Archive (orange). 2011 and 2012 nitrogen trifluoride annual means are derived from global data (references: see text above; CSIRO unpublished Cape Grim Air Archive data).

  1. Global HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride and sulfuryl fluoride emissions

Global emissions of HFCs, PFCs, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride and sulfuryl fluoride have been estimated from AGAGE global data (including Cape Grim data) by inverse modelling up to 2017 (Figure 2; Rigby et al., 2014 and Rigby, unpublished data).

pastedGraphic_1.png

Figure 2. Global HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride and nitrogen trifluoride emissions (left: k tonnes; right: M tonnes CO2-e) from global AGAGE atmospheric measurements (Rigby et al., 2014 and unpublished data 2018). CO2-e emission estimates use GWPs from the IPCC 4th Climate Assessment (AR4 GWPs).

Total global HFC emissions were 493 k tonnes in 2017, rising by nearly 18 k tonnes/yr since 1995; total global HFC emissions in 2017 were 9% higher than in 2016. Global emissions of the major HFCs (HFC-32, HFC-125, HFC-134a, HFC-143a) increased from 2016 to 2017: 25%, 15%, 3%, 10% respectively; global emissions of HFC-152a peaked in 2011 and were in decline, but have increased again to 55 ktonnes/yr in 2017. HFC-23 global emissions increased by 15% from 2016 to 2017. HFC-134a emissions exhibit significant seasonality, in particular at the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, with summer emissions 2-3 times winter emissions (Xiang et al., 2014; Fortems-Cheiney et al., 2015; Simmonds et al., 2015).

Total PFC emissions have declined from 24 k tonnes/yr in the late-1970s to 19 k tonnes/yr in 2017. Emissions from 1993 until 2014 were around 15 k tonnes/yr. Global emissions of the major PFCs (PFC-14, PFC-116) increased from 2016 to 2017 by 17% and 16% respectively.

Sulfur hexafluoride emissions have been increasing steadily from about 3 k tonnes per year in the late-1970s to approaching 9 k tonnes per year in 2017 (an increase of around 0.15 k tonnes/yr). Sulfur hexafluoride emissions increased by 2% from 2016 to 2017.

Nitrogen trifluoride emissions were first observed in the mid-1990s, growing at 0.08 k tonnes/yr since 1995 to 2.3 k tonnes in 2017. The 2016-2017 increase was 15%.

Total global HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride and nitrogen trifluoride emissions have risen (10 k tonnes/yr, largely HFCs) from about 30 k tonnes per year in the late-1970s to around 523 k tonnes per year in 2017, with a 2016-2017 increase of 9%.

Global sulfuryl fluoride emissions (not shown in Figure 2) were around 1 k tonnes per year in the late-1970s, peaking at 3.6 k tonnes per year in 2015 and 2016, then declining to 3.0 k tonnes per year in 2017. There is significant year to year variability in emissions, presumably due to the global demand for sulfuryl fluoride being dependant on, in part, variable global grain production.

4. Australian HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride imports, banks and emissions

HFCs and sulfur hexafluoride are not manufactured in Australia and estimates of Australian HFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions, reported annually to the UNFCCC (see below), are based on import data (Table 2). HFCs and sulfur hexafluoride are imported as bulk chemicals or in pre-charged equipment (PCE), leading to estimates of ‘banks’ of HFCs and sulfur hexafluoride stored in equipment or products such as refrigerators, air conditioners, fire extinguishers, foams, aerosols and electrical equipment. Only small amounts of PFCs are imported into Australia (Table 2) and these are not considered to be a significant source of PFC emissions; Australian PFC emissions are assumed to originate exclusively from aluminium production (see below).

HFC imports in 2018 were 7498 metric tonnes, 51% in bulk, 49% in pre-charged equipment (PCE), 20% lower than HFC imports in 2017. This reduction is in line with Australia’s mandated HFC production and import phase down which began on 1 January 2018. HFC imports had previously grown by 10% per year over the period 2008-2017. PFC imports in 2017 and 2018 were about 0.17 and 0.47 tonnes respectively. 

Sulfur hexafluoride imports in 2018 were 12 tonnes, 37% lower than 2017 imports. Sulfur hexafluoride imports vary significantly year-to-year. Thirty four (34) tonnes of sulfur hexafluoride were exported in 2016, presumably from a stockpile of sulfur hexafluoride previously imported, but none exported in 2017 or 2018. Since 2012, sulfur hexafluoride imports have totalled 132 tonnes and exports 37 tonnes, leaving 95 tonnes in Australia.

Table 2. Australian HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride imports (tonnes; calendar years 2017, 2018, A. Gabriel, Department of Environment and Energy, 2019); PCE = pre-charged equipment.

Species

Bulk

PCE

bulk

Total

Total

Total Imports

Total Imp-Exp

 

Imports

Imports

Exports

Imports

Imp-Exp

Mt CO2-e

Mt CO2-e

 

2017

2018

2017

2018

2017

2018

2017

2018

2017

2018

2017

2018

2017

2018

HFC-23

3.8

0.07

0.06

8.7

 

0.02

3.9

8.8

3.9

8.8

0.06

0.13

0.06

0.13

HFC-32

590

620

1611

1697

1.4

0.09

2202

2317

2200

2317

1.5

1.6

1.5

1.6

HFC-125

1761

1029

1014

998

4.3

86

2775

2027

2770

1940

9.7

6.8

9.7

6.8

HFC-134

 

 

0.74

0.02

 

 

0.74

0.02

0.74

0.02

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

HFC-134a

2124

1706

1048

957

8.2

0.06

3172

2663

3163

2663

4.5

3.8

4.5

3.8

HFC-143a

1049

366

15

11

3.1

0.84

1063

377

1060

376

4.8

1.7

4.7

1.7

HFC-152a

 

 

25

21

 

0.31

25

21

25

21

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

HFC-227ea

46

20

0.00

0.05

0.13

0.58

46

20

46

20

0.15

0.06

0.15

0.06

HFC-236fa

0.20

 

0.00

0.08

 

 

0.20

0.08

0.20

0.08

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

HFC-245fa

38

31

0.02

0.04

2.8

2.7

38

31

35

29

0.04

0.03

0.04

0.03

HFC-365mfc

52

34

 

 

5.1

2.8

52

34

47

31

0.04

0.02

0.04

0.02

total HFCs

5664

3805

3713

3692

25

94

9377

7498

9352

7404

21

14

21

14

PFC-14

0.01

0.31

0.00

0.01

 

 

0.01

0.32

0.01

0.32

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

PFC-116

0.05

 

0.06

0.02

 

 

0.10

0.02

0.10

0.02

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

PFC-218

0.00

0.04

 

 

 

 

0.00

0.04

0.00

0.04

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

PFC-318

0.05

0.09

 

 

 

 

0.05

0.09

0.05

0.09

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

total PFCs

0.11

0.44

0.06

0.03

 

 

0.17

0.47

0.17

0.47

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

SF6

7.5

2.4

12

9.6

 

 

19

12

19

12

0.43

0.27

0.43

0.27

total HFCs, PFCs, SF6

5671

3808

3725

3702

25

94

9396

7510

9371

7417

21

15

21

14

 

The National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (NGGI: ageis.climatechange.gov.au) published in 2019 contains estimates of Australian emissions of HFC-23, HFC-32, HFC-125, HFC-134 (CHF2CHF2, not measured currently at Cape Grim), HFC-134a, HFC-143a, HFC-152a, HFC-227ea, HFC-236fa, HFC-4310mee, PFC-14, PFC-116 and sulfur hexafluoride, up to 2017, which form part of the National Inventory Report 2017 (DoEE, 2019). The Inventory is the Australian government submission to the UNFCCC and which forms a part of the Australian National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA). Note the annual emissions in the NGGI and in the National Inventory Report are for fiscal years, i.e. ‘2013’ emissions are emissions for July 2012 to June 2013.

The HFC emissions (Table 3) are based on HFC import data (Table 2), as bulk HFCs or PCE, leading to an estimate of ‘banks’ of HFCs stored in equipment or products (refrigerators, air conditioners, fire extinguishers, foams, aerosols – largely metered-dose inhalers) and appropriate application-dependent emission factors from those ‘banks’, which allow for emissions during the lifetime of the application, as well as emissions from initial charging/re-charging of equipment and equipment disposal. 

In the National Inventory Report 2017 (DoEE, 2019), two significant changes have been implemented for determining Australian estimated HFC emissions. The first change is that the annual leak rates are calibrated to the CSIRO HFC emissions estimates for all equipment types from 2006 onwards. The second change to the method is CSIRO species data is used to modify the species percentages each year from 2006 onwards.

Australian HFC emissions were about 110 tonnes in 1995, rising to 5556 tonnes (12253 CO2-e ktonnes) in 2017. HFC-134a emissions increased by about 65 tonnes (2%) from 2016 to 2017, all other HFCs by about 57 tonnes (2%). Emissions of total HFCs (in CO2-e terms) in 2017 were 2% higher than in 2016.

In the Australian GHG emission inventory, PFC (PFC-14, PFC-116) emissions only arise from aluminium production, with total PFC emissions in 2017 of 24 tonnes (0.20 Mt CO2-e, DoEE, 2019). About 0.17-0.47 tonnes of PFCs (PFC-14, PFC-116) were imported into Australia in 2017-2018 as refrigerant blends in bulk and PCE (Table 2). It is not clear whether these PFC imports are used to calculate corresponding contributions to PFC emissions – if they are, they are very small compared to PFC emissions from the aluminium industry (24 tonnes in 2017, Table 3). PFC emissions in the Inventory fell from 37 tonnes in 2012 to 24 tonnes in 2013 due to the closure of the Kurri Kurri smelter in NSW and from 24 tonnes in 2014 to 22 tonnes in 2015 due to the closure of the Point Henry smelter in Victoria. PFC emissions in the Inventory in 2017 are about 17% lower compared to 2016. This decline is due to aluminium production decreasing by 8% and the PFC-14 emission factor from DoEE, (2019) has also decreased (20%). 

Australian sulfur hexafluoride emissions are largely (90%) from the electricity supply and distribution network, with 10% from electrical supply equipment manufacture. Emissions (1975-2017) are estimated as leakages from sulfur hexafluoride ‘banks’ in the electricity supply and distribution network and leakages from Australian manufacture of electricity supply equipment, using a combination of default IPCC and Australian-specific emissions factors (DoEE, 2019).

Australian emission factors for electrical equipment stock are global IPCC default factors: 0.05 tonne (t) emitted per year per tonne (t) of stock (1975-1995), 0.02 t/t (2000); an Australian-specific base emission factor (0.0089 t/t) has been estimated for 2009 (DoEE, 2019) and then scaled in subsequent years by the estimates of Australian sulfur hexafluoride emissions from Cape Grim atmospheric observations (DoEE, 2019). For 1995-2000-2009 periods, emission factors are linearly interpolated. The 2009 emission factor (0.0089 t/t) is based on emission estimates from 15 utilities (the major consumers of sulfur hexafluoride in Australia) using their own data on sulfur hexafluoride consumption (consumption = emissions, not defaulting to the IPCC method). The 2016 and 2017 emission factors (after scaling by Cape Grim data) are 0.0093 tonne sulfur hexafluoride per tonne sulfur hexafluoride banked i.e. 0.93% (DoEE, 2019).

The sulfur hexafluoride emission factors assumed for Australian equipment manufacture (0.15 t/t, 1975-1995; 0.085 t/t, 1996-2017) are IPCC default factors for Europe. The original global IPCC default factor for manufacturing (0.74 t/t) was significantly higher and currently IPCC recommends 0.30-0.35 t/t (prior to 1995) and 0.12 t/t after 1995, both significantly higher than the assumed Australian emission factor for equipment manufacture. These IPCC factors are for gas insulated switchgear (GIS); higher factors are recommended for circuit breakers (0.55 t/t prior to 1995, 0.29 t/t after 1995). Circuit breakers are used extensively in the USA, GIS in Europe. The Australian inventory assumed GIS values, presumably because Australia uses largely GIS equipment in its electricity distribution networks. Since the equipment manufacture sector emits only 10% of Australia’s sulfur hexafluoride, total sulfur hexafluoride emissions are relatively insensitive to the choice of emission factors for this sector. Australian sulfur hexafluoride emissions in the Inventory are 7.7 tonnes for 2017. Of the approximate 80 tonnes of sulfur hexafluoride imported into Australia since 2012, about 40 tonnes have been emitted to the atmosphere and 40 tonnes have gone into the electrical equipment bank (DoEE, 2018). 

Australian sulfur hexafluoride emissions from tracer gas studies, eye surgery etc. have been estimated at 1 kg of sulfur hexafluoride as CO2-e per person per year or a total of 1.1 tonnes of sulfur hexafluoride per year (DoEE, 2018). Thus, total Australian emissions of sulfur hexafluoride in 2017 (electrical equipment and other uses) was 7.7 tonnes.

The quantity of sulfuryl fluoride imported each year into Australia depends, in part, on the annual grain harvest. Before 2007, Australian sulfuryl fluoride imports were significantly less than 50 tonnes per year, reaching current levels of imports (∼150 tonnes per year) by 2011-12, continuing at about this level until 2015-16, with 2016-17 imports higher due to a record grain harvest (M. Stein, A-Gas, pers. comm.). Mühle et al. (2009) estimate that approximately 2/3 of sulfuryl fluoride used in fumigation escapes to the atmosphere, so current Australian sulfuryl fluoride emissions are likely to be about 100 tonnes per year (∼0.5 M tonnes CO2-e), 2-3 times larger than the CO2-e emissions due to sulfur hexafluoride (0.18 M tonnes CO2-e in 2017). Globally, the reverse is the case, with the CO2-e emissions of sulfur hexafluoride (200 M tonnes, 2017) being significantly higher than for sulfuryl fluoride (15 M tonnes, 2017). 

The HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride contributions to total emissions from this sector are shown in Figure 3. The significant impact on total emissions in 2005-2006 due to reduced PFC emissions (the Kurri Kurri aluminium smelter upgrade) can be clearly seen. Prior to the significant reduction in PFC emissions at Kurri Kurri in 2005, Australian HFC/PFC/sulfur hexafluoride emissions grew at about 12%/yr (Figure 3). After the Kurri Kurri upgrade, these combined emissions grew at about 7%/yr. The Australian Kyoto Protocol/Paris Agreement-SGG emissions are 97% HFCs, 2% PFCs and 1% sulfur hexafluoride.Table 3. Australian HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluorideemissions (http://unfccc.int/national_reports/ annex_i_ghg_inventories/national_inventories_submissions/items/10116.php). HFC-23 emissions in 1995 from HCFC-22 production in Sydney. Not shown are small HFC-236fa emissions (0.005 tonnes in 2016). Note GWPs used are AR4.

Year

HFCs

Total HFCs

PFCs

Total PFCs

SF6

Total HFC,PFC,SF6

 

134a

125

143a

32

245fa

152a

365mfc

23

227ea

236fa

134

43-10mee

14

116

 

Tonnes

1995

33

12

1.1

0.6

 

 

 

61

0.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

108

171

22

193

14

315

1996

145

51

4.9

2.8

 

 

 

0.0

1.7

0.0

0.1

0.0

205

157

20

178

13

395

1997

247

86

8.3

4.8

 

 

 

0.0

2.9

0.0

0.1

0.1

349

137

18

155

12

516

1998

349

122

12

6.8

 

 

 

0.0

4.1

0.0

0.1

0.1

494

185

24

209

11

714

1999

481

168

16

9.3

 

 

 

0.1

5.7

0.0

0.2

0.1

681

127

16

143

9.3

833

2000

565

198

19

11

 

 

 

0.1

6.7

0.0

0.2

0.2

799

143

19

162

9.3

971

2001

807

282

27

16

 

 

 

0.1

10

0.0

0.3

0.2

1143

201

26

227

9.6

1379

2002

1024

358

34

20

 

 

 

0.1

12

0.0

0.4

0.3

1449

193

25

218

9.9

1676

2003

1252

438

42

24

 

 

 

0.2

15

0.0

0.5

0.4

1772

188

24

212

10

1994

2004

1493

522

50

29

 

 

 

0.2

18

0.0

0.6

0.4

2113

191

25

216

10

2339

2005

1365

332

356

28

31

26

8

 

14

20

0.6

 

2180

200

26

226

8.6

2414

2006

1476

345

370

50

35

32

25

 

13

5.7

0.7

 

2353

77

10

87

8.2

2447

2007

1456

406

385

93

31

41

27

42

16

5.0

0.8

 

2503

65

8.4

73

7.7

2584

2008

1576

490

431

110

27

42

46

47

21

5.3

1.0

 

2796

50

6.4

56

7.2

2859

2009

1829

591

529

144

29

44

58

48

34

5.8

1.1

 

3312

40

4.9

45

6.4

3364

2010

1975

635

549

180

41

54

80

46

37

7.5

1.5

 

3608

32

3.5

36

6.3

3650

2011

2220

697

528

217

60

59

82

49

32

6.8

1.7

 

3952

35

3.8

38

6.2

3997

2012

2067

666

584

224

62

85

78

50

22

5.8

1.8

 

3846

34

3.7

37

6.5

3890

2013

2064

745

669

231

69

87

75

56

48

4.3

2.0

 

4050

22

2.4

24

6.2

4081

2014

2450

927

634

391

99

92

74

41

38

3.1

2.0

 

4751

22

2.4

24

6.8

4782

2015

2761

1016

664

435

116

100

81

45

41

3.4

2.2

 

5266

19

2.3

22

7.5

5295

2016

2901

1038

644

462

121

106

79

45

31

4.4

2.6

 

5434

26

2.9

29

8.2

5470

2017

2966

1061

659

473

123

108

81

46

32

4.5

2.7

 

5556

18

5.6

24

7.7

5588

 

 

Year

HFCs

Total HFCs

PFCs

Total PFCs

SF6

Total HFC,PFC,SF6

134a

125

143a

32

245fa

152a

365mfc

23

227ea

236fa

134

43-10mee

14

116

 

kt CO2-e

1995

47

41

5.0

0.4

 

 

 

909

1.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

1004

1261

270

1531

316

2851

1996

207

177

22

1.9

 

 

 

0.3

5.5

0.0

0.1

0.1

414

1161

249

1410

289

2114

1997

353

302

37

3.2

 

 

 

0.5

9.4

0.0

0.1

0.1

705

1011

217

1228

267

2200

1998

500

428

52

4.6

 

 

 

0.6

13

0.0

0.2

0.2

998

1367

293

1661

240

2899

1999

688

589

72

6.3

 

 

 

0.9

18

0.0

0.2

0.2

1375

938

201

1139

211

2725

2000

808

691

85

7.4

 

 

 

1.0

22

0.0

0.2

0.3

1614

1060

227

1287

212

3113

2001

1154

988

121

11

 

 

 

1.5

31

0.0

0.3

0.4

2307

1484

318

1802

219

4328

2002

1464

1253

153

13

 

 

 

1.9

39

0.0

0.4

0.5

2926

1423

305

1728

225

4879

2003

1791

1533

187

16

 

 

 

2.3

48

0.0

0.5

0.6

3579

1387

297

1684

229

5492

2004

2135

1828

223

19

 

 

 

2.7

57

0.0

0.6

0.7

4267

1411

303

1714

231

6212

2005

1953

1163

1591

19

31

3.2

6.0

 

45

191

0.6

 

5003

1475

316

1792

196

6991

2006

2110

1209

1654

34

36

4.0

20

 

43

56

0.8

 

5167

566

121

687

186

6040

2007

2083

1422

1720

63

32

5.1

22

619

51

49

0.8

 

6066

480

103

583

175

6824

2008

2253

1713

1925

75

28

5.2

37

702

68

52

1.1

 

6859

366

78

445

163

7467

2009

2615

2068

2365

97

30

5.4

46

714

110

57

1.2

 

8109

299

60

359

147

8615

2010

2825

2223

2455

122

42

6.7

64

679

119

74

1.7

 

8611

240

43

283

143

9037

2011

3174

2438

2359

147

62

7.3

65

723

104

67

1.9

 

9149

255

46

301

141

9591

2012

2956

2332

2612

151

64

11

62

743

71

57

2.0

 

9060

250

45

295

147

9502

2013

2952

2607

2991

156

71

11

60

822

154

42

2.2

 

9867

163

29

192

142

10201

2014

3503

3244

2835

264

102

11

59

611

123

31

2.2

 

10785

163

29

193

155

11132

2015

3948

3557

2970

294

119

12

64

668

133

33

2.5

 

11802

143

28

171

171

12144

2016

4148

3632

2881

312

124

13

63

664

100

43

2.9

 

11983

189

36

225

186

12393

2017

4242

3714

2946

319

127

13

64

679

102

44

3.0

 

12253

135

68

203

176

12632

 

 

pastedGraphic_2.png

Figure 3. Australian HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions (M tonne CO2-e) in the Inventory (DoEE, 2019). Note the impact on the reduction in emissions due to the refurbishment of potline #1 at the Kurri Kurri aluminium smelter in 2005-2006. Dashed lines are exponential and linear best fits.

  1. Australian HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride and sulfuryl fluoride emissions from atmospheric data

    1. HFC, sulfur hexafluoride and sulfuryl fluoride emissions

CSIRO estimates emissions of a number of greenhouse and ozone depleting trace gases from the Melbourne/Port Phillip region (Dunse et al., 2001, 2005; Dunse 2002; Greally et al., 2007; Stohl et al., 2009; Fraser et al., 2014b, 2016; Simmonds et al., 2016), utilising in situ high frequency measurements from the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in Tasmania and employing the interspecies correlation (ISC) technique with co-incident carbon monoxide (CO) measurements or inverse modelling (InTEM).

Port Phillip HFC, PFC-116 and sulfur hexafluoride emissions have been calculated, by ISC from Cape Grim data (2004-2017, Krummel et al., 2014 and unpublished data) and presented as 3-year running averages (2005-2017; Table 4, Figure 4). The HFC, PFC-116 and sulfur hexafluoride emissions are derived from Port Phillip emissions, scaled to Australian emissions on a population basis. NOAA air mass back trajectory analyses (Draxler and Hess, 1997) are used to ensure that the pollution events at Cape Grim used to derive Port Phillip emissions are imbedded in air masses that only pass over the Port Phillip region and do not include other possible high carbon monoxide source regions, in particular the Latrobe Valley, or high carbon monoxide emission events (biomass burning).

The NAME particle dispersion model coupled to the InTEM inversion model (O’Doherty et al., 2009; Manning et al., 2003, 2011; Redington and Manning, 2018) is used to calculate HFC, PFC (see below), sulfur hexafluoride and sulfuryl fluoride emissions. NAME (Numerical Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling Environment) is a Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by 3-dimensional wind fields from numerical weather predictions models. For a more detailed description of the NAME model see Appendix A.

Cape Grim sulfuryl fluoride measurements commenced in 2004, but significant pollution episodes (as selected for ISC calculations) were not observed at Cape Grim until 2010. These pollution episodes are used to calculate SE Australian (largely Victorian) sulfuryl fluoride emissions by ISC. Grain exported from Victorian grain terminals, or produced in Victoria, accounts for about 10-20% of Australia’s grain production/exports (National Transport Commission, 2008; ABARES 2018) and thus possibly 10-20% of Australia’s emissions of sulfuryl fluoride. SE Australian sulfuryl fluorideemissions calculated from Cape Grim data by ISC are scaled to Australian emissions by this factor (i.e. multiplied by 7.0±2.1) (Table 4, Figure 4). The InTEM model domain used to derive sulfuryl fluoride emissions is Victoria/Tasmania/New South Wales, and the scale factor used to derive Australian emissions, based on grain production, is 2.4±0.2. Australian emissions of sulfuryl fluoride averaged about 120 tonnes/yr (573 k tonnes CO2-e) over the period 2011-2017, some 3%-4% of global emissions (see above), similar to Australia’s fraction of global grain production (~2%). Australian sulfuryl fluoride imports are currently around 150 tonnes per year (M. Stein, A-Gas, personal communication).

Table 4. Australian HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride and sulfuryl fluoride emissions (tonnes, 2005-2016) from atmospheric data, collected at Cape Grim, Tasmania – emissions calculated by interspecies correlation (ISC) and from inversions using the UK Met Office NAME particle dispersion model and the InTEM inversion model (InTEM 2012, InTEM2018). For years when InTEM inversions are not available, ISC data are assumed. The emissions are 3-year running averages, i.e. ‘2010’ = average of 2009, 2010, 2011 emissions. Australian HFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions (ISC, InTEM) are scaled from regional emissions by population; GWPs (to calculate CO2-e emissions) are from the National Inventory Report 2015 (DoEE, 2017). PFC-14 emissions are the TAPM-InTEM average from Table 5. Australian PFC-116 emissions are from InTEM (Vic/Tas) scaled by aluminium production; Australian PFC-218 and PFC-318 emissions are from InTEM and ISC scaled by population; Australian sulfuryl fluoride emissions are from ISC and InTEM estimates of SE Australian emissions scaled by grain production.

SGGs

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Regulated species

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HFCs ISC (tonnes)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HFC-32

33±11

51±19

103±43

105±40

136±48

129±44

151±50

157±52

154±50

277±95

289±98

266±90

216±73

HFC-125

392±130

344±114

444±170

465±166

561±183

456±156

484±159

466±153

497±160

657±218

672±225

595±198

493±166

HFC-134a

1612±503

1469±457

1592±544

1496±485

1736±542

1417±474

1541±495

1444±466

1373±433

1732±570

1824±607

1659±548

1416±472

HFC-143a

420±145

368±125

421±153

409±141

503±162

394±136

366±122

408±139

446±149

449±153

440±150

370±125

330±112

HFC-23

46±251

46±251

46±25

45±19

46±18

33±13

34±13

35±13

37±12

29±10

30±10

26±9

28±10

HFC-152a

31±10

32±11

44±15

39±13

41±15

39±13

40±14

59±21

58±20

65±22

66±22

61±20

60±20

HFC-227ea

16±9

13±6

17±7

20±8

32±12

27±10

22±8

15±5

32±11

27±10

27±10

18±6

18±6

HFC-236fa

23±16

6±3

5±2

5±2

6±2

5±2

5±2

4±1

3±1

2±1

2±1

2±1

3±1

HFC-245fa

36±18

36±15

35±14

26±10

28±11

29±11

42±15

43±15

46±15

70±23

77±26

68±23

55±18

HFC-365mfc

10±4

25±10

30±12

44±16

55±19

58±21

57±20

54±19

50±17

52±18

54±18

46±15

38±13

Major HFCs*

2458±540

2231±485

2561±590

2475±535

2937±595

2396±520

2543±535

2475±510

2469±490

3115±635

3225±670

2890±605

2455±520

Total HFCs

2619±540

2389±490

2738±595

2654±535

3144±595

2587±520

2743±535

2686±515

2695±490

3361±635

3480±675

3111±605

2656±520

HFCs InTEM, 2012 (tonnes)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HFC-23

34±32

34±32

34±32

34±3

43±4

44±6

55±5

55±53

55±53

55±53

553±53

553±53

553±53

HFC-152a

31±2

35±3

41±3

43±3

68±4

69±5

72±4

72±43

72±43

72±43

72±43

72±43

72±43

HFC-227ea4

16±9

13±6

17±7

20±8

32±12

27±10

22±8

15±5

32±11

27±10

27±10

18±6

18±6

HFC-236fa4

23±16

6±3

5±2

5±2

6±2

5±2

5±2

4±1

3±1

2±1

2±1

3±1

3±1

HFC-245fa4

36±18

35±15

34±14

25±10

28±11

29±11

42±15

43±15

46±15

70±23

77±26

69±23

69±23

HFC-365mfc

13±1

13±1

15±2

16±3

47±13

64±10

68±3

68±33

68±33

68±33

68±33

68±33

68±33

HFCs InTEM, 2018 (tonnes)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HFC-32

70±395

70±39

73±54

89±68

129±79

170±79

179±73

188±70

184±79

180±86

246±109

298±129

298±1296

HFC-125

277±1665

277±166

323±194

387±194

428±195

439±181

506±155

563±161

587±191

600±232

703±245

741±252

741±2526

HFC-134a

1000±3865

1000±386

1147±536

1421±632

1474±571

1386±474

1446±357

1404±421

1298±439

1183±491

1537±586

1849±597

1849±5976

HFC-143a

269±1005

269±100

307±130

360±164

379±176

383±160

419±145

455±143

460±152

441±183

441±195

450±178

450±1786

Major HFCs*

1616±4355

1616±435

1850±585

2257±685

2410±635

2378±540

2550±420

2610±480

2529±510

2404±580

2927±675

3338±685

3338±685

Total HFCs

1769±4355

1751±435

1996±585

2401±685

2632±635

2615±540

2813±420

2866±480

2803±510

2698±580

3228±675

3622±685

3607±685

ISC-InTEM average (tonnes)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total HFCs

2194±490

2071±465

2368±590

2528±610

2888±615

2601±530

2778±480

2776±500

2749±500

3029±610

3354±675

3366±645

3132±605

ISC-InTEM mean (M tonnes CO2-e)

5.53±1.0

5.06±0.9

5.75±1.2

6.12±1.2

6.97±1.3

6.20±1.1

6.61±1.0

6.59±1.1

6.72±1.1

7.09±1.3

7.64±1.4

7.45±1.3

6.01±1.1

SF6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ISC (tonnes)

68±25

60±21

38±14

28±10

28±11

25±9

24±8

22±8

21±7

20±6

23±7

21±7

22±8

InTEM, 2012 (tonnes)

29±25

29±2

31±3

34±2

44±3

43±3

44±2

44±23

44±23

44±23

44±23

44±23

44±23

ISC-InTEM mean (tonnes)

48±13

44±11

34±8

31±6

36±7

34±6

34±5

33±5

33±5

32±4

33±5

32±5

33±5

ISC-InTEM mean (k tonnes CO2-e)

1099±303

1011±258

786±187

697±143

821±158

779±133

777±123

504±172

490±163

449±147

514±170

469±156

509±172

PFCs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

total (Table 5, tonnes)

160±40

146±45

92±35

77±25

101±30

91±25

99±25

92±15

81±10

76±15

89±15

132±40

119±35

total (Table 5, k tonnes CO2-e)

1259±343

1150±399

727±327

609±210

869±384

762±271

829±285

769±187

667±145

629±154

729±195

1064±376

969±354

HFCs, SF6, PFCs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

total (tonnes)

2402±541

2261±519

2494±633

2635±641

3025±652

2727±561

2911±508

2901±517

2862±515

3137±627

3476±695

3530±690

3297±647

total (k tonnes CO2-e)

7890±1085

7223±1020

7259±1245

7423±1255

8665±1325

7738±1145

8214±1050

7859±1085

7873±1135

8171±1350

8885±1440

8981±1370

7442±1080

Unregulated species

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SO2F2, ISC (tonnes)

9±6

8±5

12±9

17±11

18±12

67±40

85±53

71±43

74±44

102±61

100±60

126±75

122±73

SO2F2, InTEM (tonnes)

24±37

24±37

25±44

27±54

37±56

54±54

78±49

112±46

137±47

147±50

165±59

177±67

 

SO2F2, ISC-InTEM mean (tonnes)

16±21

16±21

19±26

22±33

27±34

60±47

82±51

91±45

105±46

124±55

132±60

152±71

150±70

SO2F2, ISC-InTEM mean (k tonnes CO2-e )

82±106

79±104

93±131

109±163

137±170

301±235

408±255

457±223

527±228

621±277

662±298

760±354

515±307

*includes HFC-32, HFC-125, HFC-134a, HFC-143a 1assumed = 2007 emissions 2assumed = 2008 emissions 3assumed = 2011 emissions
4assumed = ISC data 5assumed = 2006 emissions 6assumed = 2016 emissions

pastedGraphic_3.png

Figure 4. Australian HFC-32, -125, -134a, -143a, -152a, -365mfc, sulfur hexafluoride and sulfuryl fluoride emissions (NGA, orange: DoEE, 2018; light brown: DoEE, 2019) compared to emissions calculated from Cape Grim data by interspecies correlation (ISC, blue) and from the UK Met. Office NAME (light blue) particle dispersion/InTEM inversion models. In the ISC calculations of HFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions, Australian emissions are scaled from Melbourne/Port Phillip emissions on a population basis (5.4, Australia/Port Phillip); in the InTEM 2011 calculations, Australian emissions are scaled from Victorian/Tasmanian emissions, also on a population basis; for the InTEM 2018 inversions, Australian emissions are scaled from Victorian/Tasmania/New South Wales emissions, also on a population basis. Also shown are Australian sulfuryl fluoride emissions from ISC and InTEM, scaled on a grain production basis. The data shown in red are emissions from the refrigerant bank and are show in red (Brodribb and McCann, 2015).

 

    1. PFC-14 emissions

SE Australian emissions of PFC-14 (CF4) are evident in the PFC-14 data collected at Cape Grim (Figure 5). Inspection of Figure 5 shows an overall decline in intensity of PFC-14 pollution episodes due to declining emissions. The year-to-year variability of the number and intensity of PFC-14 episodes seen at Cape Grim is large, so 3-year averaging is used when deriving PFC emissions from these data (so the latest annual emission calculated from these data is for 2017). Detailed analysis of these PFC-14 pollution episodes shows clearly that the Cape Grim PFC-14 pollution originates largely from southern Victoria from the Point Henry and Portland smelters, with some contribution from Bell Bay, Tasmania (Note: the Point Henry smelter closed in July 2014).

The Cape Grim PFC-14 pollution episode data have been used to estimate PFC-14 emissions from these SE Australian smelters. A regional transport model (TAPM – The Air Pollution Model; Hurley, 2008; Hurley et al., 2008) is used to calculate emissions in which PFC-14 is released into the model atmosphere from the Point Henry, Portland and Bell Bay locations, with annual emissions that are varied, so that the resultant PFC pollution episodes seen at Cape Grim in the model are a best-fit match to observations. The emissions are constant in any one year, varied year-by-year. Smelter-specific emission factors are calculated from the emissions by dividing by the smelter-specific annual aluminium production (Fraser et al., 2007, 2011).

The NAME transport and InTEM inversion models are used to derive PFC emissions from the Victoria/Tasmania/NSW domain containing aluminium smelters at Portland, Point Henry, Bell Bay, Kurri Kurri and Tomago smelters.

pastedGraphic_4.png

Figure 5. Monthly-mean PFC-14 concentrations observed in situ at Cape Grim (dark blue), 2004-2018. PFC-14 pollution episodes (light blue), typically lasting up to 12 hours in duration, are also seen at Cape Grim (Mühle et al., 2010).

 

The TAPM and InTEM estimates of regional PFC-14 emissions are scaled to derive Australian emissions on an aluminium production basis. For example, if the PFC-14 emissions derived for the SE Australian smelters, which account for about 35% of Australia’s aluminium production, are assumed to be representative of all Australian aluminium production, then Australian PFC-14 emissions from aluminium production can be derived and compared to emissions in the National Inventory Report 2017 (DoEE, 2019) (Figure 7). The emission factors and emissions calculated for the Point Henry, Portland and Bell Bay smelters are shown in Table 5. Australian PFC-14 emission factors as reported in the National Inventory Report 2017 (DoEE, 2019) and as derived from atmospheric measurements at Cape Grim using NAME/TAPM (to 2011) and TAPM (to 2017) modelling are shown in Figure 6.

The Australian emissions derived from atmospheric data prior to 2006, using TAPM or InTEM (Vic/Tas) are likely to be underestimated due to the very significant PFC-14 emissions from a single pot-line (#1) at Kurri Kurri, which accounted for nearly half of all Australian PFC emissions from aluminium smelting in 2005. The pot-line was upgraded in 2006 and this accounts for the dramatic drop in PFC-14 emissions from 2005 to 2006 in the National Inventory Report. The large PFC emissions prior to 2006 are not seen in the TAPM estimates of emissions, as they are based on Bell Bay/Pt Henry/Portland data. The NAME inversion, based on the Vic/Tas/NSW domain, uses all pollution episode data, including any Kurri Kurri- or Tomago-affected data that may have impacted on Cape Grim (the Kurri Kurri and Tomago smelters are located in the Hunter Valley, NSW). This is why the Australian PFC-14 estimates in 2005 (182 tonnes) based on the NAME (Vic/Tas/NSW) emissions are significantly greater than the TAPM estimates for 2005 (95 tonnes).

In 2017, Australian PFC-14 emissions (TAPM, 90 tonnes) were about 0.6% of global emissions (14 k tonnes). The only significant PFC-14 source in Australia is aluminium production, whereas globally both aluminium production and the semiconductor production industry are significant sources of PFC-14 emissions.

pastedGraphic_5.png

Figure 6. Australian PFC-14 emission factors as reported in the National Inventory Report 2016 (NGA: DoEE, 2018) and as derived from atmospheric measurements at Cape Grim using NAME/TAPM (to 2011) and TAPM (to 2016) modelling. The grey band is the average (±1 sd) emission factor derived from NAME/TAPM. The Kurri Kurri emission factor is based on direct PFC-14 measurements made at the Kurri Kurri smelter in 2009 (Fraser et al., 2013).

pastedGraphic_6.png

Figure 7. Australian emissions of PFC-14 as recorded in the National Inventory Report 2017 (NGA: DoEE, 2019; uncertainty 27%:  DIICCSRTE, 2013) and as obtained from TAPM (scaled from Vic/Tas emissions) and NAME-InTEM (scaled from Vic/Tas/NSW emissions) modelling.

 

Table 5. Australian PFC-14, PFC-116, PFC-218, PFC-318 emissions (t: tonnes) and PFC-14, PFC-116 emission factors (g/t aluminium, 2005-2016) derived from atmospheric observations – remote (Portland, Pt Henry, Bell Bay) (3 yr averages, e.g. 2010 = average of 2009, 2010, 2011), using the TAPM and NAME models, directly, at Kurri Kurri.

Refrigerant

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2005-17 avg

TAPM emissions (tonnes)

PFC-14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portland

18±3

18±4

14±4

15±5

12±4

12±3

12±4

10±3

10±2

12±3

15±4

18±6

11±3

14±4

Pt Henry

12±2

11±2

10±2

10±2

9±2

8±2

9±3

8±2

8±2

2±09

 

 

 

9±2

Bell Bay

5±1

5±1

6±3

4±2

3±2

3±2

3±2

3±2

4±2

4±2

4±2

12±9

13±8

5±3

Australia

95±12

94±12

80±16

78±16

69±14

65±12

70±15

61±12

56±9

53±11

63±15

103±37

90±33

74±15

NAME emissions (tonnes)

 

 

PFC-146

182±65

157±77

68±55

45±29

44±30

47±31

51±31

51±31

51±31

51±31

51±31

51±31

51±31

71±39

PFC-116

15±1

15±1

15±1

15±1

19±3

23±5

29±3

29±3

29±3

29±3

29±3

29±3

29±3

23±2

PFC-2181

9±1

10±1

11±1

12±1

19±3

21±3

20±2

20±2

20±2

20±2

20±2

20±2

20±2

17±2

TAPM/NAME average emissions (tonnes)

PFC-14

138±38

125±45

74±35

62±23

57±22

56±22

61±23

61±128

56±9

53±11

63±15

103±37

90±33

76±24

PFC-1164

14±4

13±4

7±4

6±2

6±2

6±2

6±2

6±1

6±1

5±1

6±2

10±4

9±3

8±2

ISC emissions (tonnes)

PFC-218

7±3

6±2

9±4

6±2

7±3

12±5

14±5

12±4

7±2

8±3

9±3

9±3

9±3

10±3

PFC-318

26±17

26±17

26±17

26±17

26±17

13±5

15±5

14±5

12±4

10±4

10±4

10±3

11±4

14±6

ISC/NAME average emissions (tonnes)

PFC-218

8±2

8±2

10±3

9±2

13±3

16±4

17±3

12±48

7±2

8±3

9±3

9±3

9±3

10±3

Total PFC emissions

160±40

146±45

92±35

77±25

101±30

91±25

99±25

92±15

81±10

76±15

89±15

132±40

119±35

104±27

CO2-e (M tonnes)

1.26±0.34

1.15±0.40

0.73±0.33

0.61±0.21

0.87±0.38

0.76±0.27

0.83±0.28

0.77±0.19

0.67±0.14

0.63±0.15

0.73±0.19

1.06±0.38

0.97±0.35

0.85±0.28

PFC emission factors

Portland, Victoria

52±10

52±11

40±12

42±15

37±12

39±11

40±13

34±10

32±8

39±10

51±13

63±20

52±16

44±12

Pt Henry, Victoria

63±12

60±11

52±11

51±9

48±10

40±11

45±13

43±11

42±8

38±8

 

 

 

48±10

Bell Bay, Tasmania

31±8

30±8

32±19

22±12

19±11

19±11

19±11

19±11

19±11

19±11

19±11

63±47

69±43

29±16

Australia (TAPM)5

48±10

48±10

41±14

38±12

35±11

33±11

35±13

32±11

31±9

32±10

35±12

63±47

61±29

41±14

Australia (NAME)6

96±34

82±40

35±28

23±14

23±15

25±15

27±15

 

 

 

 

 

 

44±23

TAPM/NAME average

72±22

65±25

38±21

31±13

29±13

29±13

31±14

32±11

31±9

32±10

35±12

63±34

61±29

42±17

Kurri Kurri

 

 

 

 

35±37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Dalzell, E., Hydro Australia 2013, personal communication

2 Australian emissions scaled from Portland, Pt Henry, Bell Bay emissions by aluminium production

3 Australian emissions scaled from Portland, Pt Henry, Bell Bay, Kurri Kurri, Tomago emissions by aluminium production

4 C2F6/CF4 = 0.1, Kim et al., (2014)

5 TAPM (Portland, Pt Henry, Bell Bay average emissions)/aluminium production

6 NAME (Vic/Tas/NSW) emissions/aluminium production; NAME emissions for 2011 are based on 2010-2011 data only

7 emission factor for 2009 (Fraser et al., 2013)

8 TAPM or ISC only 2012 onwards

9 Note: Pt Henry closure in July 2014

3. Other PFC emissions

Figure 8 shows the Australian PFC-116 emissions from the National Inventory Report 2017, from PFC-14 emissions (TAPM/NAME) assuming a PFC-116/PFC-14 mass emission factor of 0.10±0.01, based on atmospheric observation at Aspendale on the Pt Henry/Portland PFC plumes and on direct measurements on the Kurri Kurri exhaust stack (Fraser et al., 2013; Kim et al., 2014). The overall agreement is good, as expected, as the emissions are from the aluminium industry only, with current emissions (since 2009) of about 6 tonnes/yr.

Cape Grim data also suggest that there are significant Australian PFC-218 and PFC-318 emissions, the former increasing from about 10 tonnes in the mid-2000s to peak at 17 tonnes in 2010-2011, declining to 9 tonnes from 2015-2017 and the latter declining from nearly 30 tonnes in 2009 to 10-11 tonnes in 2016-2017. The sources of PFC-218 and PFC-318 are unknown; there are no significant PFC-218 or PFC-318 imports recorded. The PFC-218 emissions are about the same size as the non-aluminium PFC-116 emissions, with a similar growth pattern. This suggests their emissions may be related.

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Figure 8. Australian PFC-116 emissions from the National Inventory Report 2017 (DoEE, 2019) and Australian PFC-116, PFC-218 and PFC-318 from atmospheric measurements at Cape Grim using NAME, TAPM and ISC modelling; error bars are ± sd. Australian PFC-116 (NAME) are from Vic/Tas data scaled by aluminium production, PFC-116 (TAPM/NAME PFC-14) are from Australian TAPM/NAME PFC-14 emissions (Table 5) and the observed PFC-116/PFC-14 ratio (0.10±0.01) in Australian smelter plumes; PFC-218 and PFC-318 are from NAME and ISC modelling, with Australian emissions obtained from regional emissions by population scaling.

  1. Comparisons of NGA, ISC and NAME emission estimates

As mentioned in section 4, the HFC Inventory estimates for 2006-2017 have been revised in the National Inventory Report 2017 (DoEE, 2019). Two significant changes have been implemented for determining the HFC emissions. The first change is that the annual leak rates are calibrated to the CSIRO HFC emissions estimates for all equipment types from 2006 onwards. The second change to the method is CSIRO species data is used to modify the species percentages each year from 2006 onwards.

 

  1. HFC-134a

The major HFC in the Inventory (ageis.climatechange.gov.au; DoEE, 2019) is HFC-134a, with emissions in 2017 of 2966 tonnes (Table 3). Based on Cape Grim data, Australian emissions of HFC-134a in 2017 were 1416 tonnes (ISC), 52% lower than reported in the Inventory (Table 3, Figure 4). For the 12-year period 2006-2017, the average Australian emissions of HFC-134a calculated from Cape Grim data (ISC, 1588 tonnes/yr) are about 35% lower than the Inventory (2145 tonnes/yr; DoEE, 2019).

Cape Grim data suggest that Australian emissions of HFC-134a have grown significantly (24%) over the period 2006-2015, but are now in decline, decreasing 22% from 2015-2017. The Inventory show increasing emissions through to 2017, with emissions growing by 100% from 2006-2017. Over the period 2006-2017, Cape Grim data suggest total HFC-134a emissions of 20 k tonnes (ISC) compared to the Inventory total of 28 k tonnes which is a factor of 1.4 higher. This is a big improvement from the previous report (Dunse et al., 2018; a factor of 2.3 higher). The ISC and InTEM total agree to within 13%. The revised Inventory estimates (see section 4) better reflect the year to year variability of the use of individual HFCs and the difference in magnitude between the Cape Grim estimates and the Inventory estimates has been reduced. However, the Inventory estimates are still substantially larger than Cape Grim estimates for HFC-134a. 

Based on atmospheric data, global emissions of HFC-134a were 241 k tonnes in 2017 (Rigby et al., 2014 and Rigby, unpublished data). Australian emissions are about 0.6% of global emissions based on Cape Grim data, and 1.2% based on Inventory data.

Cape Grim ‘sees’ largely winter emissions of HFC-134a emissions from the Melbourne/Port Phillip region; this could offer a partial explanation of the large difference between Australian emissions of HFC-134a calculated from Cape Grim data and as reported in the Inventory.

  1. HFC-125

The next major HFC emitted into the Australian environment is HFC-125 with current (2017) emissions estimated to be about 1061 tonnes in the Inventory. Based on Cape Grim data, Australian emissions of HFC-125 in 2017 were 493 tonnes (ISC), about 53% lower than the Inventory data. For the 12-year period 2006-2017, the average Australian emissions of HFC-125 calculated from Cape Grim data (ISC, 511 tonnes/yr) are about 29% lower than the Inventory (718 tonnes/yr; DoEE, 2019). 

The emissions based on Cape Grim data (493 tonnes in 2017), decreased by 17% compared to 2016 emissions. Emissions appear to have stabilised following a rapid increase in HFC-125 emissions which occurred from 2013-2015 (35%) likely due to the popularity of HFC-125 in new air-conditioning systems as part of the refrigerant blend R410A.

Over the period 2006-2017, Cape Grim data suggest total HFC-125 emissions of 6.6 k tonnes (ISC) compared to the Inventory total of 9.3 k tonnes, a factor of 1.4 higher. As with HFC-134a this is a big improvement from the previous report (Dunse et al., 2018; a factor of 2.3 higher). The ISC and InTEM total agree to within 1.6%.

Based on atmospheric data, global emissions of HFC-125 were 77 k tonnes in 2017 (Rigby et al., 2014 and Rigby unpublished data). Australian emissions are 0.6% of global emissions based on ISC data, and 1.4% based on Inventory data.

  1. HFC-143a

According to the Inventory (Table 3), the next major HFC emitted into the Australian environment is HFC-143a with current (2017) emissions of 659 tonnes. Based on Cape Grim data, Australian emissions of HFC-143a in 2017 were about 330 tonnes (ISC), about 50% lower than the Inventory estimates. For the 12-year period 2006-2017, the average Australian emissions of HFC-143a calculated from Cape Grim data (ISC, 409 tonnes/yr) are about 26% lower than the Inventory (554 tonnes/yr; DoEE, 2019).

Over the period 2006-2017, Cape Grim data suggest total HFC-143a emissions of 5.3 k tonnes (ISC) compared to the Inventory total of 7.2 k tonnes, a factor of 1.4 higher. The ISC and InTEM total agree to within 6%.

Based on atmospheric data, global emissions of HFC-143a were 30 k tonnes in 2017 (Rigby et al., 2014 and Rigby, unpublished data). Australian emissions are about 1.1% of global emissions based on ISC data, and 2.2% based on Inventory data. Simmonds et al. (2015) report growing USA HFC-143a emissions through 2012 (8.5 k tonnes), with no obvious seasonality.

    1. HFC-32

The emissions based on Cape Grim data (216 tonnes in 2017), decreased by 19% compared to 2016 emissions. Emissions appear to have stabilised following a rapid increase in HFC-32 emissions which occurred from 2013-2015 (88%) likely due to the popularity of HFC-32 in new air-conditioning systems on its own and as part of the refrigerant blend R410A. Similarly, the largest increase (35%) in HFC-125 emissions occurred over the same period – HFC-125 also being a component of R410a. Based on Cape Grim data, Australian emissions of HFC-32 in 2017 were about 216 tonnes (ISC), about 54% lower than the Inventory estimate (473 tonnes). For the 12-year period 2006-2017, the average Australian emissions of HFC-32 calculated from Cape Grim data (ISC, 170 tonnes/yr) are about 32% lower than the Inventory (251 tonnes/yr).

Over the period 2006-2017, Cape Grim data suggest total HFC-32 emissions of 2.2 k tonnes (ISC) compared to the Inventory total of 3.3 k tonnes, a factor of 1.5 higher.

Based on atmospheric data, global emissions of HFC-32 were 50 k tonnes in 2017 (Rigby et al., 2014 and Rigby, unpublished data). Australian emissions are 0.4% of global emissions based on ISC data, and 0.9% based on Inventory data.

 

    1. HFC-152a

The 2017 HFC-152a emissions have been estimated from Cape Grim data at 60 tonnes (ISC), close to 2016 emissions. The data suggest that HFC-152a emissions may have peaked in 2015 at 66 tonnes. Estimates of HFC-152a have been included in the Inventory for the first time this year (DoEE, 2019), with an estimate for 2017 of 108 tonnes. InTEM emissions are available for the period 2005-2011 and average 20% higher than the ISC emissions. For the 12-year period 2006-2017, the average Australian emissions of HFC-152a calculated from Cape Grim data (ISC, 50 tonnes/yr) are about 30% lower than the Inventory (71 tonnes/yr)

The primary uses for HFC-152a are as an aerosol propellant, as an alternative to CFC-11 and CFC-12 in foam expansion and as a component of some refrigerant blends. Imports of HFC-152a into Australia were 25 tonnes in 2017, 21 tonnes in 2018 (Table 2), 45% lower than 2015 imports, consistent with the peak emissions in 2015 shown from the Cape Grim data.

Over the period 2006-2017, Cape Grim data suggest total HFC-152a emissions of 0.65 k tonnes (ISC) compared to the Inventory total of 0.92 k tonnes, a factor of 1.4 higher.

Based on atmospheric data, global emissions of HFC-152a were 55 k tonnes in 2017 (Rigby et al., 2014 and Rigby unpublished data). Australian emissions are about 0.1% of global emissions based on ISC data, and 0.2% based on Inventory data.

    1. HFC-23

HFC-23 emission estimates are estimated in the Inventory to be 46 tonnes in 2017. The 2017 emissions have been estimated from Cape Grim data at 28 tonnes (ISC), dropping steadily from 46 tonnes in 2006. In the 1990s, Australian emissions were estimated as fugitive emissions from Sydney-based Australian HCFC-22 production. HCFC-22 production ceased in Australia in 1995. HFC-23 imports averaged 0.9 tonnes per year from 2011-2016, then imports increased to 3.9 tonnes in 2017 and 8.8 tonnes in 2018. Although emissions of HFC-23 are small compared to the major HFCs (HFC-134a, HFC-143a and HFC-125), continued emissions of HFC-23 have significant potential to contribute to climate forcing due to its large GWP (Global Warming Potential) of 14,800.

For the 12-year period 2006-2017, the average Australian emissions of HFC-23 calculated from Cape Grim data (ISC, 36 tonnes/yr) are about 16% lower than the Inventory (43 tonnes/yr). Over the period 2006-2017, Cape Grim data suggest total HFC-23 emissions of 0.43 k tonnes (ISC) compared to the Inventory total of 0.52 k tonnes, a factor of 1.2 higher.

Based on atmospheric data, global emissions of HFC-23 were 15 k tonnes in 2017 (Rigby et al., 2014 and Rigby, unpublished data). Current Australian emissions are about 0.2% of global emissions based on ISC data, and 0.3% based on the Inventory.

The origin of these Australian HFC-23 emissions is unknown. HFC-23 is a component of the R-508 series of refrigerants, but significant imports of R-508 refrigerants into Australia have not been recorded. 

RRA (M. Bennett, private communication, 2014) is not aware of any significant historical use of R-508 refrigerants in Australia. RRA in their refrigerant reclaim operation have collected only one cylinder of R-508 from a CSIRO instrument testing laboratory in Sydney. Thus, it is unlikely that the unaccounted for HFC-23 is from past or current use of R-508 refrigerants in Australia.

Aspendale atmospheric data on HFC-23 (unpublished) and PFC-116 (Kim et al., 2014) show very different concentration/wind direction (so-called concentration ‘roses’) at Aspendale. The PFC-116 data show a clear, strong maximum in the direction (W of Aspendale) of the Pt Henry and Portland smelters, confirming a largely aluminium-production source, and essentially noise in the other wind sectors. The HFC-23 data show a significant, but small concentration maximum in the direction NE of Aspendale (as do HFC-134a, HFC-32, HFC-125 etc.). It would appear that HFC-23 is in the general mix of refrigerant/firefighting emissions from Melbourne, but has not been identified, in any significant amounts, in any Australian imports.

One possible explanation is that HFC-23 (CHF3) is present in refrigerant blends as a contaminant – for example with blends containing HFC-32 (CH2F2). It is possible that overfluorination during the production of HFC-32 could produce HFC-23 and that the resultant refrigerant blends using HFC-32 could contain, likely small, amounts of HFC-23. 

The observation that the maximum emissions (46 tonnes, 2006) occurred in the first year of measurements suggests that peak emissions may have been pre-2006. Although global emissions of HFC-23 are on the increase (Stanley et al., 2020), in Australia we see a steady decline in HFC-23 emissions since 2006 (about 5% per year) – if we assume this is from an ‘old’ bank, then the current bank could be of the order of 500 or more tonnes.

  1. HFC-227ea

HFC-227ea is a gaseous fire suppression agent used as a replacement for Halon 1301.The 2017 emissions from Cape Grim data have been estimated at 18 tonnes (ISC), equal to the 2016 emissions. The HFC-227ea emissions are quite variable, ranging from 13 tonnes in 2006 up to a peak of 32 tonnes in 2009. In 2017, 46 tonnes of HFC-227ea were imported into Australia and 20 tonnes were imported in 2018 (Table 2). 

HFC-227ea emissions are estimated in the Inventory to be 32 tonnes in 2017. Australian emissions of HFC-227ea from Cape Grim data in 2017 are about 44% lower than the Inventory data. For the 12-year period 2006-2017, the average Australian emissions of HFC-227ea calculated from Cape Grim data (ISC, 22 tonnes/yr) are about 27% lower than the Inventory (30 tonnes/yr). 

Over the period 2006-2017, Cape Grim data suggest total HFC-227ea emissions of 0.27 k tonnes (ISC) compared to the Inventory total of 0.37 k tonnes, a factor of 0.7 higher. 

There are no InTEM estimates of HFC-227ea emissions from Cape Grim data.

Based on atmospheric data, global emissions of HFC-227ea were 4.9 k tonnes in 2017 (Rigby et al., 2014 and Rigby, unpublished data). Australian emissions are about 0.4% of global emissions based on ISC data and 0.7% based on Inventory data.

  1. HFC-236fa, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc

HFC-236fa is a clean agent fire suppressant used as a replacement for Halon 1211 in portable fire extinguisher applications. HFC-245fa is used as a blowing agent for plastic foam insulation and is used as a replacement for HCFC-141b. HFC-365mfc is also used as a blowing agent for plastic foam insulation and is a replacement for HCFC-141b.

The 2017 emissions for HFC-236fa, HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc have been estimated (ISC) from Cape Grim data at about 3 (steady), 55 (declining) and 38 tonnes (declining) respectively. In 2017, 0.2, 35 and 47 tonnes of HFC-236fa, HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc respectively were imported into Australia (Table 2); in 2018 the imports were 0.08, 29 and 31 tonnes respectively.

Australian emissions of HFC-236fa from Cape Grim data in 2017 (ISC, 3 tonnes) compare well with the Inventory data (4.5 tonnes). For the 12-year period 2006-2017, the average Australian emissions of HFC-236fa calculated from Cape Grim data (ISC, 4 tonnes/yr) also compare well with the Inventory (5 tonnes/yr). HFC-236fa imports have never exceeded 0.2 tonnes per year, but emissions have averaged 4-5 tonnes per year since 2006 – there must be unrecorded HFC-236fa imports, perhaps from foam.

Australian emissions of HFC-245fa from Cape Grim data in 2017 (ISC, 55 tonnes) are about 55% lower than the Inventory data (123 tonnes). For the 12-year period 2006-2017, the average Australian emissions of HFC-245fa calculated from Cape Grim data (ISC, 46 tonnes/yr) are about 32% lower than the Inventory (68 tonnes/yr). The imports of HFC-245fa are in decline from peak imports of 280 tonnes in 2010.

Australian emissions of HFC-365mfc from Cape Grim data in 2017 (ISC, 38 tonnes) are about 53% lower than the Inventory data (81 tonnes). For the 12-year period 2006-2017, the average Australian emissions of HFC-365mfc calculated from Cape Grim data (ISC, 47 tonnes/yr) are about 29% lower than the Inventory (66 tonnes/yr). The imports of HFC-365mfc are in decline from peak imports of 250 tonnes in 2011.

The imports of HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc are in decline from peak imports of 200-250 tonnes each in 2011. Current emissions (ISC) of HFC-236fa and HFC-365mfc are not inconsistent with imports (total emissions 2015-2017 = 338 tonnes, total imports = 359 tonnes).

InTEM estimates of emissions of HFC-365mfc for the period 2006-2011 are about 18% lower than ISC estimates of emissions over the same period.

Based on atmospheric data, global emissions of HFC-236fa, HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc were 0.33, 13 and 4.7 k tonnes respectively in 2017 (Rigby et al., 2014 and Rigby, unpublished data). Australian emissions are about 0.9%, 0.4% and 0.8% of global emissions based on Cape Grim data.

 

 

    1. Total HFCs

Total HFC emissions (Table 4), based on Cape Grim observations (ISC, InTEM mean) have grown from about 2200 tonnes in 2005 to 3132 tonnes in 2017, an increase of 42%. Total HFC emissions in 2017 are about 44% lower than in the Inventory, with the discrepancy shared fairly equally between the major HFCs. In previous reports in this series the discrepancy between the Cape Grim data and the Inventory was due mainly to differences in the estimates of HFC-134a. Over the period 2006-2017, total HFC emissions in the Inventory are 28% higher than total emissions based on Cape Grim data (ISC/InTEM average).

Total HFC emissions in the Inventory in 2017 are 12.3 Mt CO2-e, higher (around 50%) than emissions (6.0 Mt CO2-e, ISC-InTEM mean) based on Cape Grim data (Table 3, Table 4, Figure 9). Over the period 2006-2017, the total HFC emissions in the Inventory are 110 Mt CO2-e, compared to 78 Mt CO2-e (41% higher) from Cape Grim data (ISC-InTEM).

Based on atmospheric data, global total HFC emissions are 493 k tonnes (Rigby et al., 2014 and Rigby, unpublished data) in 2017. Based on Cape Grim data (ISC-InTEM), Australian emissions are 0.6% of global emissions or 1.1% based on the Inventory data.

For the combined HFCs (-32, -125, -134a, -143a) the Australian Inventory emissions in 2015 were nearly 4900 tonnes. 

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Figure 9. Australian emissions of HFCs (-125, -134a, -143a, -23) and other HFCs (-32, -152a, -227ea, -236fa, -245fa, -365mfc) estimated from atmospheric data (ISC-InTEM) measured at Cape Grim, and in the Inventory (DoEE, 2019), expressed in units of M tonne CO2-e.

 

    1. Sulfur hexafluoride

Sulfur hexafluoride emissions in the Inventory are 7.7 tonnes in 2017, 8.2 tonnes in 2016 (Table 3, Figure 4). Estimates using Cape Grim data (ISC:Table 4, Figure 4) are 68 tonnes in 2005, decreasing to a low of 22 tonnes in 2017, an overall decrease of about 9% per year. In CO2-e terms sulfur hexafluoride emissions have fallen by 0.59 Mt CO2-e, from 1.10 Mt CO2-e in 2005 to 0.51 Mt CO2-e in 2017 based on Cape Grim data, whereas in the Inventory sulfur hexafluoride emissions have fallen by only 0.02 Mt CO2-e, from 0.20 to 0.18 Mt CO2-e over the same period.

Over the period 2006 – 2017, both the Inventory and Cape Grim data show that Australian sulfur hexafluoride emissions are in decline overall (6% decline in the Inventory, 63% seen at Cape Grim), presumably reflecting the actions of Australian electricity distributors to reduce emissions. However, the Inventory sulfur hexafluoride emissions are significantly lower than emissions estimated from Cape Grim data; over the period 2006 to 2017 the sulfur hexafluoride emissions in the inventory average 7 tonnes per year, about a factor of 4 lower than estimates from Cape Grim over the same period (28 tonnes per year).  

A recent inversion study, using a hierarchical Bayesian method has been used to derive Australian (and other regions) emissions (Ganesan et al., 2014). Results show Australian emissions in 2012 of 17±9 tonnes. This compares with 22±8 tonnes in 2012 (ISC data), whereas the Inventory reports 6.5 tonnes. 

Based on atmospheric data, global emissions of sulfur hexafluoride were 8.9 k tonnes in 2017 (Rigby et al., 2014, Rigby, unpublished data). Australian emissions are about 0.2% of global emissions (ISC), but < 0.1% based on the Inventory data. It would be unusual for Australian emissions of a widely-used industrial chemical to be <0.1% of global emissions.

The Australian sulfur hexafluoride emissions from atmospheric data and in the Inventory, and sulfur hexafluoride import data, are shown in Figure 10.

 

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Figure 10. Australian and global sulfur hexafluoride imports and emissions (tonnes) from Cape Grim data using ISC and InTEM (Ganesan et al., 2014; Rigby et al., 2014) and from the Inventory (NGA: DoEE, 2019).

 

    1. Sulfuryl fluoride

Based on Cape Grim data, Australian sulfuryl fluoride emissions averaged 20 tonnes/yr from 2005-2009, but then increased to 150 tonnes in 2017 (Table 4, Figure 11). Presumably this reflects a change in grain fumigation practices away from using methyl bromide and phosphine. Global emissions were 3000 tonnes in 2017 (Rigby et al., 2014 and Rigby, unpublished data). Australian emissions are 5% of global emissions. Australia is responsible for 3% of global wheat production, but 10-15% of wheat exports. Sulfuryl fluoride is more closely related to wheat production (grain storage in Australia’s interior) than to wheat export (grain storage at export ports, fumigated with methyl bromide).

In CO2-e terms, sulfuryl fluoride emissions reached 515 k tonnes CO2-e in 2017, compared to 509 k tonnes CO2-e for sulfur hexafluoride, 969 k tonnes CO2-e for PFCs and 6000 k tonnes CO2-e for HFCs. In climate change terms, Australian sulfuryl fluoride emissions are now more than 53% of the radiative forcing of PFCs, and possibly growing quite rapidly. 

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Figure 11.  Australian sulfuryl fluoride emissions (tonnes), scaled from SE Australian emissions based on grain production, derived from Cape Grim in situ data, using ISC and InTEM techniques; global emissions (tonnes) are from Rigby et al., 2014; Rigby, unpublished data.

 

    1. Total HFCs, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions

Total HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions in CO2-e from Cape Grim data are shown in Table 4 and Figure 12. Total Australian HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions in the Inventory are 12.6 M tonnes CO2-e in 2017, higher (70%) than estimates based on Cape Grim data: 7.4 M tonnes CO2-e (ISC-InTEM). Over the period 2006-2017 the average Inventory estimates are 36% higher than estimates based on Cape Grim data (ISC-InTEM). Over the period 2006-2017, total Australian emissions of HFCs, PFCs and sulfur hexafluoride, based on Cape Grim data (96 Mt CO2-e) are about 17% lower than the same emissions in the Inventory (116 Mt CO2-e). In two categories (PFCs and sulfur hexafluoride) the atmospheric data give higher estimates of emissions than in the Inventory. In the HFC category the atmospheric data give lower estimates of emissions than the Inventory

Australian total HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions in 2017 from Cape Grim data (3297 tonnes, ISC-InTEM) are 0.6 % of global emissions (517 k tonnes).

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Figure 12. Australian HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride emissions calculated from Cape Grim observations (ISC-InTEM) and in the Inventory (NGGI/NGA, ageis.climatechange.gov.au) in M tonne CO2-e.

 

Summary

  • CSIRO, through involvement in the international AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) program, has now measured and reported atmospheric concentrations, temporal trends and emissions for eleven HFCs, nine PFCs, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrogen trifluoride, trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride and sulfuryl fluoride, utilizing data from the background atmosphere at Cape Grim, Tasmania. The AGAGE program involves collaborating scientists from the USA, Australia, China, Italy, Korea, Norway, Switzerland and the UK, who operate a global measurement network and, through a variety of modelling initiatives, estimate lifetimes and emissions of all the significant non-CO2 GHGs, from both ozone depletion and climate forcing perspectives.

  • All HFCs, all PFCs, sulfur hexafluoride and sulfuryl fluoride, show increasing concentrations in the background atmosphere at Cape Grim, which is consistent with global background atmospheric changes. Significant increases from 2017-2018 (ppt per year) are seen in HFC-134a (6.2), HFC-125 (3.0), HFC-143a (1.7), HFC-32 (2.7), HFC-23 (1.21), PFC-14 (0.95), sulfur hexafluoride (0.36) and sulfuryl fluoride (0.11). Total HFCs are growing at 15 ppt per year or 8% per year, total anthropogenic PFCs at 0.95 ppt per year (1.9% per year), sulfur hexafluoride at 3.9% per year and sulfuryl fluorideat 4.9% per year.

  • Total global HFC, PFC, sulfur hexafluoride and nitrogen trifluoride emissions have risen from about 30 k tonnes per year in the late 1970s to around 467 k tonnes per year in 2016.

  • HFC imports into Australia in 2018 were 20% lower than imports in 2017. This reduction is in line with Australia’s mandated HFC production and import phase down which began in 1 January 2018. Sulfur hexafluoride imports in 2018 were 37% lower than 2017. Less than 1 tonne of PFCs are imported into Australia. The quantity of sulfuryl fluoride imported each year into Australia depends on the annual grain harvest, but is currently around 150 tonnes per year.

  • The National Greenhouse Accounts (Inventory) reports significant Australian annual (2017) emissions of HFC-134a (2966 tonne), HFC-125 (1061 tonne), HFC-143a (659 tonne), HFC-32 (473 tonne), HFC-245fa (123 tonne), HFC-152a (108 tonne), HFC-23 (46 tonne), HFC-227ea (32 tonne), PFC-14 (18 tonne), sulfur hexafluoride (8 tonne), PFC-116 (5.6 tonne) and HFC-236fa (4.5 tonne). Emissions of the majority of HFCs are increasing. The Inventory emissions calculations for HFCs have been revised for the 2019 Inventory using CSIRO data to calibrate leakage rates and to modify the species percentages. Emissions of PFCs (from aluminium production only) in the Inventory have declined 72% from 2006-2017. Overall the emissions of HFCs, PFCs and sulfur hexafluoride are increasing due to the dominant influence of HFC emissions.

  • Regional Australian emissions have been detected in the Cape Grim data for all HFCs, the first four PFCs listed above, sulfur hexafluoride and sulfuryl fluoride. The emissions have been quantified using a variety of modelling techniques, including interspecies correlation (ISC), forward modelling using the CSIRO TAPM model and inverse modelling using the UK Meteorological Office transport model NAME and inversion model InTEM. Australian emissions of all the major HFCs (except HFC-23) decreased from 2016 to 2017. Overall the major HFCs have decreased by 15% from 2016-2017. Total HFCs (major and minor) also decreased by 15% from 2016-2017. It is not yet clear why there was a substantial drop in HFC emissions from 2016-2017, as the HFC phase-down was not yet enacted. Decreases were seen in HFC-32 (19%), HFC-125 (17%), HFC-134a (15%), HFC-143a (11%) and HFC-32 (2%). 

  • Emissions of all the minor HFCs have been detected in the Cape Grim data. A few episodes of HFC-4310mee have been detected, but not enough to estimate emissions. Emissions of two of the minor HFCs have decreased from 2016-2017 with HFC-245fa decreasing by 19% and HFC-365mfc decreasing by 17%. HFC-227ea emissions remained steady and HFC-236fa emissions increased by 50%.

  • Total HFC emissions in 2017 from Cape Grim data are about 44% lower than in the Inventory, with the discrepancy shared fairly equally between the major HFCs. In previous reports in this series the discrepancy between the Cape Grim data and the Inventory was due mainly to differences in the estimates of HFC-134a. Over the period 2006-2017, total HFC emissions in the Inventory are 28% higher than total emissions based on Cape Grim data (ISC/InTEM average).

  • The Inventory shows Australian total HFC emissions continuing to grow. 

  • Cape Grim data show total HFC emissions growing until 2016.  The Cape Grim data show that total HFC emissions were 7% lower in 2017 compared to 2016. Whether this represents some stabilization in emissions will be resolved with further data in the next few years.

  • Total HFC emissions in the Inventory in 2017 are 12.3 Mt CO2-e, higher (around 50%) than emissions (6.0 Mt CO2-e, ISC-InTEM mean) based on Cape Grim data. Over the period 2006-2017, the total HFC emissions in the Inventory are 110 Mt CO2-e, compared to 78 Mt CO2-e (41% higher) from Cape Grim data (ISC-InTEM).

  • Over the period 2006 – 2017, both the Inventory and Cape Grim data show that Australian sulfur hexafluoride emissions are in decline overall (6% decline in the Inventory, 63% seen at Cape Grim), presumably reflecting the actions of Australian electricity distributors to reduce emissions. However, the Inventory sulfur hexafluoride emissions are significantly lower than emissions estimated from Cape Grim data.

  • Australian sulfuryl fluoride emissions from Cape Grim data (ISC only) have grown rapidly from 9 tonnes in 2005 up to 122 tonnes in 2017. This presumably reflects a change in grain fumigation practices away from using methyl bromide and phosphine to sulfuryl fluoride. 

  • PFC-14 and PFC-116 emissions from the aluminium industry have been estimated using InTEM and TAPM (PFC-116 indirectly via PFC-14). Over the period 2006-2017, PFC-14 emissions in the Inventory are in decline and are about 50% lower than PFC-14 emissions estimated from Cape Grim data (TAPM-InTEM). Emissions of PFC-14 using Cape Grim data have been steady at about 60 tonnes for the period 2012-2015, but increased significantly to 103 tonnes in 2016 and 90 tonnes in 2017, 5 times the Inventory estimate. The fraction of Australian PFC-14 emission seen at Cape Grim has declined significantly since the closure of the Point Henry smelter in 2014. The 2016 and 2017 increase in PFC-14 emissions is largely due to increases seen at the Bell Bay smelter. This result will need to be confirmed when InTEM emission estimates are updated.  

  • Over the period 2006-2017, PFC-116 emissions in the Inventory (assumed only from the aluminium industry) have declined by 44% and are on average about 36% lower than PFC-116 emissions estimated from Cape Grim data (TAPM-InTEM). 

  • Cape Grim observations show that Australian emissions of PFC-218 were growing until 2011, but are now declining, with current (2017) emissions for PFC-218 about 9 tonnes. PFC-318 emissions vary from 10-12 tonnes over the last 5 years. There are no significant Australian imports identified for these PFCs. Globally PFC-218 and PFC-318 are used in the electronics industry (etching), in refrigeration, in fire suppression and in medical applications.

  • Total Australian PFC emissions (from Cape Grim data) declined from 2005 to 2008, largely driven by emissions from the aluminium industry. From 2008 to 2017 emissions varied from 76 – 132 tonnes per year (119 tonnes in 2017). Total Australian PFC emissions from the Inventory have declined by 72% from 2006 to 2017.

  • Total Australian HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions, expressed as CO2-e emissions, over the period 2006-2017 estimated from Cape Grim data (96 Mt CO2-e) are about 17% lower than the same emissions in the Inventory (116 Mt CO2-e).

  • Average Australian HFC, PFC and sulfur hexafluoride emissions (tonnes) over the period 2006-2017 from the Inventory are 36% higher than estimates based on Cape Grim data (ISC-InTEM). 

  • Importantly, Cape Grim data suggest that the combined Australian emissions of HFCs, PFCs and sulfur hexafluoride, which peaked in 2009 and plateaued over the period 2009-2014 at 2900 tonnes per year, reached a new maximum of about 3500 tonnes in 2016 and then declined in 2017 to 3300 tonnes; the Inventory shows that emissions have continued to grow through 2017 to 5588 tonnes.

Appendix A 

NAME (Numerical Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling Environment) is a Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by 3-dimensional wind fields from numerical weather predictions models. NAME has a horizontal resolution (grid boxes 40 km x 40 km) and a minimum boundary layer height of 100 m. NAME operates in a backward mode, so, for example, it identifies, within a 3 hr period at Cape Grim, which grid boxes in the prescribed domain impact on Cape Grim in the previous 12 days. NAME releases 33,000 particles at Cape Grim over the 3 hr period and the resultant 12-day integrated concentrations in each of the domain boxes are calculated. Operating NAME in the backward mode is numerically very efficient and is a very close approximation to the forward running mode, which is what is used to identify emission sources impacting on Cape Grim. The NAME model is coupled to the InTEM inversion model (O’Doherty et al., 2009; Manning et al., 2003, 2011; Redington and Manning, 2018)

In the inverse calculation, InTEM identifies pollution episode data at Cape Grim, and starts with randomly-generated emission maps and searches for the emission map that leads to a modelled pollution time series that most accurately mimics the observations. The inversion method assumes that baseline air enters the inversion domain regardless of direction i.e. it assumes that sources outside the specified domain do not impact significantly on Cape Grim. For the 2018 InTEM inversions, emissions were calculated for the Victoria/Tasmania/New South Wales domain and, for the 2011 InTEM inversions, a Victoria/Tasmania domain was used.References

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Prinn, R. G., R. F. Weiss, P. J. Fraser, P. G. Simmonds, D. M. Cunnold, F. N. Alyea, S. O’Doherty, P. Salameh, B. R. Miller, J. Huang, R. H. J. Wang, D. E. Hartley, C. Harth, L. P. Steele, G. Sturrock, P. M. Midgley and A. McCulloch, A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE, J. Geophys. Res. – Atmos., 105(D14), 17751-17792, doi:10.1029/2000JD900141, 2000.

Prinn, R. G., R. F. Weiss, T. Arnold, J. Arduini, L. DeWitt, P. J. Fraser, A. Ganesan, C. Harth, O. Hermansen, J. Kim, P. B. Krummel, Z. M. Loh, C. R. Lunder, M. Maione, A. J. Manning, B. R. Miller, B. Mitrevski, J. Muhle, S. O’Doherty, S. Park, S. Reimann, M. Rigby, T. Saito, P. K. Salameh, R. Schmidt, P. G. Simmonds, L. P. Steele, M. K. Vollmer, R. H Wang, B. Yao, Y. Yokouchi, D. Young and L. Zhou, History of chemically and radiatively important atmospheric gases from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), Earth System Science Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-134, Earth System Science Data, in press, 2018.

Redington, A. and A. Manning, InTEM inversion modelling: Australia, UK Met Office, October 2018, 18 pp., 2018.

Li, P. , J. Mühle , S. A. Montzka, D. E. Oram, B. R. Miller, R. F. Weiss , P. J. Fraser and T. Tanhua, Atmospheric histories, growth rates and solubilities in seawater and other natural waters of the potential transient tracers HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HFC-125, HFC-23, PFC-14 and PFC-116, Ocean Sci., 15, 33-60, 2019, doi.org/105194/os-15-33-2019, 2019.

Reimann, S., J. W. Elkins, P. J. Fraser, B. D. Hall, M. J. Kurylo, E. Mahieu, S. A. Montzka, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, P. G. Simmonds and R. F. Weiss, Observing the atmospheric evolution of ozone-depleting substances, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, doi:10.1016/j.crte.2018.08.008, 2018.

Rigby, M., J. Mühle, B. R. Miller, R. G. Prinn, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, P. J. Fraser, P. K. Salameh, C. M. Harth, R. F. Weiss, B. R. Greally, S. O’Doherty, P. G. Simmonds, M. K. Vollmer, S. Reimann, J. Kim, K.-R. Kim, H. J. Wang, J. G. J. Olivier, E. J. Dlugokencky, G. S. Dutton, B. D. Hall and J. W. Elkins, History of atmospheric SF6 from 1973 to 2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10(21), 10305-10320, doi:10.5194/acp-10-10305-2010, 2010.

Rigby, M., R. G. Prinn, S. O’Doherty, B. R. Miller, D. Ivy, J. Mühle, C. M. Harth, P. K. Salameh, T. Arnold, R. F. Weiss, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, P. J. Fraser, D. Young and P. G. Simmonds, Recent and future trends in synthetic greenhouse gas radiative forcing, Geophys. Res. Letts., 41(7), 2623-2630, doi:10.1002/2013GL059099, 2014.

Say, D., A. J. Manning, S. O’Doherty, M. Rigby, D. Young, and A. Grant, Re-Evaluation of the UK’s HFC-134a Emissions Inventory Based on Atmospheric Observations, Environmental Science & Technology, 50: 11129-3, 2016

Simmonds, P.G., M. Rigby, A. J. Manning, M. F. Lunt, S. O’Doherty, A. McCulloch, P. J. Fraser, S. Henne, M. K. Vollmer, J. Mühle, R. F. Weiss, P. K. Salameh, D. Young, S. Reimann, A. Wenger, T. Arnold, C. M. Harth, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, B. L. Dunse, B. R. Miller, C. R. Lunde, O. Hermansen, N. Schmidbauer, T. Saito, Y. Yokouchi, S. Park, S. Li, B. Yao, L. X. Zhou, J. Arduini, M. Maione, R. H. J. Wang, D. Ivy and R. G. Prinn, Global and regional emissions estimates of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) from in situ and air archive observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys, 16, 365-382, doi:10.5194/acp-16-365-2016, 2016.

Simmonds, P. G., R. G. Derwent, A. J. Manning, A. McCulloch and S. O’Doherty, USA emissions estimates of HFC-152a, HFC-134a, HFC-143a and HFC-32 based on in situ observations at Mace Head, Atmos. Environ., 104, 27-38, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.01.010, 2015.

Simmonds, P. G., M. Rigby, A. McCulloch, D. Young, J. Mühle,R. F. Weiss,P. K. Salameh, C.M. Harth, P. B. Krummel, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, A.J. Manning, R.H.J. Wang, R. G. Prinn and S. O’Doherty, Changing trends and emissions of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and their hydrofluorocarbon replacements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4641-4655, doi:10.519/acp-17-4641-2017, 2017.

Simmonds, P. G., M. Rigby, A. McCulloch, M. K. Vollmer, S. Henne, J. Mühle, B. R. Miller,S. O’Doherty, A.J. Manning, P. B. Krummel, P. J. Fraser,  D. Young, R. F. Weiss, P. K. Salameh, C.M. Harth, S. Reimann, C. M. Trudinger, L. P. Steele, R.H.J. Wang, D. Ivy, R. G. Prinn, B. Mitrevski and D. M. Etheridge, Recent increases in the growth rate and emissions of HFC-23 (CHF3) and the link to HCFC-22 (CHClF2) production, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4153–4169, 2018,  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-4153-2018, 2018.

Stanley, K. M., D. Say, J. Mühle, C. M. Harth, P. B. Krummel, D. Young, S. J. O’Doherty, P. K. Salameh, P. G. Simmonds, R. F. Weiss, R. G. Prinn, P. J. Fraser, and M. Rigby. 2020. ‘Increase in global emissions of HFC-23 despite near-total expected reductions’, Nature Communications, 11: 397.

Stohl, A., P. Seibert, J. Arduini, S. Eckhardt, P. Fraser, B. Greally, C. Lunder, M. Miaone, J. Mühle, S. O’Doherty, R. Prinn S. Reimann, T. Saito, N. Schmidbauer, P. Simmonds, M. Vollmer, R. Weiss and Y. Yokouchi, An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9(5), 1597-1620, doi:10.5194/acp-9-1597-2009, 2009.

Sturges, W. T., D. E. Oram, J. C. Laube, C. E. Reeves, M. J. Newland, C. Hogan, P. Martinerie, E. Witrant, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. J. Schuck and P. J. Fraser, Emissions halted of the potent greenhouse gas CF3SF5, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12(8), 3653-3658, doi:10.5194/acp-12-3653-2012, 2012.

Trudinger, C. M., P. J. Fraser, D. M. Etheridge, W. T. Sturges, , M. K. Vollmer, M. Rigby, P. Martinerie, J. Mühle, D. R. Whorton, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, B. R. Miller, J. Laube, F. S. Mani, P. J. Rayner, C. M. Harth, E. Witrant, T. Blunier, J. Schwander, S. O’Doherty and M. Battle, Atmospheric abundance and global emissions of perfluorocarbons CF4, C2F6 and C3F8 since 1800 inferred from ice core, firn, air archive and in situ measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11733-11754, doi:10.5194/acp-16-11733-2016, 2016. 

Velders, G. J. M., S. O. Anderson J. S. Daniel, D. W. Fahey and M. McFarland, The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 104(12), 4814-4819, doi:10.1073/pnas.0610328104, 2007.

Velders, G. J. M., D. W. Fahey, J. S. Daniel, M. McFarland and S. O. Anderson, The large contribution of projected HFC emissions to future climate forcing, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 106, 10949-10954, doi:10.1073/pnas.0902817106, 2009

Velders, G. J. M., A. R. Ravishankara, M. K. Miller, M. J. Molina, J. Alcamo, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Fahey, S. A. Montzka and S. Reimann, Preserving Montreal Protocol climate benefits by limiting HFCs, Science, 335(6071), 922–923, doi:10.1126/science.1216414, 2012.

Velders, G. J. M., S. Solomon and J. S. Daniel, Growth of climate change commitments from HFC banks and emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14 (9), 4563-4572, doi:10.5194/acp-14-4563-2014, 2014.

Velders, G. J. M., D. W. Fahey, J. S. Daniel, S. O. Anderson amd M. McFarland, Future atmospheric abundances and climate forcings from scenarios of global and regional hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions, Atmos. Environ., 123, 200-209, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.10.071, 2015.

Vollmer, M. K., B. R. Miller, M. Rigby, S. Reimann, J. Mühle, P. B. Krummel, S. O’Doherty, J. Kim, T.-S. Rhee, R. F. Weiss, P. J. Fraser, P. G. Simmonds, P.K. Salameh, C. M. Harth, R. H. J. Wang, L. P. Steele, D. Young, C. R. Lunder, O. Hermansen, D. Ivy, T. Arnold, N. Schmidbauer, K.-R. Kim, B. R. Greally, M. Hill, M. Leist, A. Wenger and R. G. Prinn, Atmospheric histories and global emissions of the anthropogenic hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-365mfc, HFC-245fa, HFC-227ea and HFC-236fa, J. Geophys. Res. – Atmos., 116, D08304, doi:10.1029/2010JD015309, 2011.

Vollmer, M., S. Reimann, M. Hill and D. Brunner, First observations of the fourth generation synthetic halocarbons HFC-1234yf, HFC-1234ze(E) and HCFC-1233zd(E) in the atmosphere, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 2703-2708, doi:10.1021/es505123x, 2015.

Weiss, R. F., J. Mühle, P. K. Salameh and C. M. Harth, Nitrogen trifluoride in the global atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L20821, doi:10.1029/2008GL035913, 2008.

Wong, D., P. Fraser, P. Lavoie and J. Kim, PFC emissions from detected versus nondetected anode effects in the aluminum industry, JOM, 67(2), 342-353, doi:10.1007/s11837-014-1265-8, 2015.

Xiang, B., P. Patra, S. Montzka, S. Miller, J. Elkins, F. Moore, E. Atlas, B. Miller, R. Weiss, R. Prinn and S. Wofsy, Global emissions of refrigerants HCFC-22 and HFC-134a: unforeseen seasonal contributions, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 111(49), 17,379-17,384, doi:10.1073/pnas.1417372111, 2014.

Xu, Y., D. Zaelke, G. J. M. Velders and V. Ramanathan, The role of HFCs in mitigating 21st century climate change, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13 (12), 6083-6089, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6083-2013, 2013.

 

 

 

 

 

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Australia is founding its future on science and innovation. Its national science agency, CSIRO, is a powerhouse of ideas, technologies and skills for building prosperity, growth, health and sustainability. It serves governments, industries, business and communities across the nation.

 

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CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere

Bronwyn Dunse

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MAJOR LINKS TO FLUORIDE PAPERS

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Alphabetical List Of
LINKS TO MAJOR FLUORIDE PAPERS:

 

Because fluorides are so reactive, many of these papers are multidisciplinary.

A) Animals, Accidents, Air pollution, Atom bomb, Antibiotics, asbestos & fluoride.

B) Bones, Brains, Books, Babies/children, Breast health

C) Chemicals, Cancer, Coal burning, Corrosion, Climate change

D) Deaths/human, Deaths/animal

E) Eyes, Emissions, Ethics

F) Fish, Fluorosis (see also Bones)

G) Greenhouse gasses

H) Hearing, Historical papers

I) Industrial applications, Insecticides, Iodine

J)  Jason Burton fluoride death 

K) Kidneys

L) Legislation, Lead, Lungs, Legal, Letters, letter

M) Minerals, Mercury, Military,  More Research Papers  

N) Nations, The Hoax of Eco-Friendly Nuclear Energy,

O) Other Chemicals/interactions, Organisations

P) Pharmacological, Pollution, Plants, Politics, Professional  associations, Pipes/plumbing

Q) Queensland

R) Rogues gallery, Researchers, Religions

S) State Of The Nations

T) Thyroid, Toothpaste

U) Universal

V) Vitamins, Volcanos

W) Water pipes, War gases, Weapons

X)

Y)

Z) Zebra fish, Ziebelbecker

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50 Tons of Cures for Coronavirus – China – Vitamin C

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50 TONS OF VITAMIN ‘C’ TO WUHAN
↓  ↓  ↓  China Using Vitamin C Against COVID-19  ↓  ↓  ↓

http://orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v16n13.shtml

Yesterday, 50 tons of immunity boosting Vitamin C were
shipped from our DSMJiangshan plant to the Province
of Hubei, of which Wuhan is the capital city.
The banner text on the truck reads: “In
the fight against N-CoV the people
DSM* Jiangshan and Wuhan
are heart to heart”

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* Dutch State Mine

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↓  NEW ↓

New York Post

 New York hospitals treating coronavirus
patients with ‘ Vitamin C

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China Cures Coronavirus with Vitamin C; Research Suggests Selenium

Get your Vitamin C, & D, selenium, and zinc, wash

your hands to prevent bacterial infection

and tell your friends to do the same.

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…Interestingly, Gifford-Jones also writes that many people do not realize that
nearly all animals make their own vitamin C but humans lost this
ability eons ago due to a genetic mutation. For instance,
dogs produce 5,000 milligrams (mgs) daily.
Health Canada maintains humans need only 90 mgs.
But if a dog gets an infection, it will automatically produce up to 20,000 mgs daily!

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Relative Reading!

Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe spent over 20 years investigating
the nature and composition of interstellar dust.

Many scientists have believed that the seeds of life might have ridden to Earth on meteors.
This theory is called panspermia, 
and it answers a lot of questions about our origins,
and the origins of diseases.

 In the case of Covid-19, Wickramasinghe draws our attention to an “exceptionally bright fireball that was seen on 11th October 2019 over Sonjyan City NE China.” Wickramasinghe believes that the virus could have hitched a ride inside this fireball, survived the atmospheric disintegration of the meteor and been dispersed across the stratosphere, drifting down to Earth some weeks or months later as 1 to 10-micrometre-sized particles.

 

See the book: ‘Diseases from Space’  by Sir Fred Hoyle &
N.C. Wickramasinghe

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See also: ‘Evolution from Space’  by Sir Fred Hoyle &
N.C. Wickramasinghe

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NOTE: It would seem that most of these epidemics last for about one year.

412 BC – Major epidemic of disease (which, although not called influenza, probably was influenza) recorded by Hippocrates.

1357 AD – The term, “influenza,” from the Italian word meaning “influence,” was coined. Popular belief at the time blamed the development of flu on the influence of the stars.

1485 – ‘Sweating sickness” a flu-like malady, sickens hundred of thousands of people in Britain. The Lord Mayor of London, his successor and six aldermen die. The Royal Navy cannot leave port due to the sickness of sailors. Doctors prescribe tobacco juice, emetics, cathartics and bleeding as treatment for the disease.

1580 – First recorded influenza pandemic begins in Europe and spreads to Asia and Africa.

1700s – Influenza pandemics in 1729-1730, 1732-1733, 1781-1782.

1830 – Major epidemic causing high mortality among the elderly spreads across Russia from Asia.

1831, – 1833 – 1834 Influenza pandemics hit.

1847-1848 – Influenza sweeps through the Mediterranean to southern France and then continues across in Western Europe.

1878 –  A disease causing high mortality in poultry becomes know as the ‘Fowl plague’.
Fowl plague in now called HPAL avian influenza.

1889 – 1890 – The “Russian Flu” spreads through Europe and reaches North America in 1890.

1900 – Major epidemic.

1918 – 1919 – The “Spanish Flu” circles the globe (though some experts think it may have started in the U.S.) Caused by HINI flu virus, it is the worst influenza pandemic to date. There were more than half a million U.S. deaths; worldwide death estimates range from 20 million to 100 million, according to WebMD. “The pandemic comes before the era of antibiotics — which are now essential in treating the secondary bacterial infections that often kill flu-weakened patients — so it’s difficult to say whether this flu would have the same dreadful impact on the modern world, but it is a very frightening disease, with very high death rates among young, previously healthy adults.”

[ For more info on epidemics see the book – ‘Diseases  From Space’ ]

  See extended list of epidemics and pandemics → HERE

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Russian Foton Satellite

inver com.opening copy …To address this question, scientists at the German Aerospace Centre in Cologne designed experiments using the Russian FOTON satellite. They mixed bacterial spores with particles of clay, red sandstone, Martian meteorite or simulated Martian soil to make small lumps a centimeter across. The lumps were then exposed via the satellite to outer space. After two weeks of exposure, researchers found that nearly all of the bacterial spores mixed with red sandstone were able to survive. Another study showed that bacterial spores could survive the extreme conditions of outer space for six years if they were protected from extraterrestrial solar UV radiation.
This would be possible if the spores traveled within comets or meteorites…”

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 The Sunday Mail 14th April 1996

 

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 The Sunday Mail 14th April 1996

See also
FLUORIDATION AND VITAMIN C
 ~ [Fluoride destroys Vitamin C.] ~

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“The Scientific Method”

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Now available on Bitchute, qualified Doctors give their observations.

  Exercising their freedom to speak? 

www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=1589581137885897&id=100005020785113

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Reprinted by:

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PFAS, PFOS, PFOA Contamination – A Problem For Everyone

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[ The 'Fs' are for Fluoride.]

Australian Defence was warned 30 years ago that the chemicals
in its firefighting foam should be handled as a toxic waste...

[ They are mostly used for regular fire fighting practice/training. ]

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Stop trying to downplay the seriousness of this issue.
They are incredibly serious toxins, and it is a real
worry for those people living around them.
~ Mariann Lloyd-Smith,
National Toxics Network – Senior Advisor

 PFAS Chemical Producers Under Criminal Investigation

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It has rendered some farm land unusable, property
values have plummeted, and residents have
been unable to drink their bore water.

The bonding of two chemicals – being fluorine and carbon in 1940
seemed to be a huge break through for many new processes,
however the health risks were found some time later.
These products have been banned in 171 countries
though not yet banned in Australia. ?

13 June 2021

Labor and the Greens have moved to force the Morrison government
to hand over its response to the parliamentary inquiry into toxic
firefighting foam contamination. It has been eight months
since Queensland MP Andrew Laming, who chaired
the inquiry, broke Liberal ranks making an
emotional speech in parliament calling
on the Coalition government to
compensate residents …

Fluorides are “Protected Pollutants” in Australia!
If the truth about this chemical had not been covered up
for so long the problems listed below may never have occurred.
Legislation is always years behind when the environment is involved.
Governments are slow to deal with hazardous chemicals
– far too slow for our environment…

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Boron nitiride catalyst destroys toxic PFAS “forever chemicals” ! ! !

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Our Comment:

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French Barracuda-class submarine

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How PFAS Contamination is Affecting Area Property Values

Kyle P. Konwinski  &  Aaron M. Phelps

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 In May of 2009, PFOS was added to Annex B of the

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

↓   Notice the ‘F’s. for Fluoride  


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Firefighting Foam Policy – Queensland Gov.

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»→  FLUORIDE FREE FOAM IS AVAILABLE  ←«

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EDITORS COMMENT:
The RAAF once used harmless,
environmentally friendly, fermented blood

 and bone, and liquorice to make fire fighting foam.
It was also great to make the grass grow, I know, I used it!

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30 [+] Aust. Defence Bases Contaminated With (PFOA)

There appears to be more concern being shown to landholders
who have had their land contaminated by AFFF (PFOS)
than concern for the mental health and wellbeing
of the serving members who handled this
concentrated product…  ↓ ↓ ↓

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“… some studies suggest that almost every person on Earth
has them in their bloodstream, which gives some
indication of  The scale of the problem…”

Denis O’Carroll said this is important as where other contaminants 
might stay in water or soil, PFAS are extremely stable and can 
travel easily from water to soil to animals to fish to humans.

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18 Dec. 2018

The ‘F.’ Word, is OK in Europe 

The EU recognizes fluoride errors and
lowers recommendations dramatically.

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Six diseases linked to PFOA: US study finds

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Dr. Mariann Lloyd-Smith

The new levels issued by the EPA in the US are 0.07 parts per BILLION
for both PFOA and PFOS. Both chemicals have been linked
with a range of disorders, including thyroid issues,
pregnancy complications and high cholesterol.
EPA report also details possible connection between
PFOS and bladder, colon and prostate cancer.

HER MORE RECENT COMMENTS

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“National Toxics Network and International POPs Elimination
Network senior adviser Mariann Lloyd-Smith
 said the chemicals

– PFOS, PFOA or PFHxS – previously used in some firefighting foams were
toxic and bio-accumulative–building up in all living organisms including humans,
were intergenerational, being passed from mother to child and capable of long
range transport and thus found in the Arctic and Antarctic. ‘Most importantly,
they are so persistent, they have no way of breaking down so what is
released to the environment is with us for all time,’ she said.”

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prof-j-giesyFairfax Media can now reveal that Professor Giesy was accused
of covertly doing 3M’s bidding in a widespread international campaign
 to suppress academic research on the dangers of PFAS chemicals. 

PROF. ‘BRAGGED ABOUT BURYING BAD $CIENCE’ ON 3M CHEMICALS

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As of July 2019, EWG and Northeastern University have mapped out
712 PFAS contamination sites across 49 states in the U.S.

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 Water Research Australia 

…with an assumption that water accounts for 20% of total exposure.
Given that the two contaminants may occur together, and their
effects are similar, it is recommended that the combined
concentration in drinking water should not exceed
0.070 μg/L. [70 parts per TRILLION]…’

…Unlike most other environmentally persistent organic chemicals,
PFOS and PFOA bind poorly to soil and organic material,
and therefore exist mainly in the dissolved phase in surface waters.
At pH values above pH 4 they exist in dissociated anionic form and
may bind electrostatically to positively charged particles…

[ Issue 82 - July 2016 ]

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ITEM 1.

Plasma Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Concentration
and Menstrual Cycle Characteristics in Preconception Women

Wei Zhou,1* Lulu Zhang,2,3* Chuanliang Tong,4 Fang Fang,1 Shasha Zhao,1 Ying Tian,1 Yexuan Tao,2,3 Jun Zhang1 and for the Shanghai Birth Cohort Study

Our study found that increased exposure to PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFHxS was associated with higher odds of irregular and long menstrual cycle and lower risks of menorrhagia in women who plan to be pregnant. In contrast, women with higher levels of PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS were more likely to have hypomenorrhea.

Full text » HERE ←« Important

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ITEM 2.

Zürich Statement on Future Actions on Per- 
and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)

  Not good bedtime reading!  

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FIRST FIREFIGHTING FOAM COMPENSATION RECIPIENT  ’Gratefully Relieved’

red-line-copyPer-and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of man-made fluoride based chemicals that have been widely used since the 1950s, in household and industrial products that resist, oil, stains, heat, grease and water. This includes non-stick cookware, food packaging, stain protection applications to fabric, furniture and carpet, and firefighting foams. Since 1970, firefighting foams containing PFAS were used extensively in Australia and elsewhere due to their effectiveness in fighting liquid fuel fires. 

PFOA and PFOS are the best known members of a group of manmade chemicals known as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, or PFASs. Highly fluorinated chemicals are unrivalled in their utility because their carbon fluorine bond is nearly unbreakable under natural conditions. When chains of carbon-fluorine bonds are linked together, they form water- and oil-resistant coatings on clothing, carpets, and cookware that will not wash away, dissipate with extreme heat, or fade in sunlight over extended use.

The same basic carbon-fluorine chains can also create robust firefighting products able to withstand, and even extinguish, the blazes of scorching aircraft fires.  But the durability that make these chemicals useful also makes them a concern. They persist in the environment for thousands of years, affecting us and future generations as an everlasting legacy.

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“The Australian Federal Government should not use toxic
fire fighting foam.”  Research completed by US, lawyer -
- Isobel Roe - 26 Sep. 2016

The Australian Government is wasting time and money by failing to acknowledge US studies into a toxic foam chemical, a US lawyer who led a class action against the makers of the toxin has said.

The chemical perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was in a firefighting foam that has leeched into groundwater beneath at least 30 Australian Defence bases including the Oakey Aviation Base on the Darling Downs.

It has rendered some farm land unusable, property values have plummeted, and residents have been unable to drink their bore water.

The same chemical was contained in Teflon and found in a West Virginian Town Water Supply the late 1990s, sparking legal action against Teflon manufacturer DuPont, and eventually won a $US70 million settlement for almost 70,000 people who might have been exposed to the contaminated water.

Kentucky-based lawyer Robert Bilott brought the class action on behalf of the residents and said he had been watching Australia’s response to the growing contamination issue with interest.

“A lot of time and a lot of resources can be saved by the fact that a lot of this very complicated and expensive research has already been done,” Mr Bilott said.

“I think it would be important to take advantage of the data that already exists so it’s not a delayed response to folks who are drinking this.”

Six diseases linked to PFOA: US study finds

The Australian Defence Department maintains there is no strong links between PFOA and serious human health effects.

Queensland Health advice said adverse health effects had been found in animals but not in humans.[?]

But as part of the US class action, an independent scientific panel spent more than $US30 million studying the chemical and its human health effects.

“One of the things that was remarkable about it was they ended up getting blood data from 69,000 people in that community,” Mr Bilott said.

“They ended up concluding that there was six disease linked to drinking this chemical in your water for over a year and that was kidney cancer, testicular cancer, ulcerative colitis, thyroid disease, preeclampsia and high cholesterol.

“And that data is out there.”

Mr Bilott also raised concerns about Australia’s drinking guidelines for the chemical.

An independent review by a toxicologist released earlier this month found Australia should maintain its standards for the chemical, despite a decision by the United States Environment Protection Agency to dramatically lower what it considered safe.

“It’s the same chemical, it’s the same science and it’s the same knowledge, so I’m not quite sure why there would be any distinction,” Mr Bilott said.

A frequently asked questions document on the Defence Department website said the United States health study could not be used in Australia. [?]

“The findings of this health study could have been impacted by many location- and population-specific factors [for example, routes of exposure, background conditions and lifestyle factors], which cannot necessarily be translated to the Oakey community,” the document read.

“In addition, many factors can influence a person’s health and therefore it is challenging to link a person’s health issue unequivocally to PFOS [perfluorooctane sulfonate] and PFOA exposure.”

The Federal Government is undertaking its own epidemiological study of the human health effects of the PFOA chemical. [?]

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The New Asbestos!

ABC News-Impacts of PFOS and PFOA

     PROBLEMS WITH AUSTRALIAN MILITARY FIRE FIGHTING CHEMICALS:
It was revealed in September 2015

The chemicals had leaked from Williamtown Air Force base into ground and surfacewater, prompting bans on bore water and closing fishing grounds. “Stop trying to downplay the seriousness of this issue. They are incredibly serious toxins, and it is a real worry for those people living around them.-”
Mariann Lloyd-Smith, National Toxics Network senior advisor. – The New South Wales

Environment Protection Authority (EPA) has started a statewide investigation into the historical use of the firefighting foam.

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The Unfolding Scandal of  Toxic Water in Australian Communities:

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Some say this is the worst pollution in Australia’s history,
but all the Australian
media, except »→  ABC TV  ’Four Corners’  ←« are ignoring it !

↑ WATCH ↑

The “Protected Pollutant”  – HOWEVER the ‘FLUORIDE’ word was NOT mentioned by the ABC ?  The Federal Government could face compensation claims across New South Wales, Queensland and the Northern Territory, after the Department of Defence admitted it was slow to warn people about groundwater contamination from Army Air Bases.

.

    A lawyer leading the class action in the southern Queensland town of Oakey said he would soon head to the NT town of Katherine to speak to locals about a joint lawsuit there in the wake of this week’s revelations on the ABC’s Four Corners program.
On the program, a Defence official admitted they should have issued warnings three years earlier about toxic firefighting foam pollution from Army bases. The department said the cost to taxpayers to clean up the problem nationwide would likely amount to hundreds of millions of dollars.

About 500 people are part of a class action in Oakey, where the toxic compounds PFOS and PFOA [ which contain fluoride ] have spread into groundwater and soil on surrounding properties.
In NSW, residents near the RAAF Williamtown base launched their 
own class action last year.

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Fluorides are “Protected Pollutants”
The use of the “F” word is censored in
the Australian media. Fluorides can only
be refer to in glowing terms and associated
with “dental health” ! ! !

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Professor Nicholas Buckley

“Dragged” into this research project-

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He has been handed a Poisoned Chalice.
We all wish him well here at
‘Fluoridation Queensland’ – Previously known as:
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We do not envy him his job. He will have
interference from the dental lobby,
or some resistance. Fluoride
is their sacred cow !

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EPA Victoria – April 2019

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Draft of Version 2 of the PFAS
National Environmental Management Plan

“The environmental and potential human health impacts
from exposure to a group of manufactured chemicals
 known as PFAS (per-and poly-fluoroalkyl substances) 
are of increasing concern worldwide.”
[
Note: The ‘F’ word – Fluoride, is not mentioned? ]

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MORE HERE

…..At least 4,700 PFAS variants are ↑ available on the global market.

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Lawsuit Reveals How Paid Expert Helped 3M 
“Command the Science” on Dangerous Chemicals

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THE PFOA MOLECULE DOSE NOT DEGRADE OVER TIME

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NOTICE ALL THE ‘Fs’ here ↑ ↑ ↑  & here ↓  ↓  ↓

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NOTICE ALL THE ‘fluoro’s  here ↓  ↓  ↓

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November 2017
‘Biological Cleavage of the C–P Bond in
Perfluoroalkyl Phosphinic Acids in
Male Sprague-Dawley Rats and
the Formation of Persistent
and Reactive Metabolites’
→  HERE  

Spanish Research - Nov 2017 

Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women:
Evidence from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohorts

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Full Report  ⇒ HERE

Problems with firefighting foam Indiana USA

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12 Endocrine Disrupters 

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PROBLEMS WITH FIRE RETARDANTS

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RELATED STORY: Public meeting over Williamtown contamination incident

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A toxic chemicals campaigner says it is misleading to claim the health impacts of firefighting foam at the centre of the Williamtown water contamination are not yet understood.

The chemicals, PFOS and PFOA, have also been discovered at two Fire and Rescue NSW training bases in Sydney’s west and in the Illawarra.

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are man-made chemicals belonging to the group known as perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs).

It was revealed in September 2015 the chemicals had leaked from Williamtown Air Force base into ground and surface water, prompting bans on bore water and closing fishing grounds.

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“Stop trying to downplay the seriousness of this issue. They are incredibly serious toxins, and it is a real worry for those people living around them”.

- Mariann Lloyd-Smith, National Toxics Network Senior Advisor

 Environment Protection Authority (EPA) has started a statewide investigation into the historical use of the firefighting foam.

The EPA said its investigation into PFOS and PFOA will focus on sites where the chemicals may have been used in large quantities including airports, firefighting training facilities and industrial sites.

In a statement last month, Fire and Rescue NSW (FRNSW) said international research was yet to fully understand the ecological impacts, if any, and there was “no proven direct link to any adverse health effects”.

Commissioner Greg Mullins said FRNSW withdrew the use of these foams for both firefighting and training progressively until they were fully eliminated in 2007 as information emerged on possible hazards associated with PFCs.

But National Toxics Network senior advisor Mariann Lloyd-Smith said there was a wealth of evidence.

“To say that we don’t fully understand or there’s not a direct proven link is misleading,” she said.

“One can only wonder if it’s an attempt to protect their liability.

“People need to know these are incredibly serious toxins.

“These are chemicals that we really need to address quickly, with as much precaution as we possibly can to protect humans and, of course, the wildlife and the environment.”

Dr Lloyd-Smith is urging the Fire and Rescue NSW to stop downplaying the impacts of the firefighting foam.

She said she had a message for the Commissioner Greg Mullins.

“Stop trying to downplay the seriousness of this issue,” she said.

“They are incredibly serious toxins, and it is a real worry for those people living around them.

“Warn the population, start working out how you’re going to be able to compensate people, start protecting your population, which is really the job,” Dr Lloyd-Smith said.

Staff and community highest priority, Commissioner said

In a statement on Thursday, FRNSW said it “is consulting with the Department of Health and the Fire Brigade Employees Union whilst taking a cautious, measured approach”.

“The safety of our staff and the community are our highest priority,” Commissioner Mullins said.

“Together with the EPA we have arranged for more comprehensive testing, with results expected to take several more weeks.

“FRNSW will work with a range of other agencies including local councils, water authorities, Department of Health, and NSW EPA to ensure any potential risk of PFC contamination outside of the training sites is identified and limited.

“We will act immediately on any expert advice concerning health or environmental impacts,” he said.

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PFOAs And Newborns

       In 2007, the shocking results of a study conducted at the John Hopkin’s Medical Centre
(Bethesda, MD) showed that levels of the toxic PFOA were found in 100%
of a sample of almost 300 newborns, delivered at the hospital.

Samples of umbilical chord blood were also shown to contain varying levels of PFOS.
Asians (6 ng/ml) had the highest concentration, followed by Blacks (5.1 ng/ml)
and Whites (4.2 ng/ml).
Males babies had higher PFOS and PFOA than females.

Obese and underweight mothers had slightly higher concentrations than
women of normal weight.

Other studies have found that some of the highest levels of
PFOA and PFOS have been in children.

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PFAS Treatment & Management

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FLUORIDE FOAM SPILLED AT BRISBANE AIRPORT ENTERS RIVER

PFOS & PFOA In The Environment

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  F-111 + 

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EXTRACT FROM:

Contamination of Australian Defence Force Facilities and other
Commonwealth, State and Territory Sites in Australia  – Submission 34
Submission to the Senate Inquiry into AFFF Contamination at RAAF Base Williamtown

.
…In relation to pollution and contamination, the environmental policy developed at this time (2001-2003) recognised there was a 200-year legacy of contaminated sites on and off the Defence estate. Literally thousands of instances of legacy contamination were already known to exist at Defence sites (many of which dated from WWII) – including contamination arising from ordnance use (conventional and chemical), landfills and burial pits, fuel leaks, chemicals (including cocktails of hydrocarbon solvents), metals – including mercury, and even radioactive materials. In this context, it was not the case that there was a shortage of issues that needed to be dealt with – the risk posed by fugitive AFFF was one of the many being considered at the time.

.
During 2002 I had several conversations and received reports from my regional environmental colleagues and other personnel located at Defence sites, about fish-kills that had been observed following the accidental, incidental or deliberate release of fire fighting foam into aquatic environments.
Testing and training practices and/or maintenance of critical fire fighting equipment would occur routinely at many Defence sites, often as part of a daily, weekly or periodic routine. This equipment included the familiar aviation fire trucks, as well as the automated fire protection systems built into aircraft hangars.
At that time these reports related to RAAF Base Richmond and RAAF Base Amberley where I recall fish kills had been observed, on occasions, in Rickebys Creek (Richmond) and Warrill Creek (Amberley), that adjoin these sites…
 » MORE

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PFOS and PFOA are increasingly being phased out of modern foams.
Concentrations in human blood appear to be decreasing in the 
US, although they are still rising in China. Today they remain
significant residual contaminants at many sites globally,
for example, at many of the world’s 49,000 airports
including 450 civilian and military
airports in Australia
.

Fluoridation and Scientific Myopia

 

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Just get rid of the non-stick fry pan...

 Pet Birds and Teflon Poisoning

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PFAS – Katherine Times

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TGA POISONS STANDARD 2009 (fluoride) +

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 Fluoride is NOT essential for human growth and development.
~ The European Commission  [SCHER 2011] ~
 - – — – «<◊>» -— – - 

The main purpose of this page is to demonstrate
that fluorides ARE pharmacological chemicals,
and dangerous, contrary to statements by
some members of the dental industry.

 - — «<>» — -

The TGA is very selective in what it
approves and what it condemns.

Snowball Sampling !

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~  The TGA Is Funded By Drug Companies~

The Therapeutic Goods Administration is responsible for regulating
therapeutic goods including prescription medicines, vaccines,
sunscreens, vitamins and mineral medical devices, blood and
blood products. However our gardens plants and many
weeds and industrial chemicals are also used
for healing, and they cannot be patented !

 

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The TGA was responsible in Australia for the removal of
various medications that could threaten the sales of vaccines! 

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   Extract from Page 131:

   APPENDIX F

WARNING STATEMENTS AND GENERAL SAFETY DIRECTIONS FOR POISONS 

   Warning Statements and Safety Directions

It is the responsibility of the manufacturer, packer and supplier of a drug or poison to ensure that the purchaser or user of a product is given sufficient information to be able to use it correctly and safely.

Under poisons legislation, scheduled substances, which may be harmful to the user, must be labelled with appropriate warning statements and/or safety directions. The selection of warning statements and safety directions will depend on the formulation of the product, and the use for which it is sold or supplied …

 FULL ORIGINAL TEXT  

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 The TGA requires ALL medications come supplied with a published
full disclosure of ALL known side effects.

This is NOT being done by the water suppliers using fluorides,
a legally recognised medication
.

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Fluoridation is Mass Medication,
 New Zealand Supreme Court Rules

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PFAS, PFOS, PFOA – A Fluoride Contamination Problem For Everyone

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Medical Monopoly

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 See also  

MSDS-Sodium Fluoride and Sodium Fluorosilicate Powder +

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Full text – new updated version 

 A good read – only 41 pages.

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The Dickinson Statement by Ian E Stephens 2013 

 The Dickinson Statement is as relevant now
as when it was first published in 1987. 

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Dr. Leonard G. Horowitz – Dentist

DENTAL FLUORIDE — An Open Letter

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Michael Foley’s Fluoride Fan Club +

” Dr Michael Foley again went quiet when the
issue of  daily fluoride dosage came up.”

Margaret Strelow Rocky. Mayor  Dr Foley would do well to do a little research and read comments made by councillors themselves before he makes public statements about the reason why councillors – after considering both sides of the argument – voted against fluoride in the water,” Cr Strelow said.

“His ill-informed reactionary comments are an example of the type of behaviour which has contributed to this issue being such an emotive one within the broader community. I would have expected better from a man in his position.”

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Pro-fluoridationist Dr. Foley is blinded by a diabolical ideology, which does not allow him to draw rational conclusions. (Recent debate Mackay – (Sept. 2016)
His ideology is hostile to science, logic and history. His recent claim that fluoride does no harm to the thyroid gland is a typical response when he is out of his depth in fluoridated water. - See below ↓

Iodine is a halogen.
The halogens are a series of non-metal elemants:

                    Fluorine, F
                    Chlorine, Cl
                    Bromine, Br
                    Iodine, I 
                    Astatine, At

The problem is that fluoride is a ‘bully‘. Any time an atom of fluoride
and an atom of any other halogen are in the same vicinity, the
fluoride will displace the other halogen and take its place.
      - Dr. Terry Tennant, MD, MD(H), PSc.,D

This is universal, probably throughout time and most likely
throughout the cosmos. We realise that dentists will see
this as yet another threat to their constant claims of
fluoridation’s safety, but to claim otherwise
is to fly in the face of true science.

See also the → Periodic Table of the Elements

the-absurdity

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Sorry Mr. Foley, fluorides DO cause delayed
eruption of teeth 
in animals and humans.

See extracts below – page 129. If  you do not know this basic,
we all think you should consider dropping your title of doctor.

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extract sheep delayed eruptionMichael Foley claims on delayed eruption are NOT valid -

See also HERE and HERE and HERE and HERE

Delayed Eruption France 1999

f. sheep Qld

See Queensland Government Research on Sheep:
Go to page 129 – Delayed Eruption, – book (A) below 

  Fluorosis Merino Sheep Queensland (a) (A)

 Fluorosis Merino Sheep Queensland (B) (B)

  Fluorosis Merino Sheep Queensland (c) (C)

Other animals not happy about Fluoride → HERE

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Fluoride and Hypothyroidism

- ADVANCES IN FLUORIDE RESEARCH -

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Most of the so-called ‘conspiracy theory’ talk comes from the pro-fluoridation
lobby, 
not anti
-fluoridation campaigners concerned with presenting
the ethical and 
scientific case against fluoridation.

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EPA Scientist Blasts EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Standard for Fluoride

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Fluoride & Plants
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 →» When Gerry Adams And Ian Paisley Worked Together  «←

Foley image Gladstone Observer

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Fluorine has NO known metabolic role in mammals in fact 
a few plants synthesize organofluorine poisons that deter herbivores.

M. Foley Sept. 2016

Dear Michael, it may time to re-read The Code of Ethics of
The International Association for Dental Research (IADR)
of which you are a member!

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Sir Edward Dunlop spoke out against fluoridation!

 Anti-Fluoride Groups were called ‘lunatic, conspiracy, fringe’
by Michael Foley – Brisbane Courier Mail – 2 Oct 2016.
We may be lunatics, but we are not fringe – very
few countries still fluoridate their water.

Many Queensland Shires, voters, whole nations, scientist, including
Nobel Prize Winners  may not be impressed by his angry outbursts.

TGA POISONS STANDARD 2009 (fluoride)

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“First do no harm.”

“primum nil nocere.”

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This is NOT about fluoride but it has legal implication for Michael Foley:
  Mass Action of Liability  

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“When the debate is lost, slander becomes the tool of the loser.”
 Socrates

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  BIASES – EXAMPLES IN THE 2016 NHMRC DRAFT REPORT  

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  ADVANCES IN FLUORIDE RESEARCH  

double-blue-lineud“There are three kinds of lies:
White Lies, Damned Lies and Statistics.”
        ~ Mark Twain ~ [Sir Charles Dilke]

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image 612 ABC

   Comments: → Download audio

 You can follow this conversation by subscribing to the comment feed for this post.

Merilyn Haines is absolutely correct when she says that most Australian doctors know very little about the adverse health effects of fluoride. I have skeletal fluorosis, and am fluoride sensitive, with many symptoms. For years I tried to find a doctor who could help me, but they couldn’t help. Eventually I figured out for myself that the problem was fluoride, mainly from fluoridated water. By that stage I had such severe joint problems that I could barely do the most basic things required to look after myself, and I am not old. Eight years later, most of my symptoms have disappeared or greatly improved, but even though there has been great improvement with my joints my activity is still severely restricted. Skeletal fluorosis can be permanent if it progresses too far. Michael Foley is a shameless hypocrite and liar, who should be in jail. If he wants to see poor quality research, he need only look at that which he and his fellow fluoridationists rely on. If anyone wants more information, they could start with the Fluoride Action Network website, Declan Waugh’s work, the journal Fluoride, and the 2006 US National Research Council report on fluoride in drinking water. There are also some good Australian websites.

 Posted by: Joe Bloggs | 12 March 2013 at 02:54 AM

 If in doubt leave it out! Good on you Merylin Hines, I’m with you 100%. I was always made to believe that cavaties where caused by sugary foods? Let’s ban companys like Coca cola from destroying our communities teeth? But typical of todays model of medicine we deny food and nutrition and run around looking for the next magical elixer to market and sell. I don’t want chemicals added to my water thankyou, yet I am denied this simple human right as long as I live in a flurodated region.

 Posted by: Matthew 12 March 2013 at 09:41 AM

 The Australian Constitution is there to limit the powers the re-representatives (not nannies) excise over we the people. We’ve never at Referendum approved of this industrial waste mass medication. I’m a big boy now and my children know how to use a tooth brush. Take that waste product out of the municipal drinking water until such a time as we the people in the majority ask for it via Referendum.

 Posted by: Rodney Stevens | 12 March 2013 at 10:41 AM

 Dr Michael Foley again went quiet when the issue of daily fluoride dosage came up. Thing is, the whole topic should be mute as Dr Michael Foley is not my doctor. ABC, when did it become legal for governments and dentists to force dosages on Australians? Permission has never been given thus why the medical indemnity protection is in place to protect those like Dr Michael Foley. Why do they need protection from something they say is safe? Doctors used to indorse smoking as well. Dr Michael Foley, you are not my doctor. Dr Michael Foley, you are not my nanny. 95% of world agree with me.

 Posted by: Rodney Stevens | 12 March 2013 at 11:51 AM

 I don’t want fluoride in my water – that should be enough!

 Why should I have it when I don’t want it and don’t need it – or
is Queensland Health the new unelected dictatorship of Queensland?

 Posted by: Colin Bishop | 12 March 2013 at 12:02 PM

 No I do not want fluoride in the water…natural water full of healthy minerals, flows constantly beneathe the ground, for us all to drink.

However, if we keep polluting the natural water, via coal seam gas and chemicals, then heaven help us….but then again, maybe it is already helping us, with all the floods that Queensland has recently experienced….maybe these floods are flushing out these toxic chemicals from our water supplies. I guess we humans had better get over and on with the fact, that nature overides nurture, every time, regards.

 Posted by: Rev. Michelle De La Rente | 12 March 2013 at 12:07 PM

 Well Foley should have asked to provide the study done by the NHMRC and TGA CDC and the FDA ….NONE done and their push to fluoridate is flawed. The enviromental problems:

As for litigation one needs to look back at Germany and damage done 100 rears ago.
Approximately 17 million Litres of poison water is released into the environment annually.
This run off also effects the Great Barrier Reef via rivers.

 *Economically wasteful..

100% water is fluoridated ..
40% lost in leaks before you get it.
40% into the environment where it is not supposed to go
of the 60% left 7/8 used by industry and farmers
the 1/8 left that comes in to your house you drink less than 1% of it.
You water the lawn, flush the toilet, take baths you do all sorts of things
with but you are not drinking it..

Your drinking less than 1% of the 1% and if you look at the number of
children with a so called tooth problems it is about 3% of the population.
We now have 3% of population drinking of the 3% of 1% of 1/8 of 60%
of all the water you bothered to fluoridate, so is this the way to
deliver an illegal medication to those who don’t drink the water supply
in the first place ???.

 Posted by: | 12 March 2013 at 01:22 PM

 It’s pretty rich of Merilyn Haines to say that calling fluoride natural is “misleading”.
I can count a number of times she can be considered misleading;

 - “industrial waste”: table salt is always table salt no matter if it’s from a salt lake or urea.

– “600 mg of lead”: that is 0.6% of the fluoride mix. When diluted down to 1 part per million, this lead is 6 parts per billion!- pointing to these trace chemicals is in itself misleading, when the argument is about fluoride.
– She focuses on the results of adult tooth decay in children (teeth without much time to have developed tooth decay) as opposed to baby teeth.- She misrepresents the 2007 NSW Dental Health Survey, which concluded far less fluorosis and a noted difference in tooth decay between fluoridated and non-fluoridated regions.
– She doesn’t name the study, but previously when she talks about osteosarcoma, she has been referring to Bassin et al (2006). The researchers behind this study couldn’t replicate the appearance of osteosarcoma and stressed caution in drawing the relationship.

 Dr Foley did a great job, but it made no difference to her position regardless how often he corrected her.

 I’ve been following this fluoridation matter for a few months now and I am amazing by how they interact with the science. For instance the 2007 NSW survey or the Bassin paper; neither support their position and yet, even when this is brought to their attention, they continue to use them as though the papers do.

 Posted by: Moth | 12 March 2013 at 03:45 PM

 Wow this is a great debate from ABC regarding Fluoride in drinking water. It provides views from both sides of the argument and clearly highlights the major difference, one side is based on ideology, the other on research and facts.

 If you have any doubts or questions regarding the Fluoride debate, take the time and listen.

 It is really worth it.

 Posted by: kate | 12 March 2013 at 04:37 PM

 Marilyn Haines, made very valid points. Take fluoride out of the water supply. The best way is to prevent tooth decay is to apply it directly to the teeth. Michael Foley tried to discredit her but what he did not say that no amount of water will save baby teeth from the affect of dinking sugar laden juice etc. and being too young to clean their teeth before they go to sleep.

 Posted by: V McVety | 13 March 2013 at 11:42 AM

Fluorosis is caused by an intake of too much fluoride over a period of time, from a various of sources including tap water. Duhh?? Great debate Merilyn Haines… Too bad I couldn’t listen to it all, it was cut and inaccessible just after you mentioned your sister.. Shame.

 Posted by: Britz | 13 March 2013 at 12:25 PM

 Dr Michael Foley is just another classic example of why we, as a Nation, are in such a poor state of Health ..

Shame on you Dr Foley .. Your ignorance is “bliss”
Posted by: Glenn Williams | 14 March 2013 at 07:48 AM

 What a great debate.

Foley is yet another blind, myopic, ignorant and myopic ego bound “professional” who as a dentist would use DISTILLED WATER to clean his dental equipment (search [ autoclave ].

In hearing this recording, now many times, I personally can see at least 20 mistakes that Foley makes. He would not debate me as he would lose.
I would really like to see a record of where Dr. Foley has received his income over time, if or not he has accepted directly or indirectly any payments, inducements or ‘favors’ in any form from any associated with the HUGE fluoride proponents.
This is simple:
Do not fluoridate drinking water – let people decide. This arrogance of nanny state forced medication is a simple debate.

     Posted by: Phillip | 30 December 2013 at 12:01 PM

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29 Queensland Councils Have Rejected Fluoridation - 

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Published Research Findings – Why Most Are False

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Fluoridation Finished in Israel – Final

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Fluorides, Zinc and Anorexia Nevosa

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Fluorosis in India

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Links To Fluoridation Webs Around The World

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‘Silent Spring’ which has sold more than two million copies,
made a powerful case for the idea that if humankind
poisoned nature, nature would in
turn poison humankind!

5-golden-conures

 

fq

 

 

 

 

FLUORIDATION NEWS FLASHES

Keeping Everyone Informed With Fluoride Research &
Reports
 On Other Important Matters Not In The Media.

From Our Numerous Global Informants
with news that did not always make the headlines.

Medicating a population through the water supply is in breach of
accepted medical and ethical codes, as there is neither informed
consent or a controlled dose, in the case of fluoridation to
refer to it as ”corporate manslaughter”
may not be an exaggeration!

See ‘News Flash #187‘ below

Headiing News Flashes

 

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#223

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Osaka Japan – Sars – & Covid-19 – cure

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#222

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The True Legacy of Donald Trump

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#221

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Professor Loc Do has attracted research funding from The NHMRC.
His support for fluoridation will need some rethinking.

Cairns City Council Queensland

BIASES ~~~ MORE

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#220

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THE ECOLOGICAL ASPECT OF FLUORIDE

The 4th Annual Conference of International Society for Fluoride Research, The Hague,

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#219

$4,416,186,590.33 

Vaccine compensation history USA

“Compensated” are petitions that have been paid as a result of a 
settlement between parties or a decision made by 
the U.S. Court of Federal Claims.

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https://www.hrsa.gov/vaccine-compensation/index.html 

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https://www.hrsa.gov/vaccine-compensation/data/index.html 

 

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#218

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Association Between Maternal Fluoride Exposure
During Pregnancy and IQ Scores in Offspring in Canada

In this prospective birth cohort study from 6 cities in Canada, higher levels of fluoride exposure during pregnancy were associated with lower IQ scores in children measured at age 3 to 4 years. These findings were observed at fluoride levels typically found in white North American women. This indicates the possible need to reduce fluoride intake during pregnancy.


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#217

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Krista Adams BCC

We were hoping you would help!


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#216

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  HERE  


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#215

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  New Link  

 

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#214

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Optimizing nature:
Invoking the “natural” in the struggle over water fluoridation

Water fluoridation’s fraught history is focus of award-winning article

Frank Zelko will receive his award at the 2021
American Society for Environmental History conference.

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#213

 PFAS Chemical Producers Under Criminal Investigation


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#212

50 Tons of Cures for Coronavirus – China – Vitamin C


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#211

 FDA DATA PROVES MMS KILLS DISEASES

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#210

Dental Fluorosis in Chilean Children


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#209

Russian Fluoridation Research

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#208

Erin Brockovich sounds alarm over PFAS 
contamination after more Queensland sites revealed.

Special counsel for Shine Lawyers Joshua Aylward said the 
legal firm was also investigating other sites around the country.

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Erin Brockovich – PFAS contamination
more Queensland sites

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#207

Mount Crosby Pipeline Painting Project


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#206
Environmental Attorney 

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How PFAS Contamination is Affecting Area Property Values 

Kyle P. Konwinski  &  Aaron M. Phelps

Remember – all the F.s are for fluorides.

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#205

  People Are Drinking More Bottled Water -WA Gov.

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#204

TGA Updates – July 2019 + Interpretation


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#203

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Melissa Gallico – Fluoridation Exposed

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#202

40TH PARLIAMENT

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People Are Drinking More Bottled Water


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#201

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Endemic Fluorosis Patiala – India– 1962 

Sorry this news is a ‘few’ years late!

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#200

Labor failed on banks, and failed in the election.

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#199

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…Higher levels of aluminium and fluoride
were related to dementia risk in a population of men and
women who consumed relatively low drinking-water levels of both…
Aluminium & Fluoride in Drinking Water in Relation to Later Dementia Risk

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#198

Do Australian Cities Have The Wrong Approach To Storm Water ?

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#197

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Fluoride Free Australia – New Post

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#196

Libya’s Great Man Made River

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#195

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Radioactive Residues in Aust. Waters – Ross Kieinschmit +

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#194

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Fluorides On The Planet Mars

The atmospheres on Mars.

Mars Science Laboratory Rover ‘Curiosity’ provides the
first in situ analyses of fluorine on the surface of Mars.

Titan -  also contains greenhouse gases.

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See more pictures of Mars  HERE

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#193

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Unholy Water

 

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#192

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  Ask The Dentist  

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#191

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- Curiosity, Creativity, Competence, Compassion -

THE UNIVERSITY OF BURDWAN BURDWAN-713104 WEST BENGAL, INDIA 

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“FLUORIDE POLLUTION AND ITS EFFECT ON WATER AND
VEGETATION IN BIRBHUM DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL”

See thesis below  Very detailed diagrams + more photos.

thesis

by

KARTICK CHANDRA PAL, M.Sc. (Chem)

We thank you  for such a mammoth undertaking.

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#190

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Rat Research

 American Journal of Public Health

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#189

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Environmental Scientist Declan Waugh presentation at Otago 2018

Dr Howard NZ 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e0o3kxZNXCw

Dr Connett NZ 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3uDvD5UcSwg

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#188

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Fluoride (PAFS) dumped by RAAF near creek

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#187

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Fluoridation is Mass Medication, New Zealand Supreme Court Rules 

I gather that NZ now has a big conflict between its Ministry of “Health”
and the Hight Court ruling – and there is now an opening for legal 
actions on the “breach of human rights”
and public safety issues -
these are what stopped Fluoridation in 98% of Europe.

So it could mean the end of Fluoridation NZ wide on legal technicalities, and that would ripple across to Australia*, at least in terms of public condemnation of the practice which is growing by the day.

* Some times know jokingly as “NZ’s third island!”

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WHO Extracts from – Environmental Health Criteria 227-Fluoride

End line

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#186

TGA POISONS STANDARD 2009 (fluoride)

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#185

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Mind-blowing interview with Judy Mikovits, PhD

In 2014, Mikovits co-authored, “Plague: One Scientist’s Intrepid Search for the  Truth about Human Retroviruses & Chronic Fatigue Syndrome”

9 More Vaccine Ingredients

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#184

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  “The fight for fluoridation in Oberon continues! ADA NSW Advocacy and Policy Advisor and Specialist Paediatric Dentist Dr. Sarah Raphael was interviewed on Ten’s The Project last night (Tuesday, 5 June 2018) promoting the safety and effectiveness of water fluoridation for oral health and the prevalence of misinformation online. - Were you referring to us?  - We hope so

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#183

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Full text →  HERE

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OUR COMMENT:

Lithium is a health hazard. If it enters the water supply it cannot be filtered out using reverse osmosis.

Lithium Ion Batteries will soon to be superseded.

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Aluminum-ion Battery

Leading science journal Nature Communications has published an article on a “low-cost, highly energy-efficient” aluminum battery developed by an international research team led by National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU) professor Chen Chia-chun (陳家俊), the university said yesterday.

SAFER: The newly developed battery is unlikely to catch fire even if its casing cracks, as aluminum oxidizes at a slow rate, professor of chemistry Chen Chia-chun said

The world market for fluoride in drinking water is decreasing.

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#182

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Some of their→ Famous Last Words 

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#181

In 1999 the US Congress allocated US$6 million to help former Soviet republic Uzbekistan deconstruct and decontaminate a major Soviet chemical weapons testing facility involved in the development of Novichok…

.sergei-skripal-yulia-f

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↓   ↓  Full text   ↓   ↓

 Fluoride and Novichok

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#180

Urban Utilities – Legal change of direction?

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#179

Lawsuit Reveals How Paid Expert Helped 3M  “Command the Science” on Dangerous Chemicals

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#178

Third Digital Revolution to Unleash the Power of Anti-Censorship news flash

#177

FAN wins second round in court case and now it is all stations go to fund our lawsuit

On February 7, 2018, the Fluoride Action Network (FAN), together with a coalition of environmental and health groups (see Plaintiffs below), won a second major victory in our legal case to force the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to end the deliberate addition of fluoride to the public water supply (water fluoridation). Our victory was the ruling from Federal Judge Edward M. Chen, of the Northern District Court of California, when he dismissed EPA’s motion to limit discovery:   Full text → HERE

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#176

Hyundai hydrogen car coming to Australia

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#175

Sci Rep. 2018; 8: 3180. 

Published online 2018 Feb 16. doi:  10.1038/s41598-018-21533-4

PMCID: PMC5816638

Published online – 16 Feb. 2018

Chronic treatment with fluoride affects the jejunum: insights from proteomics and enteric innervation analysis

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#174

↓ Toothpaste ↓

Changing Times For Products

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#173

  CleanDrinking Water Out Of Thin Air  

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#172

Mount Crosby Pipeline Painting Project

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#171

Volcanoes Melting Polar Ice – Heat From The Interior Of The Earth

 

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#170

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     See →  seqwater_03-02338t-itt-section-d-specification-002

SEQWATER announces a major shutdown of the fluoride dosing plant, for 4, (now 8) months. TIME TO STOP THIS FORCED FLUORIDATION FARCE? Queensland Health have advised that this “will have little impact on benefits” to our teeth, if we do not receive fluoridated water for about 4 – now 8 months. [ Nov, 2017 to Feb, now July 2018.] After just 9 years of operation a major fluoride dosing plant requires major work. The plant started up in late 2008. This plant would supply water to well over 1 million people. This announcement in October, 2017, seems to have been not reported by the Mainstream Media.

[We hope fear of litigation may mean fluoridation may not return-ever.]

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#169

moms-we-won

   As you all know your Moms’ Team is involved in suing the EPA to halt artifcial water fluoridation due to the now known neurotoxic effects on the brain including our children and the developing fetus.

This last week marked a milestone opinion by the Judge and a significant ruling for our coalition. The Federal Judge dismissed the EPA’s Motion to Dismiss, and now we are allowed to move to full Judicial review.

This next phase of our lawsuit is going to be expensive as now we will have mounting expenses AND we’ll need to engage more top talent and world-class experts.

We have been slowly pushing forward for over a year, but now that we’ve won this last major hurdle the pace has quickened. 

Help us to victory!  

Support us so that we can hire the top talent needed to do the work and bring an end to fluoridation all across the USA. 

 Moms, Dads and Citizens are taking on the Goliath of Federal government agencies and your support is needed to help us do this. 

Your 2017 tax deductible donation of $25 or $100 or $2,018 is really needed… every dollar helps! The National Team 

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#168

These are fluoride based ↓phaseout-pfoa-pfos-f

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#167

 Extract from ‘Australian Dental Journal’

Fluorosis in 89% Carnarvon Aborigines +

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#166

Proposed bill would ban fluoride from Ireland’s water.

Sinn Féin TD Brian Stanley has introduced the bill, which would see the act of putting fluoride into water made illegal.

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#165

SEA LEVEL CHANGE – EXPLAINED

  RECOMMENDED BY US  

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#164

Fluoride Is The Major Cause Of Cataract Blindness

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#163

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October 2017

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‘ Plasma Concentrations of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances at Baseline and Associations with Glycemic Indicators and Diabetes Incidence among High-Risk Adults in  the Diabetes Prevention Program Trial ‘ Full text  ⇒  HERE

All the ‘Fs’ are for fluoride

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#162

Notice all the F.s ↓ Fluoride !

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Extract from Wikipedia  → HERE

Health and Environmental Concerns

Fluorosurfactants such as perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) have caught the attention of regulatory agencies because of their persistence, toxicity, and widespread occurrence in the blood of general populations[6][7] and wildlife. In 2009 PFASs were listed as persistent organic pollutants under the Stockholm Convention, due to their ubiquitous, persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic nature.[8][9] Their production has been regulated or phased out by manufacturers, such as 3M, DuPont, Daikin, and Miteni in the USA, Japan, and Europe.

Some manufacturers have now [when?] replaced PTFOS and PFOA with short-chain PFASs, such as perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorobutanesulfonic acid[5] and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). Shorter fluorosurfactants may be less prone to accumulating in mammalians;[5] there is still concern that they may be harmful to both humans,[10][11][12] and the environment at large.[13]

In 2017, the ABC reported that the use of firefighting foams during training exercises at Australian Defence Force facilities around Australia had contaminated nearby water resources.[14] …

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Some say this is the worst pollution in Australia’s history – on 70 sites, but the Australian media, except   ABC TV  ’Four Corners’   are ignoring it !

The “Protected Pollutant” Fluoride is NOT mentioned by name!

The Federal Government could face compensation claims across New South Wales, Queensland and the Northern Territory, after the Department of Defence admitted it was slow to warn people about groundwater contamination from Army air bases. A lawyer leading the class action in the southern Queensland town of Oakey said he would soon head to the NT town of Katherine to speak to locals about a joint lawsuit there in the wake of this week’s revelations on the ABC’s Four Corners program. On the program, a Defence official admitted they should have issued warnings three years earlier about toxic firefighting foam pollution from Army bases. The department said the cost to taxpayers to clean up the problem nationwide would likely amount to hundreds of millions of dollars. About 500 people are part of a class action in Oakey, where the toxic compounds PFOS and PFOA [ which contain fluoride ] have spread into groundwater and soil on surrounding properties. In NSW, residents near the RAAF Williamtown base launched their own class action last year.

FIREFIGHTING FOAM SPILLED AT BRISBANE AIRPORT

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#161

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The Death of Fluoridation

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#160

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F. Exposure In Utero Linked to Lower IQ-New Study

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#159

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 Effectiveness Of Fluoride Varnish…

 

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#158

The Sugar Industry – Its Influence On Dentistry

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#157

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FLUORIDE ACTION NETWORK AUSTRALIA

A damning critique and analysis of the NHMRC’s 2017 “Sham” review of water fluoridation and appeal for Royal Commission Inquiry:

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#156

PROBLEMS WITH FIPRONIL (fluoride) EGGS

German Info

” …As a spokeswoman of the European Commission acknowledged on Tuesday, appropriate permission runs out on 30 September 2017. A request for extension was not placed…”

Aldi pulls eggs from German stores over fipronil – (fluoride) poison fear

Fipronil is sold under a variety of brand names including Frontline, Regent, Termidor, Combat, and Maxforce.3 Companies that sell fipronil-containing insecticide products include Bayer Environmen- tal Science, BASF Corporation, and Merial Limited.3

Honey Bees, Fluoride and  Fipronil 

.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.

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Fipronil - Fluocyanobenpyrazole

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#155

Fluoridation Finished in Israel – Final

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* Yael German served as Minister of Health from March 2013 until December 2014. The Fluoride Action Network paid to have a  professional translation of the Court’s ruling  see it here.

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#154

ABCNews logo residents-seeking-200-million-damages

Oakey residents begin class action against Defence Department over toxic firefighting foam

About 450 residents are seeking up $200 million in damages from the Defence Department over the contamination of soil and water by toxic firefighting foam  [fluoride] used at the Oakey Army Aviation Centre in south-east Queensland.

Notice all the F.s ↓ for Fluoride !

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#153

Authorities are warning of an unfolding public health emergency in Arnhem Land,

with dozens of young people sniffing aviation fuel containing lead.

15 May 2017

Aviation fuel sniffing in Arnhem Land sparks health emergency warning

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#152 The first rule of radiological disasters is that the government LIES to the public:

Click here for details on the nuclear tunnel accident

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#151

$4 BILLION CLASS ACTION LAWSUIT FILED AGAINST ISRAEL’S WATER SUPPLIER

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#150

This is NOT related to Fluoridation – General interest only

Lyme Disease – One Of The Most Controversial  Illnesses In The History Of Medicine.

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#149

April 2017

 Fluoride Foam Spilled At Brisbane Airport Enters River

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#148

29 Queensland Shires Now F. Free

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#147

Criticism may not be agreeable, but it is necessary. It fulfils the same function as pain in the human body. It calls attention to an unhealthy state of things. – Winston Churchill

Health Issues Prompt Australian Review

FULL MEMBERSHIP LIST OF THE NHMRC FLUORIDE REFERENCE GROUP

Emeritus Professor Judith Whitworth, Ms Debra Petrys, Professor Sharon Goldfeld, Professor Vicki Anderson, Professor Dallas English, Professor Mathew Gillespie, Professor Alison Jones, Emeritus Professor A. John Spencer, Professor Clive Wright, Associate Professor Frederic Leusch, Professor Wendy Rogers, Doctor Meenakshi Arora,  Associate Professor Stephen Corbett, Professor Mike Morgan, Adjunct Professor Kaye Roberts-Thomson,

BIASES THE 2016 NHMRC DRAFT REPORT

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  Fluoride-DNA Damage

More Fluoride Damage To DNA

FLUORIDE-CHANGES TO BRAINS, SPINAL CORD & SCIATIC NERVE IN RATS. FLUOROSIS – COAL BURNING IN CHINA When Gerry Adams And Ian Paisley Worked Together

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#146

Fluorides, Zinc and Anorexia Nevosa

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#145

10 February 2017

Dear Readers: 

“Fluoride and the Brain” Now Available on DVD

In less than two weeks the US EPA will be ruling on our petition to ban the intentional addition of fluoride chemicals to the drinking water under provisions in the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). This petition was triggered by the ever-increasing number of studies that indicate that fluoride is neurotoxic and has the potential to lower IQ in children.

FAN was joined by other national groups in lodging this petition, including Food and Water Watch; Organic Consumers Association (OCA); International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (IAOMT); American Academy of Environmental Medicine (AAEM); Moms Against Fluoridation; and individuals.

You can access the petition online.

The petition was written by Michael Connett, JD.  

Michael is also featured in a new video Fluoride and the Brain. In this he explains that fluoride’s ability to lower IQ  in children is just the tip of an iceberg of over  300 animal and human studies that indicate that fluoride is neurotoxic.

_.oo0oo._

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#144

“UNIMAGINABLE RADIATION OUT OF CONTROL AT FUKUSHIMA AS FUEL MELTS THROUGH THE FLOOR: 

We are facing a truly global environmental crisis from the Fukushima meltdown of 2011. Now, six years later, it turns out that Tepco has no idea where the fuel rods are.

Radiation is spiking to “unimaginable” levels… it’s so “hot” that robots are fried in 3-4 hours.

No human can survive the 500+ sieverts per hour, and robots are useless. Fuel rods have now melted through the containment vessel floor and there’s no solution in sight. The fake news media has almost a near-total blackout on all this, yet the world is on the verge of a “criticality event” at Fukushima that could contaminate the entire northern hemisphere for 100,000+ years.

   Original text →  HERE

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#143

FDA QUIETLY BANS LIFE-SAVING INTRAVENOUS VITAMIN C

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⇓  NEW Tideglusib ⇓ Scientists Discover Way To Avoid Teeth Fillings That Proves Teeth Can Be Regrown

news flash  #141

Anti-Biofilm Protocols – Janossy

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NSW – Legal

The anti-fluoride group in Lismore is hoping to bring down the entire Australian fluoride industry with a Federal Court challenge.

Solicitors working for Fluoride Free Northern Rivers have prepared a brief of evidence for the challenge, which has been sent to a barrister for an opinion.

FFNR legal consultant Al Oshlack said the barrister’s opinion would determine whether a successful challenge could be mounted in the Federal Court of Australia which could force state and local water authorities to shut down fluoride dosing plants.

 news flash #139

Notice all the Fs for fluoride

pfos-image

PFOA foam f

Thirty Australian Defence Bases contaminated with the fluoride chemical (PFOA) PFOS and PFOA are increasingly being phased out of modern foams. Concentrations in human blood appear to be decreasing in the US, although they are still rising in China. Today they remain significant residual contaminants at many sites globally, for example, at many of the world’s 49,000 airports (including 450 civilian and military airports in Australia).  See →  CRC CARE 

See also our Newsflash # 137 below

Editors comment:    The RAAF once used harmless environmentally friendly fermented blood and bone,    and liquorice to make fire fighting foam, - it made garden plants grow fast…

PFO F.Line The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants has listed PFCs as chemicals of concern to human health.2 The US EPA standard for PFOS levels for both drinking water and wastewater is 0.2 parts per billion (ppb)  PFC-contaminated animal food chains in the US have had PFOS levels as high as 59,500 ppb.

news flash #138 28 Sept 2016

Cr Greg Williamson

Mackay City Council are to be heartily congratulated on becoming the 27th Queensland Council to reject water fluoridation.

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 #137

Foam ban Qld.

Ban on Fluoride Containing

Fire Fighting Foam in Queensland

The Queensland Government has banned the chemical fire fighting foams that contaminate land and ground water across the country. Queensland’s Environment Minister Steven Miles says the State Government’s strict new policy will put an end to any future use of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which was the source of contamination around the Oakey Army Aviation Centre, west of Brisbane.

[ NOTE: The ‘ Fs ’ in PFOS & PFOA are for fluoride ]

PFOA image

Dr Miles says existing stocks of some foams to be withdrawn from service and alternative, sustainable stocks must be acquired. “Queensland is adamant that firefighting foams containing highly persistent organic pollutants [PFOS and PFOA]… implicated in the contamination of the Oakey defence base need to be phased out,” he told reporters.

“The Government will require that any existing stocks of foams containing PFOS and PFOA are withdrawn from service at commercial and industrial premises, and similar products phased out and replaced, as soon as practicable with more sustainable alternatives.”

The Queensland Government does not have the jurisdiction to enforce the ban on Commonwealth defence bases, which are meant to have stopped using the foams after 2008 anyway.

In fact, Dr Miles says there are not that many industry sectors still holding stocks of the chemicals left.

“Remaining stocks of these chemicals are likely to be in emergency response systems, so that’s quite different to what we saw at the defence base,” he said.

“It’s likely that these chemicals exist in canisters that may have never been discharged but were there for large industrial fires.”

On the matter of the Oakey base, locals say they are still waiting for the Federal Government’s buy-back of affected land, after it was recommended by a Senate inquiry into the contamination.

Reports say Defence officials scheduled meetings for this month with locals, but they have now been postponed indefinitely.

There is no word yet on the outcomes of the other recommendations, which included blood tests for affected locals and ongoing mental health support.

 See original  HERE

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 #136

UPDATE 

gladstone f. public notice Mayor Mat Burnett f

Just in-19 July 2016 The Gladstone Regional Council has decided to take fluoride out of our region’s water. The decision was met by applauds from the crowd in the chamber. It’s expected to take 40 days to phase out.

news flash

 #135

Tracking Aluminium Used to Purify Tap Water Kobe, Japan (SPX) 23 June 2016

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 #134

A )  Coming Election -  Health Australia Party is OPPOSED to  fluoridation

B )  Whitewash draft NHMRC fluoridation information paper ?? 

Dear Members and Supporters

 Health Australia Party

If you are looking for a party in the coming election that is opposed to water fluoridation, the HEALTH AUSTRALIA PARTY (HAP) has Senate candidates in Qld, NSW, WA and Victoria. Candidates and information about them is shown on their website.

https://www.healthaustraliaparty.com.au/

HAP’s policy is water fluoridation is this -

The HAP believes that sodium fluoride, hydrofluorosilic acid and other chemical products called “fluoride” are toxic chemical waste products that are classified as class 6 poisons and should not be placed into public water supplies. Medicating a population through the water supply is in breach of accepted medical ethical codes as there is neither informed consent, nor the ability to opt out. It is noted that 97% of the Western European population and the population of Japan drinks non-fluoridated water.”

 Former Nudgee MP JASON WOODFORTH, who was the driving force who GOT MANDATORY FLUORIDATION LEGISLATION OVERTURNED IN QLD is running as a HAP Senate candidate in Qld.

 All HAP’s policies can be read at https://www.healthaustraliaparty.com.au/index.php/policies/

Please be aware that the media has been attacking HAP lately claiming that they are opposed to vaccination – this not correct – while HAP does not support the Federal Govt’s No Jab No Pay legislation, the party is not anti – vaccination, it supports informed consent. It is believed the No Jab No Pay legislation will be challenged in the High Court in the not far off future.

LABOR, the LIBERAL-NATIONAL coalition and THE GREENS all support fluoridation.

We wish Jason Woodforth and the HEALTH AUSTRALIA PARTY Senate candidates all the very best in the coming election.  Look for them on the Senate Ballot papers in Qld, NSW, WA and Victoria.

 B )

Upcoming NHMRC draft fluoridation information paper – a total whitewash?

The NHMRC is believed to be putting out their new draft information paper on fluoridation soon – possibly early August.  It will be open for public feedback – probably for less than a month. The NHMRC WILL NOT ADVERTISE in the media when the paper is released, or when the public feedback period will be. We will let you know more when we know more.

The new NHMRC fluoridation is likely to be a WHITEWASH as, before he retired, former NHMRC CEO Warwick Anderson appointed 10 known fluoridation supporters and lobbyists to the NHMRCs Fluoride Reference Group (FRG) looking at the safety / health effects of fluoridation. The 10 known fluoridation supporters / lobbyists have a clear conflict of interest and should have not been appointed to the NHMRC FRG. There is not a single person who is opposed to fluoridation on the NHMRC FRG – although medical, dental, scientific and other professionals had applied.

The draft NHMRC review will be released soon (probably August 2016) with the final review not being released until early to mid-2017. Regardless of this, just mere months after this NHMRC review was started, the then CEO Anderson had put out a Press Release on the 25th Feb 2015 (yes Feb 2015!) stating “Based on the work already conducted in the review, NHMRC is expected to maintain its support for fluoridation of water supplies as effective and safe.” https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/media/releases/2015/ceo-statement-water-fluoridation.

To us, that seems like a Judge, at the very BEGINNING of a trial saying to the jury – the defendant is innocent!!  We await with bated breath to see the new NHMRC fluoride review and will let you know when the public can give feedback.

 Again, best wishes to the HEALTH AUSTRALIA PARTY in the election, it would be great to see some Senators who are opposed to fluoridation and who want to protect natural medicine disciplines and the right to informed consent.

Merilyn Haines on behalf of Queenslanders for Safe Water, Air and Food Inc.

Mob 0418 777 112

HAP FACEBOOK   is  https://www.facebook.com/HealthAustraliaParty/

  #133

READ & SHARE FAN’S SUBMISSION TO THE FDA

news flash

 #132

Southern California’s Aliso Canyon

PORTER RANCH METHANE GAS LEAK DISASTER aerial  video  this week showing the tremendous, continuous release of methane

Los Angeles County will continue to live under a state of emergency

THE MASSIVE CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS LEAK NO ONE IS TALKING ABOUT

news flash

 #131 

We lost a Fluoride Fighting giant in 2015. Professor Robert Isaacson (1928-2015) passed away on 10 August. Professor Isaacson was the leader of the research team that produced the animal study by Varner et al, published in Brain Research in 1998, which found that rats fed fluoride in water at 1 ppm for one year developed kidney damage, brain damage, a greater uptake of aluminum into the brain and the formation of beta amyloid deposits which are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Isaacson was also a member of the National Research Council of the National Academies of Science panel which authored the groundbreaking report of the toxicology of fluoride in 2006 (NRC, 2006). He attended and presented at the FAN conference in Canton, NY in the same year.  His obituary can be found here 


news flash#130 

Credit: Fluoride Action Network – NZ  -  Dec. 2015

HEADING FOR A NATIONAL SHOWDOWN IN NEW ZEALAND

The fluoridation issue has continued to heat up in New Zealand over the past year with local councillors, responsible for fluoridation, becoming increasingly concerned that fluoridation is neither safe nor effective.

According to a local Wellington newspaper:

Former Hutt City mayor and fellow board member David Ogden said the anti-fluoridation campaigners needed to be taken seriously. “Having been at a number of public meetings with the anti-fluoridation people there, they have some very strong arguments.”

Hutt City deputy mayor David Bassett said the lobby was winning over more and more councillors.”The whole vote is actually becoming closer and closer,” Bassett said.

And the situation summed up by another councillor:

“They come with their own group of professionals, eminently qualified and respected people in their area and it places local politicians in a very difficult position,” Laban said

Hutt City is one of the cities within the Wellington region, which is New Zealand’s national capital. Hutt City is one of only 23 councils out of 67 that has fluoridation. Presently in New Zealand, local councils are responsible for fluoridation…

news flash

 #129

 FISH CONTAMINATION –  Cesium – 134 & 137: 

Credit Natural News – Dec. 2015

In March 2011, a massive earthquake and tsunami triggered multiple meltdowns at Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Explosions launched enormous amounts of radioactive material into the air, most of which settled into the Pacific Ocean. Since then, radioactive material has continued to leak into the ocean from the plant.

Much of the radioactive material released is still circulating in the form of radioactive cesium. Cesium-134 has a half-life of two years, and essentially all of it in the Pacific Ocean comes from the Fukushima disaster. Cesium-137 has a half-life of 30 years. Much of the Cesium-137 in the Pacific dates to nuclear tests as far back as the 1950s.

EVERY FISH EXPOSED

Since radioactive cesium floats, it is easily swallowed by fish, and steadily moves up the aquatic food chainAs top predators, tuna tend to accumulate this and other toxins in their bodies.

In a 2012 study, researchers from Stanford University and Stony Brook University tested the radioactive cesium levels in Pacific bluefin tuna caught off the coast of California. They found the radioactive element in every single fish tested.

Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/052415_Fukushima_bluefin_tuna_radiation.html#ixzz3vKrGK9qN

#128

F. in Israel

“Hanukkah Miracle”

Ehud Leshem, MSc Strategic Consultant

Water, sewage, wastewater, planning & construction, arbitration and mediation.

1.) At the High Court on 12 Nov 2012, file (8173/12) was submitted against the State of Israel and the Minister of Health, to demand a halt to fluoridation of drinking water in Israel.

The petition was filed by Mr. Jacob Gurman, chairman of the Association of “Balance Returns” for the distribution of Health Education.

Engineer Ehud Leshem provided expert opinion in this case.

The High Court verdict dated 29 July 2013 stated that:

“… Petitioners have pointed out the dangers inherent in this policy and argued that the concept upon which the original regulations were founded, is obsolete and no longer accepted.”

“We have noted the State’s commitment that within a year the practice of adding fluoride to drinking water will be discontinued.

2.) In 2014 after the cancellation of fluoridation by the Ministry of Health, the Ministry published the following statement on its website:

“With the abolition of compulsory fluoridation, Israel will join the absolute majority of countries where there is no mandatory fluoridation.

Moreover, according to the World Health Organization data, there is also a decrease in caries in countries that do not fluoridate their drinking water. At an international level, mandatory fluoridation only exists in Ireland.

There are countries such as the Netherlands, Sweden and the Czech Republic which prohibit to fluoridate the drinking water … “.

3.) In 2015 (after elections in Israel), the Israeli government was replaced and Mr. Yaakov Litzmann strongly pro-fluoridation, replaced Minister of Health Yael German (responsible for ending fluoridation). 
Litzmann decided to overthrow the ban on fluoridation without providing any scientific basis for doing this. Consequently, Engineer Ehud Leshem (formerly the Health Ministry’s district engineer) filed a complaint with the police (12 Aug 2015) in accordance with Article 262 and 221 of the Penal Code, 1977:

“whoever spoils or contaminates a water tank or reservoir or any other place, and makes them less suitable for the purpose they are normally used for shall be liable – to imprisonment for three years “.

‘Section 20 (1-21) of the Water Act 1959′.
’Hazardous Substances Act, 1993′, ‘Israel Standard 5438′.
’Part 4: Water Treatment Chemicals intended for drinking’.
’Public Health Regulations (sanitary quality of drinking water and drinking water installations), 2013′. ‘Renewal of approval for use of Fluorosilicic Acid in drinking water, 6 July 2003′.

Israeli Water Association (IAW~ISRAEL ASSOCIATION of WATER ) Israeli Water Association was established in 2000. Among its primary objectives was:

To present to decision makers informed professional opinions on water and sanitation.

6 Dec 2015, IAW President Avraham Israeli presented to the Minister of Health, Minister of Infrastructure, the chairman of the Water Authority and the director of Israel’s water corporations
 an unequivocal statement about the IAW’s opposition to the fluoridation of drinking water in Israel.

news flash

#127

Dec. 2015

Thanks to your support, the Fluoride Action Network (FAN) has been able to raise public awareness about the serious, permanent risks that fluoride poses to the developing brain. This was once a lonely battle — but, fortunately, that is starting to change. 

In 2012, a team of Harvard scientists published a meta-review of available fluoride/IQ research (including many studies that FAN had translated into English) which concluded that elevated fluoride exposure is consistently associated with reductions in childhood intelligence.

In 2014, a study in the prestigious medical journal The Lancet concluded that fluoride is one of only 11 chemicals that can now be classified as a known developmental neurotoxin in humans. 

And now, in what could be the most significant scientific development of them all, the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) has announced that there is now sufficient evidence linking fluoride to impaired brain development to warrant an NTP investigation into fluoride’s detrimental effects on learning and memory.,,

NTP Holds Hearing on Proposed Fluoride/Brain Study

On December 2, NTP’s Board of Scientific Counselors held a hearing in which it considered the proposed fluoride/brain study. Thankfully, Doug Cragoe videotaped the entire hearing, which you can watch online here←  ← ←

news flash

#126

PFOA is now the subject of about 3,500 personal injury claims against

DuPont, including 37 claims for wrongful death.

Found in the Blood of 99.7 Percent of Americans, and It Never Breaks Down

news flash

#125

7  OCTOBER 2015  

FINED $2 BILLION:

The company that gets rid of highly toxic wastes by selling them as a “product” to municipal water departments across the country as cheap fluoridation chemicals has been fined $2 billion for gross violations of the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), reports the Fluoride Action Network (FAN).

Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC, is one of the largest sellers of a toxic fluoride chemical, “fluorosilicic acid”, that cities add to public drinking water. Fluorosilicic acid is described by EPA in the Consent Decrees as a “hazardous waste” produced at Mosaic’s fertilizer plants. More than 200 million Americans drink these wastes every day.

For decades Mosaic has been selling fluoridation chemicals to public drinking water systems across the U.S. This Kafkaesque scheme, approved by EPA, benefits the polluter in the belief that it helps the teeth of the poor, according to FAN.

The fine was levied on October 1st by the EPA and U.S. Department of Justice. These wastes are produced at Mosaic’s six phosphate fertilizer plants in Florida and two in Louisiana.

“It’s outrageous that Mosaic is allowed to sell an EPA ‘hazardous waste’ to dump into the drinking water used in most major U.S. cities,” says FAN scientist Dr. Neil Carman.

Dr. William Hirzy, also with FAN, added, “This loophole needs to be closed by the EPA. It was not addressed in the Consent Decrees which allow Mosaic to continue selling a hazardous waste to the public disguised as a way to boost fluoride in drinking water.”

The RCRA laws govern the storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous waste.  Mosaic’s 60 billion pounds of improperly handled hazardous waste cited by EPA is the largest amount ever covered by a RCRA settlement. Mosaic’s wastes have also caused huge local environmental problems, due largely to their high fluoride levels. The fluoride, not captured in pollution control devices and sold for water fluoridation, ends up in their liquid and solid wastes. Other toxic constituents include arsenic, lead, cadmium, uranium and radium. Enormous quantities of these wastes have been stored for years in so-called gypsum stacks. They will never become non-toxic, and these open hazardous waste piles have regularly leaked into rivers and groundwater causing huge fish kills and other problems.

#124

Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries The Cochrane Library DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010856.pub2

14-21 June is fluoride awareness week

#123

 We are sorry to be 77  81 years late with this news!

 - 1937 Denmark by Kaj Roholm – ↓ ↓ ↓ (large file with photos)

http://cof-cof.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Roholm-Fluorine-Intoxication-A-Clinical-Hygienic-Study-Copenhagen-Denmark-1937.pdf news flash#122

      PALMERSTON: FLUORIDE-FREE WATER NOW AVAILABLE

Source: Press Release: Palmerston North City Council | 22nd May 2015

Location: New Zealand  ← more 

Palmerston North City Council is now providing a source of fluoride-free water for those residents who want it.

A centrally located tap has been installed which draws off water from the Papaioea Park bore so that water can be collected by residents who prefer not to drink water with fluoride added. The water from this tap is chlorinated.

“We know there are some residents who would like to drink non-fluoridated water and we hope this will give them an option,” Dora Luo, Council’s water asset engineer said. The installation of the tap was adopted in the 2014/15 Annual Plan Dora says.

“At the moment there are one or two issues around access, but we are working on making the whole area more user friendly,” Dora said…

“They could have had that tap with fluoridated water and then it would be interesting to see how many people actually bothered to go to the tap,” she said. “I doubt it would be many.”

http://cof-cof.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Roholm-Fluorine-Intoxication-A-Clinical-Hygienic-Study-Copenhagen-Denmark-1937.pdf

news flash # 121

NEW SWEDISH RESEARCH ON PESTICIDE RESIDUE 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oB6fUqmyKC8

news flash # 120

 Channel 7 news item on fluoride – Good Friday 2015

news flash # 119

Cristin Kearns f

“Sugar Papers” Reveal Industry Role in 1970s Dental Program

news flash# 118

Recent update on Queensland March 2015 → HERE

news flash  # 117

What is all the fuss about? f

↓  ↓  ↓

See Film Below

Fluoridation Conference Sydney – Geoff Pain (2015)

– NHMRC Reviews: An Exercise In Politics, Not Science 

news flash # 116

AXIOPISTY FREE ZONE

Prof. Ian Meyers ABC ff rHERE

Abstract  HERE

Exposure to fluoridated water and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States:

Ecological Association

news flash # 114

Untitled

Water Fluoridation Promotes Thyroid Impairment, New Study Warns

  HERE  

EDITOR’S COMMENTS:

The info in the above paper is probably a little distorted by population, food and water moving between counties. Also in the fluoridated areas some households may have water filtration equipment. Both of these factors could influence the results, suggesting that the damage from fluoridation is probably more serious that this research would suggest.

N E W S  F L A S H # 113

  MMS ON TRIAL  

N E W S  F L A S H # 112

Major Council in Ireland Calls for End to Fluoridation

On January 12th the Wexford County Council passed a motion by a unanimous vote calling on the government to cease and reverse Ireland’s Health Act 1960 that mandates water fluoridation in Ireland.  The motion had the support of every party involved, including Sinn Fein, Fine Gael, Fianna Fail, Labor, and People Before Profit.

N E W S  F L A S H # 111

List voted to ot F. + Warwick

Warwick Daily News – 9 Dec. 2014

public notice S. Downs

70.2% of Stanthorpe residents and

64.7% of Warwick residents voted in favour of discontinuation.

N E W S  F L A S H # 110  URGENT ↓

  Stop Santos’ CSG Threat… 

 Stop Santos

Artesian Water Under Threat


N E W S  F L A S H # 109  

  Monsanto Caused 291,000 Suicides In India  

N E W S  F L A S H # 108  

trouble attnuclear..

  29  October  2014 | By Jeff McMahon

The main threat from uranium hexafluoride, the gas

that leaked at a Honeywell plant in Metropolis IL on Sunday night,

does not derive from its radioactivity,  but from its chemical toxicity …

  HERE  


N E W S  F L A S H # 107

 Roman Head

ROMANS’ TEETH BETTER THAN MODERN BRITONS’

It wasn’t just British roads that were straighter in Roman times: smiles were, too.

For all Britain’s access to modern dentistry, flossing and mouthwash, a study published yesterday has found that the buffed and brushed mouths of 21st-century Britons are still more likely to harbour gum disease than those of their third-century forebears.

An analysis of the skulls of more than 300 Roman Britons has found a significantly lower rate of periodontitis, a common form of gum disease, than exists in today’s population. Among those examined — who were originally buried in a site in Poundbury, Dorset — between 5 per cent and 10 per cent had the disease, compared with about 15 per cent to 30 per cent today.

However, they also had considerably more evidence of abrasion on their teeth, probably a result of the diet of coarse grains that was common.

The work involved looking at the sockets holding the teeth into the jaw.

“Because gum disease causes disruption of the bone around the teeth, we are able to measure it,” said Francis Hughes, professor of periodontology at King’s College London.

He and his colleagues analysed a large collection of skeletons held at the Natural History Museum from the Poundbury burial site.

“To a lot of people’s surprise they had quite a lot less periodontitis than the modern human population. It was about a third as common as today,” Professor Hughes said.

Some of the explanation for this does not exactly provide cause for envy: the ancient Britons contracted even more serious diseases first, and died of those instead of suffering through old age with bad teeth.

The most common age at death appeared to be in the 40s.

The reason for the modern mouth to be less healthy than it was centuries ago is probably a result of two things — diabetes and smoking. “Those two change the risk enormously,” Professor Hughes said.

Periodontitis starts as gingivitis, a consequence of poor brushing that often manifests as bleeding and inflamed gums. This response is actually a protective mechanism.

“It’s the body trying fight the bacteria off. In smoking and diabetes that protective mechanism is decreased — the body is less able to fight,” Professor Hughes said.

Starting with bleeding, the disease progresses through receding gums, looseness of teeth and eventually tooth loss.

With a life free not just from smoking and diabetes but also from refined sugar, the Poundbury teeth were similarly less affected by cavities. Nevertheless, the research, published in the British Dental Journal, did not find that the oral hygiene of ancient Britons was something to be aspired to.

“Decay was not widespread like it might be today,” Professor Hughes said. “But it was still there, probably a consequence of the starchy cereals they ate. That increased bacterial growth.”

Some decay went unchecked. Some teeth had decayed to the point where they had infected the nerve and others caused holes down to the jaw itself.

“The amount of chronic infection must have caused a lot of misery,” Professor Hughes said. His profession would have been in demand even in that day and age, he said. “It’s still a rather good advert for dentists.”


tower+ ssss

N E W S  F L A S H # 106  

    From FAN logo

16 OCTOBER 2014

Yesterday, we sent out the press release below.

   press release  ←  

gov.failed towarn black

In 1945, Grand Rapids, Michigan, experimentally added fluoride chemicals into the water supply anticipating that children’s tooth decay would decline without causing fluoride’s unwanted toxic effects – dental fluorosis (white spotted, yellow, brown and/or pitted teeth).

Prior to Grand Rapids, government fluorosis studies focused exclusively on white children. But little publicized results from Grand Rapids showed that black children were more susceptible to fluorosis than whites.

A January 10, 1962 internal memorandum, from a U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) official, F.J. Maier, revealed that “negroes in Grand Rapids had twice as much fluorosis than others.”

Based on this, Maier asked, “In a community with a larger number of negroes (say in Dekalb County, Georgia) would this tend to change our optimum fluoride levels?”

No change was made. Worse, government officials have taken no steps to educate the black community about their heightened fluoridation risk.

A FAN team led by attorney Michael Connett uncovered the 1962 memorandum and a trove of other soon-to-be released documents that shed light on how political pressures have stymied open discussion from government and industrial authorities on the hazards of fluoride.

In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) acknowledged for the first time that the black community has higher rates of dental fluorosis. It took a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request, however, to learn the full extent of this disparity. According to recently released FOIA documents, 58% of black children were diagnosed with dental fluorosis in CDC’s 1999-2004 national survey, vertsus 36% of white children.

“The epidemic of fluorosis now seen in the black community,” says Connett, “is the visible legacy of the government’s failure to act on what it knew.”

When the PHS first endorsed fluoridation in the early 1950s, the NRC estimated that the “safe level” of fluoride is exceeded when “more than 10 to 15 percent of children” have “the mildest” type of fluorosis.

Black children now far exceed the NRC’s safety threshold. One study from fluoridated Augusta, Georgia found 17% of black children suffering from advanced forms (moderate and severe) of fluorosis, the kind of fluorosis that was once only seen in high-fluoride communities. (Williams 1990).

Despite being fluoride-overdosed, blacks still suffer from higher rates of tooth decay, with many low-income minority communities suffering from what health officials have called a “silent epidemic” of untreated tooth decay.

Not only are fluorosis and cavity rates higher in the black community, but so too are various health conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease, that increase susceptibility to fluoride’s harmful effects.

Because of this, a number of civil rights advocates have begun calling for an end to fluoridation, including former Atlanta Mayor Andrew Young, the Reverend Dr. Gerald Durley, the Reverend Bernice King (daughter of Dr. Martin Luther King), and LULAC (the largest Hispanic civil rights organization).

“Dental fluorosis is only the most obvious effect of fluoride, because you can see it,” says Connett. Fluoride is an “endocrine disrupter” that can affect thyroid function according to a 2006 report from the National Research Council, and a neurotoxin that can damage the developing brain, according to a 2014 paper in The Lancet.

More about Racial Disparities in Dental Fluorosis
 http://fluoridealert.org/studies/dental_fluorosis02/

Abo. bar invert m

The above information also is applicable

to Australian indigenous peoples

 Abo. bar invert m

tower+ ssss

N E W S  F L A S H # 105

   28 September 2014 

F. problems in Shi Lanka → →  HERE

The Nation Sri Lanka F.

New research published in The Lancet by researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) found that various chemicals that many children are exposed to are having a direct effect on the creation of disorders labeled under the name ADHD as well as other mental disorders. One of the chemicals said to be having an effect is fluoride, or variations of fluoride. Governments have been performing artificial fluoridation for a number of years regardless of the lack of effectiveness it has in preventing tooth decay.

The research began in a study published in 2006 which initially looked at the effects of various industrial chemicals on neuro-development. The research continued with an analysis of more industrial chemicals including fluoride. Twenty-seven additional studies, including one that linked fluoride to the lowering of IQ in children, clearly illustrated the fact that fluoride is detrimental to brain development, and can lead to autism spectrum disorders and other mental issues. The issue is being coined “a silent epidemic” and most health authorities continue to turn a blind eye to the issue.

The two main researchers involved in the study, Philippe Grandjean from HSPH and Philip Landrigan, both agree that the reason for the increase in incidences of chemical-related neuro-developmental disorders is due to the increasing number of untested chemicals that are being approved without proper testing. The public is also not fully being told of the dangers, which is causing many to perform independent research to find out the true effects. The issue is not just in water fluoridation, but also in the vaccination of children.

“Since 2006, the number of chemicals known to damage the human brain more generally, but that are not regulated to protect children’s health, had increased from 202 to 214,” writes Julia Medew for The Sydney Morning Herald. “The pair said this could be the tip of the iceberg because the vast majority of the more than 80,000 industrial chemicals widely used in the United States have never been tested for their toxic effects on the developing fetus or child.” The fact is, fluoride is a known developmental neurotoxin and practices of water fluoridation have long been proven to be ineffective. If individuals choose to use fluoridated tooth paste or choose fluoride treatments at their dental office, that is acceptable but two things should happen:

1. People should be taught about the harmful effects of fluoride and the damage it can cause to your teeth and your body.

2. Water fluoridation should be stopped everywhere immediately as it is nothing more than a legal way for chemical companies to get rid of toxic waste while profiting.

Fluoride accumulates in the body over time, so even though the amounts being ingested might be small each time, it builds up over years and can cause serious health issues. Research has found that fluoride affects normal endocrine function, causes kidney disease, bone weakness, dental fluorosis, cancer, lowering of IQ, calcification of the pineal gland, arthritis, immune deficiencies, skeletal fluorosis and much more.

“The problem is international in scope, and the solution must therefore also be international,” stated Grandjean in a press release, calling for improved regulatory standards for common chemicals. “We have the methods in place to test industrial chemicals for harmful effects on children’s brain development — now is the time to make that testing mandatory.” Source: Collective Evolution

See Original → HERE-

… Argues that excessive fluorides in groundwater are a serious water quality problem in some parts of Sri Lanka. The incidence of dental fluorosis shows a high correlation with the presence of groundwater in certain areas. Tube wells constructed in various rock types have shown different fluoride concentrations, possibly due to the different mineral constituents in these rocks and their relative capability of releasing fluoride ions into groundwater. It has been observed that the tube wells located in the dry zone have higher fluoride concentrations than those in the wet zone. The fluoride contents of groundwater show an inverse relationship with average yields of the tube wells, indicating the inverse relationship of aquifer permeability to the fluoride content in groundwater.

tower+ ssss  

N E W S  F L A S H # 104

Vitamin C & Ebola

Ebola is probably the best known of a class of viruses known as hemorrhagic fever viruses. In fact, Ebola virus was initially recognized in 1976. Other less known but related viral syndromes include yellow fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, Brazilian hemorrhagic fever, Argentine hemorrhagic fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa fever. The Ebola virus infection, also known as African hemorrhagic fever, has the distinction of having the highest case-fatality rate of the viral infections noted above, ranging from 53% to 88%. 

 Ebola & Vitamin C →  HERE

tower+ ssss

N E W S  F L A S H # 103

Dr. warns 137 Tokyo

credit: NaturalNews

Monday, 21 July 2014 by: David Gutierrez, staff writer

Tags: radiationFukushimaTokyo

In an essay addressed to his colleagues, Japanese doctor Shigeru Mita has explained why he recently moved away from Tokyo to restart his practice in western Japan: He believes that Tokyo is no longer safe to inhabit due to radioactive contamination caused by the 11 March 2011, meltdowns at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. 

The essay, titled “Why did I leave Tokyo?” was published in the newsletter of the Association of Doctors in Kodaira, metropolitan Tokyo.
”Within the 23 districts of Metropolitan Tokyo, contamination in the east part is 1000-4000 Bq/kg [soil] and the west part is 300-1000 Bq/kg,” Dr. Mita wrote…

Full article  HERE 

tower+ ssss

   N E W S  F L A S H # 102

   STOP THE ROT 

12 July 2014   [post fluoridation]

final top half

final lower half tower+ ssss

  N E W S  F L A S H  # 101

Prof.Con.. WA Feb.2013

World fluoridation expert, Professor Paul Connett, founder of Fluoride Action Network [3], met with a number of leading MP’s at Parliament this morning to present the case to end water fluoridation.

“We can expect an end to fluoridation in Western Australia within two years” Professor Connett predicted as he left Parliament House. .

Professor Connett pointed out that Israel and many communities in Queensland, Canada and the USA had both decided to end mandatory fluoridation within the last year alone.

Only a handful of countries still fluoridate and within those countries, the number of cities fluoridating is shrinking rapidly as a growing number of local, state and national governments recognize that fluoridation is neither safe nor effective and abandon the practice.

Dr. Connett referred to Harvard University review of 2012 [2] that found significant reductions in I.Q. in children drinking water with only slightly higher levels of fluoride in Western Australia. He said that due to our often high temperatures and outdoor lifestyles there are many children in WA who drink more than average, who would be exposed to the same dose.

The European Union’s leading health body has warned that fluoridated water at WA levels is unsafe for formula-fed babies.[6]

Dr. Connett said there is evidence linking fluoride to increased hip fractures in the elderly, bone cancer in teenage boys, and iodine deficiency, causing hypothyroidism, a condition which can cause depression, obesity and heart disease.

Additionally fluoride could cause symptoms that mimic arthritis but no-one has ever looked to see whether water fluoridation increases arthritis, a disease that affects nearly 4 million Australians [5].

Dr. Connett said that large studies have shown that water fluoridation causes at most a tiny reduction in tooth decay, not enough to justify the risks. Safer methods of reducing tooth decay such as education for better nutrition, reduced sugar consumption and increased tooth brushing are far more effective.

Fluorosilicic acid, a by-product of the superphosphate fertiliser manufacturing industry [1] has been added to WA’s water at a dose of around 1 part per million since 1966. Currently around 92% of Western Australians receive fluoridated drinking water. Proponents claim that it is a safe and effective form of mass medication aimed at fighting tooth decay in children.

Dr Connett’s will be giving a public presentation at Murdoch University at 2pm on Sunday 23rd February.

**ENDS –  389 WORDS**

REFERENCES

 [1] CSBP Industrial Chemicals http://www.csbp.com.au/Home-Corporate/Products/Industrial-chemicals.aspx 

[2] Harvard University 2012 study 

http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/features/fluoride-childrens-health-grandjean-choi/  

[3] Fluoride Action Network http://fluoridealert.org/

[4] Countries that artificially fluoridate drinking water 

http://fluoridealert.org/content/bfs-2012/

[5] Arthritis Australia, number of Australians suffering

 http://www.arthritisaustralia.com.au/index.php/arthritis-information.html  

[6] European Food Safety Authority, Tolerable upper intake level of fluoride  http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/192.pdf

tower+ ssss N E W S  F L A S H  # 100

Media release-no F. 4 Weipa

tower+ ssss

N E W S  F L A S H  # 99

IT’S INDEPENDENCE DAY ! 

 As from today, water fluoridation must be prohibited in all Member States of the EC 

Doug Cross

20th January 2014

(For the PDF version of this comment CLICK HERE

The last legal loophole through which the British and Irish governments have been

able to wriggle in their continued imposition of fluoridated water supplies finally closed today.

The addition of fluorosilicic acid to any food is now completely banned throughout the entire European Community.

tower+ ssss

 N E W S  F L A S H  # 98  

State LNP MP Jason Woodforth has made

headlines over his opposition to fluoride in drinking water.

BRISBANE’S fluoride plant was shut down at the weekend after levels at the

Mt Crosby water treatment jumped to almost double their usual concentration.

An Seqwater spokeswoman said there was never any threat to public health, but the fluoride levels did reach 1.7mg/L in one of two service reservoirs for about ten minutes Friday night.

Seqwater is required to notify the Queensland Water Supply Regulator (QWSR) if fluoride levels exceed 1.5mg/L.

The spokeswoman said the elevated level of fluoride never actually made it into drinking supplies.    

 NOTE  – ( SEQWater spokesman said it was less than 1.5 mg /L – spokesman said it was 1.42 mg/L )

“While dosing levels varied, the multiple layers of control and monitoring in place ensured no water was supplied into the drinking system above 1.5mg/L,” she said.

“The QWSR was notified as required and they advised that the disruption did not pose a health risk. Queensland Urban Utilities was also advised.”

Under the Water Fluoridation Regulation 2008, Seqwater is required to produce fluoridated water of between 0.7mg/L and 0.9mg/L averaged over a quarter.

The spokeswoman said Seqwater was still confident the target rate would be achieved over the July-September quarter.

Last year, LNP MP Jason Woodforth made headlines when he revealed more than a third of his colleagues wanted fluoride to be removed from Queensland’s water supplies.

It followed the Newman Government’s decision to hand back the power to local authorities to decide if water supplies should be fluoridated.

Mr Woodforth has described fluoride as a brain-altering poison but has come up against strong opposition from Education Minister John-Paul Langbroek – a former dentist.

Although some councils have opted to go without fluoride in their drinking water, Brisbane City Council continues to allow fluoridated water – which has been shown to make a significant difference to consumers’ dental health.

tower+ ssss

 N E W S  F L A S H  # 97

FROM QUEENSLAND AUSTRALIA

tower+ ssss   N E W S  F L A S H  # 96

There was a major fluoride-free victory this month in New Zealand, and today is the deadline for fluoridation to be shut off for the 150,000 residents in the city of Hamilton. On June 5, the Hamilton city council vote 7-1 to make the city the second largest unfluoridated community in the country.

tower+ ssss

 N E W S  F L A S H  # 95

This is not a recent event but seems to have been missed by the main media.

7  October 2012

Fluoride Accident South Korea

↓ This Video runs for 65 seconds ↓

Hydrogen Fluoride kills 5

↑ Warning, disturbing short video ↑

An estimated 8 tons of HF was released.

5 people including the 2 workers perished,

18 responders, workers, reporter wound-up in the hospital,

 almost 3000 villagers from 2 villages downwind of the

facility were treated for irritation, exposure.

Five workers were killed and 18 others were injured in the blast at chemical maker Hube Global at the Gumi National Industrial Complex in the industrial city, about 200 kilometers southeast of Seoul.

 The gas leak has cost factories in the industrial complex about 17.7 billion won (US$15.9 million) in lost production, officials said. Hundreds of angry villagers in Gumi who suffered after the massive gas leak moved to a safer region with some residents reporting blood in their saliva. About 110 elderly people in Bongsan-ri village evacuated to a facility about 10 kilometers away.

tower+ ssss

N E W S  F L A S H  # 94

Portland, Ore., rejecting water fluoridation

By STEVEN DUBOIS Associated Press

Posted:   22/May/2013 12:29:12 AM MDT

PORTLAND, Ore.—The mayor of Portland, Ore., has conceded defeat in an effort to add fluoride to the city’s drinking water.

With more than 80 percent of the expected ballots counted late Tuesday night, the Multnomah County election website showed the fluoride proposal failing, 60 percent to 40 percent.

Mayor Charlie Hales supported fluoridation and said “the measure lost despite my own ‘yes’ vote.

“That’s sure disappointing, but I accept the will of the voters,” he said in a statement.

Fluoridation foes were delighted.

More news Later

tower+ ssss

 N E W S  F L A S H  # 93

16 MAY 2013

 Industrial-grade Fluoridation Chemicals

Cost Society $Billions in Arsenic-induced Cancers

NEW YORK– Industrial-grade fluoride chemicals added to

US public water supplies contain arsenic that the EPA

classifies as a human carcinogen.

Switching to low-arsenic pharmaceutical-grade fluoride will save society $1 billion to $14 billion annually, according to research published inEnvironmental Science & Policy, led by former EPA senior scientists who are experts in chemical risk assessment, reports the Fluoride Action Network (FAN). Although never studied for safety or efficacy, hydrofluorosilicic acid (HFSA) is added to public water supplies as a purported cavity preventive.  The industry-funded group that regulates water additives, NSF International, allows several toxins in HFSA, including arsenic.The Safe Drinking Water Act requires EPA to determine the level of certain contaminants in drinking water at which no adverse health effects are likely to occur.  These health goals, based solely on possible health risks and exposure over a lifetime with an adequate margin of safety, are called maximum contaminant level goals (MCLG).  The MCLG for arsenic is zero.  The EPA also sets an enforceable maximum contaminant level (MCL), but concedes this level will not prevent cancers.Senior researchers, Drs. William Hirzy and Robert Carton , write, “Arsenic levels in this HFSA product vary substantially but are typically about 30-35 mg/kg.”  These levels would qualify it as toxic hazardous waste if not for a legal loophole because it is sold to fluoridate water.  The study found HFSA raised the arsenic level of finished or tap water by anywhere from 0.078 to 0.43 parts per billion (ppb).Ninety percent of arsenic showing up in tap water comes from fluoridation chemicals, according to a study in the American Water Works Association publication, Opflow, led by Dr. Cheng-nan Weng.Hirzy and Carton found that industrial-grade HFSA contains from 100 to 500 times more arsenic than pharmaceutical grade sodium fluoride (NaF).Using EPA’s calculation methods, HFSA would cause from 320 to 1800 arsenic-induced cancers per year.  They calculated these cancers would cost society $1 billion to $6 billion per year.The researchers conclude: “Our analysis shows that, if local governments that currently add HFSA to their drinking water wish to continue delivering fluoride to their citizens and at the same time reduce the number of lung and bladder cancers among their citizens, they could do so with a significant net benefit to society by switching to USP NaF [pharmaceutical grade Sodium Fluoride] for fluoridation.”Paul Connett , PhD, FAN Director says, “This study provides additional scientific evidence that fluoridation should be stopped, as the purported benefits no longer outweigh the risks.”Reference: Hirzy JW, Carton RJ, Bonanni CD, Montanero CM, Michael F. Nagle MF. 2013. Comparison of hydrofluorosilicic acid and pharmaceutical sodium fluoride as fluoridating agents—A cost–benefit analysis. Environmental Science & Policy 29: 81-86 (May). 

Learn more by visiting FAN’s website

 Sincerely,  

Stuart Cooper 

Campaign Manager

tower+ ssss

   N E W S  F L A S H  # 92

Rockhampton is the State’s 14th council

to get rid of fluoride.

ROCKHAMPTON Regional Council has today become the fourteenth

council to make the decision to remove fluoride from its

region’s water supply since the Queensland Government

gave councils the option to take it out.

Council sought advice from Queensland Health and the Australian Dental Association before making the decision.

Both health bodies encouraged the fluoridation of water.

But Councillor Glenda Mather argued forcefully against the “mass medication” of public water supplies.

She spoke about concerns with fluoride causing dementia, fluorosis and other bad side affects.

The only councillors who voted against the motion to remove the fluoride were Greg Belz and Bill Ludwig.

6am: COUNCILLORS will today sink their teeth into the fluoride debate that has caused much division in the community.

Since the Queensland Government gave councils the power to keep or remove fluoride in the regions’ potable water supplies last year, 13 councils have chosen to remove it.

But Rockhampton Regional Council has sought further advice from Queensland Health and the Australian Dental Association.

Cr Glenda Mather will oppose the health bodies support for fluoride,

saying there is no scientific evidence to prove it.

[Well said]

tower+ ssss

 N E W S  F L A S H  # 91

PRO-FLUORIDE LOBBY GETTING DESPERATE

Commonwealth asked to intervene on fluoride

Rockhampton Morning Bulletin
19th Apr 2013 12:14 PM

SIX national health bodies have come together to promote the benefits of water fluoridation and to oppose the recent decision of the Queensland Government to permit Local Councils to decide whether or not to add fluoride to their water supplies.

Tomorrow’s Council of Australian Governments (COAG) meeting is an opportunity for the Commonwealth to make its view and intentions on the matter clear, and for Governments to call for a consistent national approach.

The six peak bodies are concerned both for the health of individuals and also that broader public health activities are being undermined.

World Health Authorities, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, the Australian Dental Association and the Australian Medical Association recognise the benefits to dental health from fluoridation of water supplies.

The six peak organisations joining their voices on this issue are the Public Health Association of Australia (PHAA), the Australian Dental Association Inc (ADA), the Australian Healthcare and Hospitals Association (AHHA), the Australian Council of Social Service (ACOSS), the National Rural Health Alliance (NRHA) and the Australian Health Care Reform Alliance (AHCRA).

They see the decision of some Local Councils to discontinue water fluoridation as a failure to protect the public’s oral health, and the cost will be paid by the individual and the taxpayer

3 May 2013

Demands for the Federal Government to overrule a number of

Queensland councils refusing to add fluoride to water supplies

have been rejected by Federal Health Minister Tanya Plibersek.

 Thank you Tanya !

  • Tasmania longest fluoridated/polluted State of Australia – first fluoride polluted in 1953 worst dental health and in crisis high saturation rate of fluoridation (hazardous waste pollutants) – 27th February, 2013 – Tasmania will receive an extra $12 million from the Federal Government to reduce public dental waiting lists. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-02-27…

    Australia wide is in dental crisis despite this widespread high percentage fluoridation saturation Australia wide for decades and USA also in dental crisis after 67 years of water fluoridation/pollution.

    DENTAL HEALTH SYSTEM IN DECAY Dr Deborah Cole is chief executive officer of Dental Health Services Victoria. http://www.theage.com.au/opinion/a-sy…

    REPORT WARNS $10B NEEDED TO FIX DENTAL HEALTH SYSTEM February 28, 2012 http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-02-28…

    Note Tasmania first fluoridated in 1953 POOR ORAL HEALTH PUTTING HOSPITALS UNDER PRESSURE – TASMANIA 26 Feb, 2012 http://www.examiner.com.au/story/4311… Reply

  •  from Australia a day ago

    The ADA asked for $200,000 and received $220,000 from Bligh’s Health Minister, Stephen Robertson to promote ‘fluoridation’ and their colleagues at the AMA sent a letter to Dr. Jeannette young, Chief Health Officer Queensland Health extract from FOI :-

    “The AMA believes the ‘strategic approach’ referred to in your letter must be for Government to mandate water fluoridation throughout the State. The approach to encourage individual councils to adopt fluoridation of their own volition has failed.”

    Some view this allegedly, as tantamount to ‘conspiring’ to ‘mandate’ ‘water fluoridation’ and you must take no other action but to ban ‘water fluoridation/pollution’ urgently, irrevocably and for all time.

    These letters from ADA and AMA form part of this Report and can be accessed on the link hereunder – referred to page 88/89. Download Full Report > http://fluorideinformationaustralia.w…

    Reply

  • jayalewis from Gold Coast & Hinterland a day ago

    The government have not done anything to assist the people by fluoridating the water… just dumping an industrial waste product in the water does not qualify them as scientists, healers, doctors or, ‘good’ people…. why, they have not even done the hypersensitivity testing recommended by their own reports 22 years ago (NHMRC 1991). Watch www.firewaterfilm.com – original full length documentary FireWater; then brand new, ‘Don’t Look. Won’t Find’ – http://youtu.be/Qy9MmM4b7cI If the government wish to forcibly push an industrial grade chemical on all it’s people, it shouid damn well be made to be accountable for the damage it causes! But ‘no’, the Australian government have stitched up every bit of legislation to protect itself – not, the people. Doesn’t that sound very suss to everyone, if ‘fluoride’ (aka, sodium fluoride (NaF); sodium fluorosilicate (Na2SiF6); and fluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6)) is so ‘safe and effective’ – why the legislation to protect the government from being sued for harm? WAKE UP PEOPLE. Europe does not fluoridate; nor China or Japan… but, both Belgium and China dump their waste phosphates into our clean drinking water, by legal permission of the Australian government in the guise of, ‘it’s good for your teeth’. Come off it! Wake up people. This is a con-job of the highest reckoning. And Australians are so gullible and trusting and, SO APATHETIC – they don’t give a rats as to what is happening right under their expensive fluorosis capped teeth.

    Reply

  • jayalewis from Gold Coast & Hinterland a day ago

    Take your pick of these names, for those promoting fluoridation:

    – The Pro-Fluoridation Cartel – The Pro-Fluoridation Criminal Network – The Pro-Fluoridation Lobby – The Church of Fluoridation – The Fluoridation Spin Alliance

    Reply

  • somesundays from Maryvale a day ago

    It makes me wonder when, with these sort of issues, you find oranisations such as -”Public Health Association of Australia (PHAA), the Australian Council of Social Service (ACOSS), the National Rural Health Alliance (NRHA) and the Australian Health Care Reform Alliance” – appear out of nowhere to the ordinary person . What and who do they stand for? Doesn’t appear they stand for the ordinary people, who, one suspects, don’t want this substance added to driking water. I always thought that tooth decay was much more prevelent in teenage youth & once you get to your 30′s, it’s not such a big issue at all – so why are we adding fluride to drinking water where the people most affected are in the minority & have available other, inexpensive means of obtaining treatment?

tower+ ssss  

N E W S  F L A S H  # 90                  

Health Minister Yael German has decided to end the mandatory

fluoridation of Israel’s drinking water within a year. (9 April 2014)

(NaturalNews) Israel’s Ministry of Health has made a bold ruling against artificial water fluoridation, reversing more than 15 years of forced poisoning via public water supplies in the Middle Eastern country. A recent announcement by Israel’s Supreme Court has declared that a 1974 law permitting — and a later 1998 law requiring — all public water supplies in Israel to be fluoridated are both outdated and invalid, and that all current fluoridation programs in the country will have to end by April 9, 2014, in order to comply with new public safety requirements.

The welcomed ruling came after a petition filed last year by two dedicated individuals, including a representative of Israel’s Association for Dissemination of Health Education, brought to light numerous dangers associated with water fluoridation. These include lowered IQ, brittle bones and teeth and damage to the thyroid gland, serious side effects that are hardly justified by the flimsy and antiquated arguments claiming that ingested fluoride somehow helps prevent tooth decay.

The three Israeli Supreme Court justices who heard the case, along with Israeli Health Minister Yael German, took all this information to task and ultimately concluded that fluoride is, indeed, a public health threat and provides minimal, if any, health benefit to society. In his ruling, Justice D. Barak-Erez ordered the cessation of all water fluoridation programs throughout Israel by 2014, emphasizing the fact that water fluoridation is dangerous, and the science defending it is outdated and “no longer widely accepted.

Health Minister German signs controversial regulations not requiring local fluoridation for drinking water;dentists say harmful.

Health Minister Yael German Photo: Courtesy Knesset

As pediatricians and dentists charged that it would harm children’s dental well-being,

Health Minister Yael German said Thursday that municipalities and local authorities would in a year no longer have to fluoridate their drinking water.

German, who previously as mayor of Herzliya opposed “forcing” residents to take the mineral with every drop they drink, said there were more effective and safer ways to protect children’s teeth – such as fluoride pills, toothpastes and education.

She said she signed new regulations for stricter supervision of water supplies that included canceling mandatory fluoridation. German then even appealed to the High Court of Justice against the Health Ministry’s requirement – since 2002 – that water be fluoridated in every authority with at least 5,000 residents.

But the Israel Pediatrics Society said that bringing the national fluoridation project to a halt in another year “is liable to harm children’s dental health. Adding fluoride is the safest, most efficient and egalitarian way of reducing the prevalence of dental caries. It also provides clear economic and social benefits.”

Even if parents don’t ensure their children’s health by brushing with toothpaste and avoiding sweets, even poor children will be protected, the society argued.

Society head Prof. Eli Somech and director-general Dr. Tzahi Grossman said they were “convinced that the procedure is safe and that 400 million people in 60 countries – especially the youngsters – benefit from an optimal level of fluoride in their drinking water.”

Many decades of research and public statements by governmental and nongovernmental organizations have “already announced publicly that they support the continuation of fluoridation. Among them are the World Health Organization, the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Medical Association and the American Pediatrics Academy. The WHO has even come out with a statement supporting the Israel Pediatrics Society in its position.

But German said that the regulations that require fluoridation have expired and that “professional views are in dispute.” She said that opponents of fluoridation claim it could cause osteoporosis, reduction of insulin efficacy in dealing with sugar, the accumulation of aluminum in the body, IQ reduction and fluorosis (spotting of teeth).

As the Health Ministry has responsibility for monitoring water quality, it is also responsible for monitoring on fluoridation.

Ministry director-general Prof. Ronni Gamzu said that during the coming year, the ministry will invest funds to help the socioeconomically disadvantaged protect their teeth in other ways, if local authorities decide not to continue fluoridating their drinking water.

The voluntary organization Adam, Teva Ve’Din – which has for the last decade tried to change regulations regarding water standards, including better monitoring of contaminants – congratulated German on her decision, because water quality standards are “outdated.”

It said that during the coming year, there will be time for a public debate to decide if fluoridation is harmful or beneficial…

Tower + s  N E W S  F L A S H  # 89

12 APRIL  2013 BREAKING NEWS:

Israel’s Health Minister has just announced that Israel will be

ENDING its mandatory fluoridation program

at the end of the year.Health Minister Yael German signed new water regulations into law on Thursday that will give local governments the authority to end fluoridation for the first time since the mandate was created in 2002.  Minister German has also appealed to Israel’s High Court of Justice to look into the legality of mandatory fluoridation, in hopes that they will deem the practice illegal. Coming on the heels of the lifting of mandatory fluoridation in Queensland, Australia this news will have a major impact on the efforts of citizens trying to end mandatory fluoridation in Ireland and the United States, where 13 states currently have mandatory fluoridation (including AR, CA, CT, DE, GA, IL, KY, LA, MN, NE, NV, OH, and SD).

Tower + s

N E W S  F L A S H  # 88

April 2013

↓  From Greenpeace International ↓

The truth behind chemical fertilisers in China

N E W S  F L A S H  # 87

The Supreme Court has ruled that the Government spending of

public money on information campaign on Children’s Referendum

was not fair,impartial or equal.

The court held that the information in leaflets and on a website did not conform to the required principles laid down by a landmark judgment, known as the McKenna Judgment.

The principles prohibit the use of public funds to promote a particular outcome in a referendum.The court ruled that extensive passages in the booklet and on the website did not conform to these principles. The material also included a misstatement.It granted a declaration that the State acted wrongfully in spending public money on the website, information booklets and advertisements in relation to the referendum.However, it did not grant an injunction as the court assumed the State will stop distributing and publishing the material.
The case was taken by Mark McCrystal of Kilbarrack Road in Dublin who claimed the Government was wrongly using €1.1m of public funds to promote a Yes vote, something which was not allowed under the McKenna Judgement.The Government had denied the information campaign was biased towards a Yes vote.The case was given priority by the Supreme Court as the referendum takes place on Saturday.The full reasons for the decision will be given next month.Following the decision the Government website was taken down, however it has since been republished with the wording of the proposed amendment.Speaking in the Seanad earlier, Minister for Children Frances Fitzgerald said her Department “acted in good faith and with the best intentions to ensure compliance with the McKenna principles” in preparing material for the Government’s information campaign.She said the provision of public information by the Government had at all times been undertaken in good faith based upon the prevailing view as to what was permitted by the McKenna Judgement.Independent TDs want referendum deferredA group of Independent TDs have called on the Government to introduce emergency legislation to postpone Saturday’s referendum in the light of the Supreme Court judgment.The TDs said the result of the referendum would be “tainted” as a result of the Government’s “bungling”.Accepting that existing legislation did by allow for a postponement, the TDs said the Dáil is sitting tomorrow, and emergency legislation could be introduced.The five are Mattie McGrath, Shane Ross, Thomas Pringle, Finian McGrath and Tom Fleming.Minister for Transport Leo Varadkar has said the Yes campaign has not been damaged by the Supreme Court decision.Mr Varadkar, who is Fine Gael’s Referendum campaign director, said this is an issue for the people and it stands on its merits.He said the courts considered the question of postponement and decided the referendum should go ahead.

Government to review ruling

Minister for Justice Alan Shatter said the Government has to view the detailed reasoning of the Supreme Court, which will be available on 11 December.Speaking on RTÉ’s News at One, Mr Shatter said ”it seems there is a very narrow dividing line between government being entitled to give information, to have a right and duty, and being constrained in the manner in which it does this”.However, he said the substance of the referendum proposal is not affected by today’s ruling.Meanwhile, journalist and No campaigner John Waters has said that the Children’s Referendum would be a “breach of natural justice” following the ruling.Speaking on the same programme, Mr Waters said the Government had misappropriated public money in breach of the McKenna Judgment, and if there was a Yes vote, it would be “contaminated”.He added that in seeking to change the Constitution, the Government had behaved unconstitutionally.

Credit: rte news

     N E W S  F L A S H  # 86

AN OPEN LETTER TO GOLD COAST COUNCILLORS QLD MPs,

QLD COUNCILLORS, MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC AND THE MEDIA

From the President of:

Queenslanders for Safe Water, Air and Food Inc

COPY WE RECEIVED TODAY — PRESENTED WITH KIND PERMISSION

     N E W S  F L A S H  #85

     The  Fraser Coast Regional Council

       voted to remove fluoride from the water supply.

The Fraser Coast Regional Council has voted 8-3

to stop adding fluoride to its water supply at its ordinary meeting in

Maryborough on Wednesday morning. [20 Feb.2013]

On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government (Reform Implementation) Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the City of Hervey Bay merged withthe City of MaryboroughShire of Woocoo and part of Tiaro to form the Fraser Coast Region.

Population over 200,0oo

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Councils in Queensland Which Have Removed Fluoride:

  • Tablelands 20 Dec. 2012

  • South Burnett 16 Jan. 2013

  • North Burnett Jan. 2013

    Cairns 30 Jan. 2013

    Cloncurry Shire Council 25 Feb. 2013

    Doomadgee Aboriginal Council Feb. 2013

  • Burdekin 12 Feb. 2013

  • Bundaberg 16 Feb. 2013

  • Fraser Coast 20 Feb. 2013 

    Queensland Towns that will be fluoride free – either  decided not to start, or decided to end    – decisions   commencing 1  Dec  2013 to 27 Feb  2013    
    Tablelands Regional Council  Dec 2012 Atherton, Mareeba, Kuranda , Malanda
    North Burnett Regional Council  Jan 2013 Biggenden, Eidsvold, Gayndah, Monto , Mt Perry Mundubbera
    South Burnett Regional Council  Jan 2013 Blackbutt, Kingaroy, Murgon, Nananago ,Wondai
    Doomadgee Aboriginal Council  Jan 2013 Doomadgee
    Cairns Regional Council              Jan 2013 Cairns , Mossman, Pt Douglas
    Bundaberg Regional Council      Feb 2013 Bundaberg , Bargara, Childers, Gin Gin
    Burdekin  Shire Council          12 Feb 2013 Ayr , Home Hill , Brandon
    Fraser Coast Regional Council   20 Feb 2013 Hervey Bay, Maryborough , Tiaro
    Cloncurry  Shire Council            25 Feb Cloncurry

    Fluoridation of the Gold Coast commenced on 5 November 1968,

  • and finished on 14 July 1979.

Read more:

http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/mp-gnashes-teeth-over-fluoride-cuts-20130221-2euhz.html#ixzz2LgFhDsku

  N E W S  F L A S H  # 84

Credit: Bite Magazine And Website

Tiny teeth in tatters  

Half of all six year olds have decayed teeth  

27  October 2011

    A new study at the University of Sydney

will try to find out what’s going wrong with their teeth.

The tiny teeth of Australian toddlers are rotting and dental researchers

at the University of Sydney are poised to start a long-term study to find out why.

            Our comment:  It looks like artificial water fluoridation is still not working.

  N E W S  F L A S H  # 83

 

            USA admits adding fluoride to water is

              damaging teeth and has been

                a big experiment

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gp3wJjzrrhE

   Very Old - N E W S  F L A S H  # 82

Subject: FLUORIDE SECRETS  -

Brisbane Courier Mail – 25/11/1996

LONDON: Secret research, hidden for 50 years, 

suggested fluoride could damage teeth and the 

central nervous system, the Sunday Telegraph  

reported.  It said research, declassified by the 

United States Government, showed that in 1945,

scientists had evidence that fluoride could cause 

confusion, drowsiness and listlessness.

Further research was ordered, but later cancelled,

the paper said.

   N E W S  F L A S H  # 81

Cairns to Halt Water Fluoridation

  • From: AAP 

  •  30 January  2013 12:51PM

THE Cairns council will remove fluoride from its drinking water,

saying it amounts to the “involuntary medication” of residents.

But Cairns Regional Council says it won’t be doing anything to

determine if there’s broad community support for fluoridation

to continue.

“If people want to have access to fluoride, they need to take that

up with their dentists,” a council spokeswoman told AAP on

Wednesday. “The decision has been made …

it shouldn’t be forced on people without consent.”

The Queensland government last year changed laws that had

required bigger communities to add fluoride to their water supplies.

That was despite warnings from the Australian Dental Association

that would cause major dental health problems.

The Cairns council said it based its decision on the policy of the

Local Government Association of Queensland (LGAQ).

It joins Tablelands Regional Council as one of the only

local government sin Queensland to exercise its new power

over fluoridation of drinking water.

The LGAQ said it supported the right of councils to decide if fluoride should be added to water and that the express consent of communities should be sought for processes such as fluoridation.

Asked about the Cairns council’s refusal to determine if community consent existed, LGAQ executive director Greg Hallam said: “That’s a matter for them. We’re not judge and jury.

“We’re not anti-fluoride and we don’t subscribe to a view that there’s any harm based on all the scientific studies around the world. Ours is a political and legal stance.”

Premier Campbell Newman said he personally supports fluoridation, but the issue was about restoring councils’ right to decide.

LNP MP Jason Woodforth last year said there was broad backbench support for the fluoride to be outlawed completely, telling the ABC it was a proven neurotoxin.

Cairns Mayor Bob Manning said the change would save the council a significant amount of money.

Mr Manning said the council also supported the LGAQ’s position that oral health was a state government responsibility and “as such any financial burden should remain with the state”.

Fluoridation currently cost the council about $300,000 in chemicals, staffing, testing, electricity and infrastructure, he said.

Fluoride will stop being added to the Cairns water

supply from the middle of next month.

AAP

 N E W S  F L A S H  # 80

Fluoride-free water could cost $100m

Matthew Killoran  12:01 am 24 January 2013

GOLD Coast Water director Paul Heaton has revealed making the city’s

water supply completely fluoride free would cost up to $100 million,

a figure which has “terrified” city officials.

Mr Heaton said building the necessary infrastructure to remove

the chemical would be the like putting another Tugun desalination plant at Beenleigh.

The daunting cost has swayed some councillors from considering

taking fluoride out of the water.

Fluoride was added to much of the state’s water supply four years ago,

but the Newman Government last month announced councils could determine

the future of fluoridation within their regions.

Some Gold Coast councillors backed removing fluoride from the water,

against advise of some of Australia’s top medical experts.

A Gold Coast City Council memo revealed in yesterday’s Bulletin showed it

would cost at least $10 million to cease fluoridating the city’s water.

But Mr Heaton said to keep the city completely fluoride free it would actually

cost ten times more.

The city’s water supply is part of the southeast Queensland water grid,

which pumps water between different cities depending on need.

Mr Heaton said it would cost about $10 million for the Gold Coast to cease

fluoridating its water, while keeping water pumped out of the city’s borders

injected with the substance.

But he said to build a system to take fluoride out of the water coming

to the Coast from other cities would cost up to $100 million.

 Your Say

“Michael of Sydney and the Gold Coast, read “The Case Against Fluoride” in which Drs Connett, Beck and Micklem debunk the so called science supporting fluoridation, citing all the evidence. It is you who have been gullible. Where is the proof that fluoride is safe and effective? Whenever we ask Qld Health to provide such studies they fail to do so.” Sonja Hardy

“If Gold Coast decided to cease the fluoridation the water we send north … we would have to build a fluoridation plant on the border to inject it in the water as it goes north,” Mr Heaton said.

“Most of the time the water goes north, but some times it comes south.

“We would have to treat the water as it comes back to take the fluoride out.

“Rather than $10 million, it would be between $50 million and $100 million.

“That would be like the Tugun desalination plant. It would have to be there

all the time and only work when water was coming back.”

The $1 billion Tugun desalination plant has been criticised for costing the

state $16 million a year, while only being used sporadically.

The council’s water committee boss Cr Paul Taylor said he had been undecided

on opting out of fluoride but the astronomical cost flagged by Mr Heaton

had helped him make up his mind.

“As far as I’m concerned it’s miles too much money,” he said.

“It’s a terrifying figure.

“I imagine when we start talking that sort of money (councillors against fluoride)

would have to reconsider.”

Burleigh councillor Greg Betts, one of the councillors opposed to fluoride

in the water, said he was not prepared to have it removed at “any cost”.

Editors Comment: It would not cost a cent if Brisbane stopped fluoridation.

Just refuse to pay for non-potable water… easy as saying no.

Fluoridated water is contaminated water, send them an invoice, or take them to court…Could costs seats at the next council elections!

N E W S  F L A S H  # 79

18 JANUARY  2013

Breaking News: Credit FAN [USA]

Eight more communities are fluoride-free!

On January 15th, the North Burnett Regional Council voted to end fluoridation for the Australian communities of Monto, Gayndah, and Mundubberra. This was followed by the South Burnett Regional Council also voting unanimously to end fluoridation on 16th January  for the towns of Blackbutt, Nanango, Kingaroy, Wondai, and Murgon. The decision will protect the health of residents and save approximately $200,000 annually. Hopefully more communities in the state of Queensland will follow suit since the fluoridation mandate has been repealed, giving municipalities and regional councils authority over the practice.

Fluoridation proponents in Queensland are not giving up though.  Just this week Queensland’s Chief Health Officer, Dr Jeanette Young, went before the Australian media to urge municipalities to remain fluoridated.  While doing so Dr. Young made some outrageous statements, calling fluoridation opponents “scare mongerers” and claiming that “there is no evidence to suggest that the amount of fluoride used has any detrimental health effects.”  Clearly neither Dr. Young nor her staff can read because the book The Case Against Fluoride has been available since 2010 and has over 80 pages of scientific references that offer an abundance of evidence of detrimental health effects.

 →  (Watch Dr. Young’s 30 second statement) ←  

The Quad Cities

This week Paul Connett (FAN’s director and the co-author of The Case Against Flouride) started his 2013 fluoridation tour in the Quad Cities of Iowa and Illinois. The Quad Cities consist of four cities that straddle the Mississippi river, two being located in Iowa (Davenport and Bettendorf) and two in Illinois (Rock Island and Moline).On January 14 Paul gave his first presentation at the public library in Bettendorf on the science underpinning both the ineffectiveness of fluoridation and its health dangers.

You can watch Paul’s full presentation on video here

The following day, on January 15, Paul gave a presentation at the public library in Moline on the “spin” that attempts to keep this outdated practice going. This presentation was intended to be a debate with any local pro-fluoride professional, but once again no promoters of fluoridation were willing to defend their position in public and on the record.In total, about 150 local residents attended the two Quad City presentations, which were organized by the local fluoride-free organization, Have the Debate. This well organized group is led by Todd McGreevy, the publisher of the local newspaper River Cities Reader (now on its 20th year of publication). It was one of the writers for this newspaper – Jeff Ignatius – who wrote one of the earliest (Dec 2010) and most enthusiastic reviews of The Case Against Fluoridation, authored by Connett, Beck and Micklem (Chelsea Green, 2010).Todd McGreevy also wrote a nice preview about fluoridation and Connett’s appearances in the Quad Cities that appeared in the same newspaper Jan 10-23.In Iowa the decision to fluoridate is made by individual cities but in Illinois there is a longstanding state mandate to fluoridate. Citizens are currently organizing to get this law rescinded, see their website Fluoride Free Illinois.Having whole states mandate fluoridation is even more anachronistic than the practice itself. When a community fluoridates it is doing to everyone what an individual doctor can do to no one – i.e. force an individual to take a medicine against their will. Very few states or countries in the world have taken on this arrogant power of forcing all its citizens to take a medicine without their informed consent. Those that do include Singapore, Ireland, several states in Australia, and 12 states in the US.Several weeks ago the new premier of Queensland lifted the state’s mandatory requirement much to the relief of many communities there that have fought fluoridation over many decades, including Bundaberg, North & South Burnett, and Rockhampton.  All of us at FAN are hoping that Queensland’s lifting the mandate will be the first of several others in 2013. Meanwhile, we have to continue ending fluoridation one open mind and one community at a time.Meanwhile, the leaders of the pro-fluoridation lobby continue to prefer mandatory fluoridation at the state level, and seek to avoid public votes and public debates.The following comments were taken from the notes accompanying a power point presentation to dentists in Japan in 2011 given by Dr. Michael Foley a dentist from Brisbane, Australia and vice-president of the Australian Dental Association.Ideally, a high level decision involving the whole country or prefecture is preferable to numerous debates in smaller towns and cities…In Australia, fluoridation is taught in all dental schools, and almost all dentists support its introduction…The anti-fluoride lobby prefers public referendums to decisions by governments, since scare tactics can be used to influence undecided and uninformed people. Try to avoid a referendum if possible, even if polls show a majority of people in favour of water fluoridation. A majority often disappears once the referendum starts. There’s also usually an obligation to fund both sides of a referendum argument equally. In Australia, most referendums fail because people tend to maintain the existing situation and vote against change. Referendums in Australia are only passed if all major political parties are in favour. Most major public health initiatives e.g. smoking legislation, speed limits, alcohol restrictions, vaccinations etc are made by governments and are not subject to referendums. Why should fluoridation be.Try to avoid debates in public or on radio or TV in which anti-fluoridationists also appear. Taking part in a debate with anti-fluoridationists gives them a respectability that they don’t deserve. Anti-fluoridationists are always keen to have a public debate since they rely on emotive language rather than science. Their arguments are usually simple, because they’re trying to convince the general public, not scientists. Most of their arguments are wrong, taken out of context, or out of date, but disproving anti-fluoridation claims takes considerably longer than making the claims in the first place, and some degree of doubt from the original claim will often still be left. Since these notes were taken, access to Foley’s power point has been restricted. This restriction may have been placed because an Australian citizen has called for an enquiry by the University of Queensland as to whether they support Foley’s views, since the logo and the name of the University of Queensland appears on every one of Foley’s slides, some of which contain some very derogatory comments on fluoridation opponents.We expect the pro-fluoride lobby to focus more of their time and strategy on state mandates since they have been losing battles at the local level (Wichita, Portland, and another 80 communities since 2010). At the state-level, fluoridationists can hire lobbyists, hold meetings with elected officials behind-closed-doors, stifle public debate, and gain support from elected officials with campaign contributions. We’ve seen this occur in a number of states, including California, Arkansas, and most recently New Jersey. So keep an eye on fluoride activity at your State House, and please report any suspicious legislation to FAN. We too will be spending more time at state capitols protecting the safety of our drinking water. Together we can keep new fluoridation mandates from being enacted (as we did in New Jersey last year), and work to repeal existing mandates (as we are doing in Illinois).

Dr. Connett Continues his Speaking Tour

Paul will be travelling to New Zealand and San Francisco in the coming months. Don’t miss out on these great opportunities to hear the foremost critic on fluoridation speak about this unsafe and outdated practice:

February 17–March 9: New Zealand

  • Paul will be speaking extensively throughout New Zealand. Particularly, he will be speaking in Whakatane and Hastings where they are having referenda later in the year, and Hamilton and Thames which are holding a community review of fluoridation with a view to stopping it.  Hastings is the first area in New Zealand to be fluoridated and Hamilton is the fourth largest city in the country, the 3rd largest fluoridated one. If both of these places stop, or even if one of these places stop, the practice of fluoridation will be in serious jeopardy. Paul’s last tour to NZ in 2011 was very successful.  Since then 2 towns and 1 city have stopped bringing the total number of councils that fluoridate down from 26 to 23 out of 67.”

  • Contact: Mary Byrne, FAN-NZ, <mbyrne64@yahoo.co.nz>

March 22-24: San Francisco, California

Sincerely,Stuart CooperFAN, Campaign Manager [USA]

   N E W S  F L A S H  # 78

Credit: wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_fluoridation_in_Australia

On 29 November 2012 the Queensland Parliament

reversed the previous government’s mandate

requiring all public potable water supplies

serving more than 1000 people to add

fluoride to the water.

As a consequence of these changes local councils

in Queensland [now] have the choice to add fluoride to

drinking water supplies.

The previous government, under Queensland Premier Anna Bligh, announced on 5 December 2007 that the fluoridation of most of Queensland’s water supplies will begin in 2008.[27] When it was enacted the Water Fluoridation Act 2008 required the addition of fluoride to any water supply supplying potable water to at least 1000 members of the public, unless an exemption is granted based on safety or naturally occurring levels that meet the required levels.[28] Prior to this legislation Queensland was the only Australian state without a formal statewide program for the addition of fluoride to drinking water.The Water Fluoridation Regulation 2008 listed 134 drinking water supplies that were to be fluoridated by 31 December 2012.[29] Of the drinking water supplies listed in the Regulation, 32 comprised the SEQ Water Grid located in Southeast Queensland. The fluoridation of these supplies by the end of 2009 accounted for the largest increase in people currently receiving fluoridated water in Queensland (approximately 2.6 million people in 2006 or 68% of the Queensland population). Prior to the requirement to add fluoride in 2008 the towns of BiloelaDalbyGattonMareebaMoranbah, and Townsville/Thuringowa had been adding fluoride to their drinking water – some since 1972, though some of these towns stopped adding fluoride prior to the Water Fluoridation Act.[30] Before the current legislation the addition of fluoride to water supplies was regulated by the Fluoridation of Water Supplies Act 1963.[31]The fluoridation of drinking water supplies is regulated by Queensland Health,[32] with implementation supported by the former Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation[33]Several areas of Queensland, such as Julia CreekQuilpieThargomindah and Adavale are known to have naturally occurring fluoride present in their drinking water, a characteristic that has been studied since the late 1920s.[34][35]In 2009 an accident occurred at the North Pine treatment plant, and some homes received water having many times the recommened level of fluoride…

   N E W S  F L A S H  # 77

16 NOVEMBER 2012

Dear ‘Fluoridation Skeptics’,

On Thursday night a Durham, North Carolina ABC news affiliate, WTVD-11, aired a powerful and honest investigative news story on water fluoridation that correctly questioned the safety of the unnecessary chemical additive. Reporter Steve Daniels covered the story of local resident Corey Sturmer who has dental fluorosis and is now leading a campaign to remove fluoride from the Durham water supply. The report features interviews with Sturmer, local dentists, and Dr. Kathleen Thiessen (a member of the committee on Fluoride in Drinking Water for the National Research Council).

Watch “How Safe is Fluoride in Your Water?

Mr. Sturmer has already taken his fluoride education campaign to the streets, placing flyers around town and creating an informative website for his group, Durham Against Fluoride. He has also testified before the Durham County Board of Health, which has stated that they will now look into his concerns regarding fluoridation.

Please take a few minutes to watch and share this important news story. Share it with friends, family, colleagues, and especially local decision-makers (city councilors and state legislators). Also, if you live near Durham, NC please contact Durham Against Fluoride and join the campaign to end fluoridation while the momentum and media attention is building.

Please also take a moment to visit reporter Steve Daniels’ Facebook page to thank him for his great reporting, as he requested viewers to do at the end of the report. If he see’s that there is a large amount of interest in his story, the likelihood of follow-up stories will be greater.

Sincerely,

Stuart Cooper

Campaign Manager

Fluoride Action Network

   N E W S  F L A S H  # 76  

Dear Members and Supporters

From:

Queenslanders For Safe Water , Air and Food Inc.

1)   Wonderful news from USA –

Wichita and Portland

2)   Qld state govt MP Jason Woodforth

speaking out against water fluoridation  -

please vote on forced fluoridation poll

on his website

3)   Facebook – Fluoride Action Network

Australia  - please “ LIKE “

4)  Talkback radio a opportunity to voice

your opinion on fluoridation

5)   Fluoridation High Court challenge

filed in Israel

1)  Wonderful news from America – Wichita and Portland

If you haven’t signed up  to receive email  bulletins from FAN ( Fluoride Action Network  -  www fluoridealert.org  )  you may not know that there has been two recent lots of wonderful news from the USA .

On USA election day  a Referendum was held in Wichita on fluoridation after cashed up fluoridation advocates  forced  Wichita Council into either fluoridating, or having a public vote on fluoridation. Wichita is the 2nd largest non- fluoridated city in the US. Fortunately the council chose a public vote and on the 6th Nov  Wichita people voted fluoridation down by nearly 60%. This was tremendous victory considering the assets and media assistance that the pro – fluoridation side had at their disposal. It truly was a  David and Goliath battle and shows what can happen if people are given a voice.

In Portland, Oregon,  Portland City Commissioners decided that they were going to fluoridate Portland and the public would not have a say. Wonderful Portland folk were not going to take this lying down and within a month had collected 40,000 signatures to force a Public vote – this vote will occur in 2014 . Portland commissioners had  tried to speed up fluoridation commencement before a vote could occur, but were  not able to do this, particularly after it was revealed that they had secretly met with pro fluoridation advocates.  We wish Portland  safe water activists all the best for the 2104 referendum.

2)  Qld. State Govt. MP Jason Woodforth

Speaking out against water fluoridation—

Please vote on forced fluoridation poll on his website.

With great delight we recently learned that new Qld LNP MP Jason Woodforth – Member for Nudgee  has recently spoken out against water fluoridation, both in the Qld Parliament and on Greg Carey’s morning show on 4BC (7th Nov). We believe that MP Jason Woodforth may be speaking again in Parliament against fluoridation in the near future at greater length.  On the 1st November in Parliament Mr Woodforth concluded with The science on fluoride has been disregarded for opinion. I will not rest until this toxic chemical is taken out of our water. I stand for the health of Queenslanders. It is my  background. It is what I do. It is what I love. Yes, I am passionate about it. I am passionate about delivering good health to all Queenslanders”.

Mr Woodforth has invited people to participate in a one – click poll on his website www.jasonwoodforth.com.au   about forced fluoridation. You can also hear Jason on 4BC there too. We applaud Mr Woodforth for his integrity and hope to hear a lot more from him in the near future.

3)  Facebook: 

Fluoride Action Network Australia  -please “ LIKE “ 

If you are a FACEBOOK fan we invite you visit  Fluoride Action Network Australia   www.facebook.com/fanaustralia  and “ LIKE ”   We really all need to reach out and contact and connect as many people who are opposed to forced fluoridation as we can. In the USA and New Zealand public pressure is ending fluoridation in some communities, but only after enough public pressure. In Australia forced  fluoridation still rolls on relentlessly – we don’t have enough public pressure. Forced fluoridation will continue until 1) we have enough people to put pressure on MPs 2) there is enough media and MPs with enough integrity and intestinal fortitude to say that forced fluoridation is wrong

4)  Talkback radio:

An opportunity to voice your opinion on fluoridation.

Fluoridation has been the subject of discussion a few times lately on 4BC’s Morning Show (  Greg Cary -9am to midday ) If you can, we encourage you to phone in to the 4BC  talkback line on  13 13 32   (if calling from outside of Brisbane – 07 3908 8800)  or email  greg@4bc.com.au    or text  to  0427 13 13 32   Any time fluoridation is mentioned in the media – Media Monitors picks up and reports this back to the Qld Health Minister and other key MPs.

5)  Fluoridation High Court challenge filed  in Israel

On the 13th Nov a lawsuit against fluoridation was filed in Israel’s High Court. The main claims are:  the health ministry has no right to force fluoridation, only to determine the water quality but not to add more substances. They are doing a paternalist action with no authority. Fluoridation is done with toxic waste. Nobody checks what actually goes into the water,  trusting that everything ‘stands in the standard’, while the standard has no meaning. The lawsuit to stop fluoridation was filed by a new public health association and  claims relate to  the USA   2006 National Research Council  report “ Fluoride in Drinking Water ” . The lawsuit is based on the expert opinion of  a  former  Health Ministry worker for 30 years, Ehud Leshem, who was a district manager, responsible for building fluoridation installations trusting that the information received about fluoridation  was correct. Leshem says there is evidence for damage in the body and the Health Ministry must act according to the precautionary principle.   This is welcome news and we hope that it will be good news in the  coming year.

In Australia two fluoridation legal actions, one against Rous Water, Ballina and Lismore Councils , the other against Eurobodalla Council are continuing. We wish them all the very, very best for the next stages.

Best wishes from

Queenslanders For Safe Water, Air and Food Inc

Mob 0418 777 112     www.qawf.org

N E W S  F L A S H  # 75  ↓  29 Oct. 2012

Victories against fluoride becoming more frequent

as citizens get informed, empowered

Roughly 85,000 fewer people living in North America will be forced to drink and bathe in fluoridated water, thanks to four recent community victories preventing or overturning water fluoridation mandates…

 N E W S  F L A S H  # 74

2 Nov.2012

State Government Moves To Force

Fluoridation On Kuranda And Malanda

KURANDA and Malanda water supplies will be fluoridated

with the State Government moving to slam the door shut

on any other option,

Tablelands Regional Council Mayor Rosa Lee Long said yesterday.

The Mayor was speaking after council’s regular meeting today (Thursday, 1 November), at which it considered a report from officers on the impact of legislation introduced to Parliament on Wednesday night by the Newman LNP Government.“The existing legislation, the Water Fluoridation Act 2008, had created the situation where legally, council had no choice but to fluoridate,” Councillor Lee Long said.“There has been strong community opposition to this especially in Kuranda and Malanda and council has done everything in its power to honour that position.“There was, I believe, a clear expectation from Premier Newman and the Local Government Minister that community wishes would be respected. “In August the Premier was reported in the press as saying: ‘Certainly, we would not be removing it from any location where it exists already, but the idea of forcing certain communities right now to put it in and incur the cost, that is something I am more than happy to have a look at’. ;”However the new legislation will trample all over that. Instead of allowing these communities a choice, the State Government has tabled laws that, when adopted, will mean there is no option at all.”The new legislation, contained in the South East Queensland Water (Restructuring) and Other Legislation Amendment Bill 2012, has been introduced to State Parliament and is expected to be debated within the next few weeks.“If passed, and Premier Newman has a massive majority in Parliament, Council will be left with absolutely no option and there will be very severe penalties if we do not obey,” Cr Lee Long said.“It is a shocking blow to two communities that have campaigned with passion and integrity on an issue important to them. I do not believe, on this issue, that the State Government has acted with equal integrity at all.“Kuranda and Malanda have the sympathy and understanding of council and I hope they understand that council will be left with no other choice.”Cr Lee Long said a report on the situation which council originally considered as confidential has been made public because of the importance of the issue.

   It is available →  here   (4.11MB)

“At this stage, I would urge anyone concerned about the issue to get in touch with their State Member of Parliament, the Premier and the Health Minister,” she said.“For Kuranda, that is Michael Trout, a member of the LNP government. His office can be emailed on Barron.River@parliament.qld.gov.au or by calling 4038 2800.“For Malanda, that is Shane Knuth of the KAP. His office can be emailed on Dalrymple@parliament.qld.gov.au or by calling 4091 5861.“Premier Newman can be emailed at thepremier@premiers.qld.gov.au or by calling 3224 4500.“Health Minister Lawrence Springborg can be emailed at Health@ministerial.qld.gov.au or called on 3229 0444.”The committee now considering the legislation can be emailed at: SDIIC@parliament.qld.gov.au or visited at www.parliament.qld.gov.au/SDIIC

Editors Comment:

Bottled water is delivered to Queensland Parliament!

More names for our  ‘Rogues Gallery’

 

 N E W S  F L A S H  # 73

Royal Society’s Chief Called to

Resign over Fluoridation Debacle

Tuesday, 16 October 2012, 4:59 pm

Press Release: NZ Fluoridation Information Service

NZFIS

Wellington 11 October 2012

Contrary to the claims that the Royal Society’s call for scientific information on fluoridation “did not elicit any new information indicating that a further review would be of value at present” the Society received almost 1000 pages of fully referenced scientific information showing fluoridation to be a significant health risk, as well as being ineffective at reducing tooth decay.

This information included many of the IQ studies recently reviewed under the umbrella of the Harvard School of Public Health, by world-leading scientists in the field of developmental neurotoxicology. The review was published in the leading journal Environmental Health Perspectives, and its findings directly contradict the recent statement by Professor Skegg.

Professor Skegg’s statement is simply a “complete fabrication”, according to Mark Atkin, CE of the NZ Fluoridation Information Service, who continues “It suggests the real reason the plug was pulled on the Royal Society’s review. The Society could not have maintained scientific integrity unless it recommended fluoridation be stopped, given the extensive scientific information we supplied. This would have directly conflicted with Professor Skegg’s blind support of public health’s entrenched fluoridation policy. Professor Skegg’s statement is simply propaganda – a betrayal of science and the statutory role of the Royal Society. Having put propaganda and personal beliefs above scientific integrity, he should resign immediately before he further damages the credibility of the Royal Society.”

The claim of “extensive research over many decades indicating fluoridation is [safe and effective]” has been fully discredited by the York Review 2000 and the US National Research Council Review 2006. “Any scientist with any knowledge of the fluoridation issue would know this. There is a saying: ‘when a scientist abuses his position in society of trust and authority to mislead the public, he does not become a dishonest scientist – he simply ceases to be a scientist. This blind repetition of propaganda shows that Professor Skegg has ceased to be a scientist”, concludes Mr Atkin.

About NZFIS

The NZ Fluoridation Information Service was established in early 2011 to provide accurate and reliable information on fluoridation, in the face of the creation by the Ministry of Health of its lobby group the National Water Fluoridation Support and Co-ordination Service, misrepresenting itself as an objective information service, and the increasing levels of misinformation and propaganda issuing from the Ministry of Health, District Health boards, and the NZ Dental Association.

 N E W S  F L A S H  # 72

23 OCTOBER 2012

We have a lot of good news in this FAN bulletin, including four new

community victories to report, updates from Portland and New York

City, along with news of more communities that have upcoming

votes on fluoridation.

4 More Victories

There are several more communities to add to our list of over 70 that have voted to end fluoridation since 2010:

  •  O’Fallon, Missouri—Missouri’s 7th largest town (pop. 80,000) recently ended fluoridation after a citizen activist informed city employees about the dangers of water fluoridation. The City Administrator did his own research and signed off on the discontinuation of the practice. In the town’s 2012 Budget, the city administrators speak highly of the change, saying “one such improvement is the elimination of the addition of fluoride to the potable water supplied by the Water Treatment Plant (WTP), this change in treatment    has saved the City $18,000 annually and reduced the hazard for the operators in that they do not have to handle the dangerous chemical on a regular basis.” 

  • Rosetown, Saskatchewan—The Canadian community of 2,300 has ended their fluoridation program after the fluoride feed-pump broke, likely due to corrosion. The community doesn’t plan on continuing fluoridation in the  future.    

  •  Lake view, Iowa—The town of 1,300 people will no longer have the additive in their drinking water after the city council voted to discontinue fluoridation due to the practice’s high cost and lack of positive economic benefit. You can hear the City Administrator interviewed about the decision here

  •  Cassadaga, NY—Citizen opposition to a plan by Village Board members to fluoridate the drinking water was raised at weekly village board meetings after the village built a fluoridation feed shed. The opposition led to board  members polling the town’s citizens on whether to fluoridate or reject the practice. 78% of water customers opposed fluoridation and 18% supported it. The Board members then voted 4-1 to officially reject the practice for the town’s approximately 600 residents. The neighboring community of Lily Dale, NY is on the same drinking water system, so the decision will also impact its 275 citizens and the town’s approximately 22,000 registered annual visitors.

Portland Update

The Portland city staff are still counting and verifying petition signatures for a fluoridation referendum, but it’s very likely that Clean Water Portland and their campaigners will get the question on the ballot after they submitted more than 43,000 signatures (19,858 were required) a day before the deadline. Campaigners put together this incredibly inspiring video of the submission of their petitions to the City.

Once the signatures are verified, the city will determine when the vote will take place. Most have said that the earliest it could occur is March of 2014, but this is still before fluoridation would begin. Between now and the vote, Clean Water Portland will be using their amazing organizing skills to educate the city’s population about the risks and hazards associated with fluoridation. If you want to participate in this historic campaign, please contact FAN’s Oregon Point Person, Kim Kaminski.

In case the successful referendum campaign to overturn their fluoridation vote wasn’t enough embarrassment for the City Council to deal with, local media outlets are reporting that the councilors who met with pro-fluoride lobbyists didn’t disclose that these meetings occurred, which is necessary by law. Are Portland officials trying to hide this information, or did they just conveniently forget?

NYC Council member Vallone Introduces Infant Warning

New York City Council member Peter Vallone, Jr. has introduced a resolution calling for infant fluoride warnings on the city’s water bills. This comes on the heels of the city of Milwaukee and the State of New Hampshire both passing laws requiring infant fluoride warnings for water customers.

While Vallone is still pursuing a full prohibition on fluoride in NYC drinking water, he believes that an infant warning will gain more support initially and will help protect infants until fluoridation comes to an end. If you would like to get involved in NYC, please contact FAN’s NY Point Person.

Two More Communities Voting in Florida

The fight for fluoride-free water is heating up in the State of Florida. Two more communities will be putting the continuation of existing fluoridation programs to a vote, and County Commissioner candidates in Pinellas County are taking sides on the issue. 

The Board of Directors of the Greater Pine Island Water Association decided to hold a vote on fluoridation after citizens continued to raise concerns about the additive. The fluoride-free effort was led by members of Citizens for Safe Water, who spoke at regular board meetings and organized a letter to the editor campaign in local paper. Ballots will be mailed to all of the Water Association’s members.

The Ormond Beach City Commission has voted to approve a fluoridation referendum to voters can decide for the first time since 1957 whether the water should continue to be fluoridated. Concerns over the safety of fluoridation were brought to the council’s attention after a citizen wrote to the city’s fluoridation-chemical provider seeking information showing compliance with state drinking water laws. When the chemical manufacturer did not reply back, the citizen alerted the City Commission, which responded with the referendum approval. 

Sincerely,

Stuart Cooper

Campaign Manager

Fluoride Action Network

 N E W S  F L A S H  # 71

N E W S  F L A S H  # 70

SEPTEMBER 24, 2012

Three more communities have voted to end fluoridation this year, increasing the number of fluoride-free citizens by another 5,000 people. All three towns are in Indiana–the Hoosier State—including the towns of Walkerton, North Liberty, and Lakeville. Walkerton was the first to vote the toxic chemical out of their water, and they did so because of the health concerns associated with overexposure to fluoride; a problem that now affects more than 41% of America’s adolescents. North Liberty ended fluoridation also due to concerns over health issues, but primarily because they border Walkerton and had purchased fluoridation chemicals in bulk along with Walkerton. When Walkerton ended fluoridation, the cost of chemicals was too high for North Liberty to purchase on their own.   Separately, Lakeville councilors voted to end the practice solely due to the increasing cost of fluoridation chemicals.

WICHITA FLUORIDATION DEBATE UPDATE

Earlier this summer we reported the story that the pro-fluoride lobbyhad forced the Wichita City Council to take up the fluoridation issue. Wichita is one of the largest cities in the U.S. that has remained fluoride-free, primarily because the citizens have voted to keep it that way on several occasions. However, with the pro-fluoride lobby (ADA, PEW, Delta Dental) having hundreds of millions of dollars to burn through and absolutely no care or concern for the public will, they were able to bring the issue before the city council after having collected the 11,000 petition signatures necessary to get the issue before the council and on the ballot. Rather than vote to approve fluoridation unilaterally, the council placed the question on the November ballot.

There are now several organized groups in Kansas working to educate the public prior to this November fluoridation vote. There isFluoride Free KansasPure Water Wichita (Facebook), and Wichitans Opposed to Fluoridation. Kansas residents can also contact FAN’s local point person: DeAnna Havens. We urge you to get involved no matter where you live in Kansas, because if Wichita falls to the pro-fluoride lobby, there is no telling how many other communities may follow their lead.

The group Pure Water Wichita has invited the pro-fluoride lobby to a televised debate prior to the November election. It appears that the pro-fluoride folks have yet to officially respond with a challenger, so fluoride-free advocates have asked for members of the public to join in on the debate.

We will keep you informed on what is going on in Wichita, and will share video of the debate as soon as it is made public. Stay tuned and get involved if you live nearby!

PORTLAND, OREGON UPDATE

Dr. Paul Connett went to Portland last week to support the movement to keep the city fluoride-free.  Jim Lockhart of the Comcast cable access show “A Growing Concern” filmed Dr. Connett’s presentation,which included a full PowerPoint breakdown of the issue.  The evening opened with words by Clean Water Portland Executive Director and FAN Point Person Kim Kaminski. Please watch and share this presentation with fluoride-free advocates around the world, as it’s a powerful and compelling argument against this unhealthy and unethical practice.

Portland residents are continuing their efforts to collect the nearly 20,000 signatures necessary to overturn the Portland Council’s vote for fluoridation. If you live in or near Portland, Oregon and would like to help this unprecedented campaign, please contact Clean Water Portland, attend their signature education meetings, or visit their website and download the official petition forms. Remember, you must use an official petition form, the signers must be registered voters and Portland residents.

We can only succeed with lots of help from as many of you as possible, so even if you don’t live in Portland, please spread the word about the campaign, and please urge anyone you know living near Portland to get involved immediately.

SANTA FE, NEW MEXICO UPDATE

Earlier this summer–only weeks after Albuquerque ended fluoridation–the city council in Santa Fe, New Mexico (population 70,000) voted almost unanimously to end the fluoridation of their drinking water. Unfortunately, councilors didn’t use the appropriate legislative process, or hold a public hearing with the appropriate amount of public notification prior to their vote, resulting in the continuation of their fluoridation program. Over the past two months, councilors have beentrying to decide whether to bring the fluoridation issue to a public vote or to pass a resolution ending fluoridation after several years of oral health education.

Now it appears like the council will simply go ahead with another resolution to quickly end fluoridation once and for all with a council vote. With almost all councilors opposed to fluoridation due to the health risks, overexposure, and costs, they decided to reintroduce asecond prohibition resolution which they plan on voting on in late October.

If you are a New Mexico resident, or a medical or scientific professional, please contact the city council and urge them to continue their support for clean, fluoride-free water.

 

IN CASE YOU MISSED IT

-The Huffington Post held an online fluoridation debate featuring FAN’s own Michael Connett. You can watch the discussion in its entirety here.

-Dr. William Hirzy was interviewed by CBS regarding his testimony in Phoenix, Arizona. Unfortunately, the City Council subcommittee voted to keep fluoride in the water, but efforts are being made to bring the issue to the full committee and even to the State House.

-FAN now has a Linkedin account. Please connect with us on this great social media tool.

Sincerely,

Stuart Cooper, Campaign Manager

www.FluorideAlert.org

N E W S  F L A S H  # 69

   Beginning of the end? We can only hope.

N E W S  F L A S H  # 68

 Does Fluoride In Drinking Water Hurt Your Brain?

By 

Published 22 August 2012

FoxNews.com

  • faucet_water_AP.jpg
    AP

Back in 2011, the EPA reversed course and lowered the recommended maximum amount of fluoride in drinking water due to data that the levels then being allowed put kids at risk of dental fluorosis–streaking and pitting of teeth due to excessive fluoride, which also puts tooth enamel at risk.

This conclusion was a discordant note amidst all the accolades fluoride had won, starting with the discovery during the 1940s that people who lived near water supplies containing naturally occurring fluoride had fewer cavities in their teeth.   A massive push ensued, with government and industry encouraging cities and towns to add fluoride to water supplies.  

Related: Dental health linked to dementia risk

Now, questions about the impact of fluoride on mental health are growing and can no longer be ignored.

A recently published Harvard study showed that children living in areas with highly fluoridated water have “significantly lower” IQ scores than those living in areas where the water has low fluoride levels.  In fact, the study analyzed the results of 27 prior investigations and found the following, among other conclusions:

 Fluoride may be a developmental neurotoxicant that affects brain development (in children) at exposures much below those that cause toxicity in adults.

 Rats exposed to (relatively low) fluoride concentrations in water showed cellular changes in the brain and increased levels of aluminum in brain tissue.

Other research studies in animals link fluoride intake to the development of beta-amyloid plaques (the classic finding in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s dementia).

And research on fluoride also has implicated it in changing the structure of the brains of fetuses, negatively impacting the behavioral/neurological assessment scores of newborns and, in animal studies, impairing memory.

This information is very important, from a psychiatric standpoint, because we have witnessed rising rates of attention deficit disorder, major depression, dementia and many other psychiatric illnesses since the 1940s, and because the United States (which fluoridates a much higher percentage of its drinking water than most countries, including European nations) has some of the highest rates of mental disorders in the world–by a wide margin.

It is not clear, of course, that fluoride is responsible wholly, or even in small measure, for these facts, but the connection is an intriguing one, especially in light of the new Harvard study.

Given the available data, I would recommend that children with learning disorders, attention deficit disorder, depression, attention-deficit disorder or other psychiatric illnesses refrain from drinking fluoridated water, and consult a dentist about the most effective way of delivering sufficient fluoride to the teeth directly, while minimizing absorption by the body as a whole–and the brain, specifically.

Dr. Keith Ablow is a psychiatrist and member of the Fox News Medical A-Team.

Dr. Ablow can be reached at info@keithablow.com.

N E W S  F L A S H  # 67 

TEFLON:  today 

US researchers have identified a link between chemicals

found in non-stick cookware and heart disease.

http://bigpondnews.com/articles/Health/2012/09/04/Chemical_link_to_heart_disease_791276.html

N E W S  F L A S H  # 66

Photo: QLD Premier Campbell Newman (Chris Ison)

FLUORIDE will not be forced on the region’s outlying communities in a move that could prevent millions of dollars being wasted on water no one drinks.

Two years ago, Toowoomba Regional Council started adding fluoride to Toowoomba’s water supply under a compulsory State Government scheme.

Council was in the process of planning how it would do the same to water supplies in Clifton, Wyreema, Crows Nest, Highfields, Pittsworth and Brookstead.

That was expected to cost $3.1 million upfront and millions of dollars over its lifetime in terms of ongoing operational costs.

But Premier Campbell Newman has scrapped the compulsory scheme, announcing communities could now decide for themselves whether they wanted their water fluoridated.

“Certainly, we would not be removing it from any location where it exists already, but the idea of forcing certain communities right now to put it in and incur the cost, that is something I am more than happy to have a look at,” Mr Newman said.

“What the former premier Anna Bligh did was, as usual, impose costs on ratepayers through local communities.

“It is very expensive infrastructure and there are ongoing operating costs, and particularly if the communities were against it.”

Clifton and District Progress Association president Maryann Bifdee said it would not have made sense to fluoridate the town’s water as most residents did not drink it.

“The majority of town drink tank water because the town water is bore water,” Mrs Bifdee said.

“It would have been a waste.”

Water and Waste Projects spokeswoman Cr Nancy Sommerfield said council had been preparing to take the project to the market.

“This can now go on hold,” she said.

Cr Sommerfield said council would now go to district communities to ask residents if they wanted fluoride in their drinking supplies.

“Council can now confidently engage our communities and hear their voices in this discussion, so that we can arrive at an outcome that is the best fit for residents,” she said.

N E W S  F L A S H  #65

MAREEBA WATER FLUORIDATION

SURVEY RESULTS

 N E W S  F L A S H  #64

Bone Cancer Fluoride Study

Opens the Door to Lawsuits

Five years after being promised to disprove the link between fluoride and

osteosarcoma bone cancer, the promised study has finally been published,

failing in its promise, as predicted by international fluoride experts.

The study only looked at bone-fluoride level at the time of osteosarcoma, which is irrelevant to age-related exposure effect shown in the earlier research it was supposed to disprove. It just shows total lifetime exposure to fluoride; not whether it occurred during the critical 6-8 year old period, shown by the earlier research.

“Fluoridation promoters have been relying on this failed promise ever since 2006, to defend continued fluoridation in spite of the risk. What will they rely on now?” asks Mary Byrne, National Coordinator of Fluoride Action Network. “Why, spinning Douglass’ study as if it were valid of course. They have already started – what else can they do? If they admit Douglass failed, they must admit that fluoridation should end immediately” answers Ms Byrne.

Osteosarcoma kills between 3 and 4 NZ male youths each year. Legal action against councils and fluoridation promoters began being prepared in the USA as soon as Bassin’s 2001 study was discovered in 2006, having been suppressed for four years. “Publication of Douglass’ failed study now opens the doorway for such action” suggests Mark Atkin, FANNZ’ legal adviser.

“Now that Douglass’ study is finally published, it is clearly incapable of refuting Bassin’s work” according to FAN director, Dr Paul Connett, Ph.D. “Bassin’s study was a high quality product; Douglass’ study was not” he concludes. “And it was only published in a dental journal, published by fluoridation promoters The International Association of Dental Research – why not in Cancer Causes and Control like his original promise, and Bassin’s study? Would it not have passed objective peer-review?” adds Ms Byrne.

N E W S  F L A S H  #63 

Credit: NaturalNews

The next time somebody tries to tell you that there is no

scientific evidence proving that fluoride chemicals are

harmful to human health, simply point them to a

new study review recently published in the

Institute of Environmental Health Sciences journal

Environmental Health Perspectives that shows,

for something like the 25th time now, that

fluoride damages brain development and leads to

significantly lower IQ levels in humans.

Researchers from both Harvard University‘s School of Public health and China Medical University in Shenyang jointly studied the effects of fluoride on children by evaluating 27 different fluoride studies. Upon review, the team found “strong indications” that fluoride exposure, particularly among developing children, is highly problematic for proper cognitive development and brain formation.

Children living in areas where public water supplies are artificially fluoridated had far lower IQ levels overall, based on the figures, compared to children living in non-fluoridated areas. And after accounting for other outside factors that may have influenced cognitive health and development, the team essentially determined that there is no denying a link between fluoride exposure and damaged IQ.

“[O]ur results support the possibility of adverse effects of fluoride exposures on children’s neurodevelopment,” wrote Anna Choi, a research scientist at Harvard, and her colleagues in their report. “Fluoride readily crosses the placenta. Fluoride exposure to the developing brain, which is much more susceptible to injury caused by toxicants than is the mature brain, may possibly lead to damage of a permanent nature.”

Another study published in the same journal back in 2010 found a similar correlation between fluoride exposure and cognitive development. A comparison of children between the ages of eight and 13 living in two Chinese villages, one fluoridated [natural] and one not fluoridated, revealed a 350 percent higher IQ level overall in the non-fluoridated village compared to the fluoridated village. (http://www.naturalnews.com/030819_fluoride_brain_damage.html)

And again in India, researchers observed that fluoride chemicals cross the blood-brain barrier in children and “alter the structure and function of neural tissue.” Published in the Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences, that particular study laid bare how pervasive fluoride actually is, in that the chemical deposits itself throughout the body and builds up over time, including in the brain. (http://www.naturalnews.com)

“It’s senseless to keep subjecting our children to this ongoing fluoridation experiment to satisfy the political agenda of special interest groups,” says Paul Beeber, an attorney and president of the New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation (NYSCOF). “Even if fluoridation reduced cavities, is tooth health more important than brain health? It’s time to put politics aside and stop artificial fluoridation everywhere.”

Sources for this article include:

http://www.hsph.harvard.edu

http://www.marketwatch.com

Learn more:

http://www.naturalnews.com/036873_fluoride_lower_IQ_brain_damage.html#ixzz245I7wUU4

N E W S  F L A S H  #62

Media Release: 

The Obscene Costs of Fluoridating

Queensland Towns Revealed

Premier Newman,  Qld MPs, Councillors, Media reps, Members and Supporters

the obscene costs of fluoridating Qld towns is brought to your attention.

Documents, newly released under Right to Information legislation shows

 the costs of fluoridation to be extreme ( see the table and attached RTI docs )

Whether paying over half a million dollars  to put fluoride in  a water 

treatment plant that serves 1000 people, or over  

$29 million dollars to  fluoridate the drinking water of  612,000 people, 

the costs are ridiculous.

Water Treatment PlantCouncil administering Qld govt approved funding(rounded nearest $10,000) Population served(rounded nearest 10)
Yarwun ( near Gladstone ) $530,000 1,000 people
Frenchman’s Ck ( near Cairns ) $630,000 1,500 people
Annan River ( Cooktown ) $520,000 2,000 people
Whyanbeel ( near Cairns ) $630,000 2,270 people
Mt Morgan $530,000 3,000 people
Marwood Bore Northern Beaches Sarina $640,000 3,700 people
Mt Blarney ( Sarina ) $680,000 3,960 people
Northern WTP ( Townsville ) $420,000 12,200 people
Mossman $800,000 16,100 people
Woodbury ( Rockhampton Regional Council ) $800,000 23,430 people
Gladstone $1,000,000 42,000 people
Nebo Rd ( Mackay ) $1,330,000 81,660 people
Glenmore ( Rockhampton Reg Council ) $1,340,000 96,730 people
Mt Kynoch ( Towoomba )Only part of ToowoombaIs to be fluoridated $1,245,000 110,000  people ( up to )(part of Toowoombawill not be fluoridated)
Tunnel Hill ( Cairns ) $1,350,000 150,000 people
SEQ WaterSTAGE 2  (Parcels 1 and 2 ) $29.5 million 612,000 people

Anna Bligh’s grand idea to fluoridate the  drinking water

of 4 million people was breathtaking in its arrogance

and it’s financial folly. 

No wonder Queensland is broke!

What is still  to come are the costs for the remaining councils

and water authorities that are required to fluoridate under

Bligh’s legislation by end Dec 2012.

The CEO of Mount Isa Water Board has confirmed the

Board  asked Qld Treasury to set aside up to $ 1.7 million to

fluoridate Mt  Isa (approx  22,000 residents )

Bundaberg Council had estimated between

7 and 10 million dollars to fluoridate by end  2012.

The significant fluoridation costs yet to come and to be counted  are the ongoing recurrent costs that all councils and their  ratepayers will be burdened with every year.

Bundaberg has estimated their annual recurrent costs at

a million dollars.

Fluoridation is not only extremely expensive to implement, it is extremely wasteful.

Less than 1% of fluoridated water is drunk, 99% goes down the drain.

Water fluoridation is in-effective at reducing tooth decay.

Americas largest ever  children’s dental  survey (1) although used to promote fluoridation, found  for children (aged 5 – 17 years) who lived all their lives in fluoridated or non-fluoridated communities  that there was an average difference of only  0.6 tooth surfaces ( out of the 128 tooth surfaces in a child’s mouth ) i.e. this is less than 1% of the tooth surfaces.

The 1996 Townsville vs Brisbane paper (2) that Bligh’s forced fluoridation programme is based on, showed that  Townsville children at  age 12  had an average of 0.86 less decayed tooth surfaces than did Brisbane 12 year olds ( out of 128 tooth surfaces )

The 2000, 2001, and 2002 Queensland Child Dental Health Surveys however  showed that Townsville’s 12 year olds had more tooth decay  than the Gold Coast, North Brisbane and several other unfluoridated Qld Health Districts.

A 2004  study in South Australia (3) found “no significant difference” when looking at decay in the permanent teeth of 10 to 15 year olds, regardless if they had drunk non fluoridated water (tank or bottled) all of their lives, or fluoridated water all of their lives.

Data from the 2004-2006 National Adult Oral Health Survey showed that adults from the heavily fluoridated Australian states had no less tooth decay than did Queensland adults before fluoridation.

Fluoridation is expensive, wasteful, ineffective and also has the potential to cause harm to vulnerable sub groups of the population.

Continuing Bligh’s fluoridation programme is throwing good money after bad. The good news is that it would not cost a cent to turn the fluoride injector taps off.

We call for Premier Newman to place a Moratorium on fluoridation –  Premier Newman please do not fluoridate any more areas of Qld.

Premier Newman please then do an full and proper review of fluoridation and end this practice of  wasteful and expensive, unethical forced mass medication.

Queenslanders For Safe Water Air and Food Inc. 

 in conjunction with Fluoride Action Network Australia Inc.

E  info@qawf.org   W  www.qawf.org   M  04 1877  7112

NOTE ** The Right to Information request DEEDI RTI # IA000822  picked up ONLY  the fluoridated  councils that had submitted their Project Closeout reports by the end of April 2012 -  there are MANY more Qld councils still to submit.

(1) J.A. Brunelle and J.P. Carlos, Recent Trends in Dental Caries in U.S. Children and the Effect of 

Water Fluoridation. Journal of Dental Research February 1990

 (Volume 69, Special Issue, Pages 723-727)

(2)  Slade G and Spencer AJ “Caries experience among children in fluoridated 

Townsville and unfluoridated Brisbane”

Aust N Z J Public Health 1996;20;623-9

(3)  Armfield, J. M. and Spencer, A. J. (2004), Consumption of non-public water:

implications for children’s caries experience. Community Dentistry and 

Oral Epidemiology, 32: 283–296.

N E W S  F L A S H  #61

FLUORIDE ACTION NETWORK

www.FluorideAlert.org


Two and a half months after the city council in Albuquerque, New Mexico ended the artificial fluoridation of their drinking water for approximately 500,000 residents, the city council in neighboring Santa Fe followed suit.  Just last week, councilors voted 6-1 to end fluoridation for the city’s nearly 70,000 residents.  The city has been fluoridating its drinking water for almost 60 years, but councilors concluded that it was an outdated practice, a waste of money, and according to the Mayor:


“If we don’t think the [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] is a credible scientific organization, then I guess we don’t,” he said. “They say this is a safe level of fluoride and we believe this is just not true.”


Unfortunately, even after fluoridation in Santa Fe was defeated with almost unanimous support from local officials, the local media and local dentists (along with the sole supporting councilor), are questioning the vote and calling for a new one.

  • If you live in New Mexico, please take a moment to thank Santa Fe City Councilors for taking action against fluoridation.


There was also a big victory in Canada this week, which has heartened fluoridation fighters throughout Ontario and the rest of Canada!  On Monday the City Council in Orillia, Ontario voted 7-2 not to fluoridate a city of over 30,000.  The local district health unit and the city staff recommended Orillia fluoridate its water, but councilors sided with citizens and decided to “err on the side of caution” by not adding the toxic chemical to their drinking water.  According to Councilor Andrew Hill:

“[Fluoridation] really takes away freedom of choice.  The majority of people I’ve talked to in my ward do not want it.”

Local campaigners Orillia Citizens Against Fluoridation worked diligently to prevent the practice from being imposed upon them.  They offer a good example of what a dedicated group of citizens can accomplish if they take the time to organize a campaign and communicate the risks of fluoridation to local decision makers.  Congratulations Orillia!

N E W S  F L A S H  #60

Seaweed toothpaste stops tooth decay,

say UK researchers

By Alexandra Christopoulos

14 Jul 2012 -

The findings, made by the school of dental sciences at Newcastle University, suggests that the enzymes, which are extracted from seaweed microbes, can bolster your traditional oral care routine because the oceanic enzymes protected areas between the teeth where plaque may continue to build up even after brushing. New castleton - Brushing your teeth with a toothpaste made from seaweed enzymes may provide you with better protection from cavities, a team of U.K. researchers has claimed.

“Traditional toothpastes work by scrubbing off the plaque containing the bacteria – but that’s not always effective – which is why people who religiously clean their teeth can still develop cavities,” says Dr Nick Jakubovics, of the university’s school of dental sciences.

“We found this enzyme can remove some of these undesirable bacteria from plaque.” Plaque is made up from lots of decaying bacteria. When those cells die, Dr Jakubovics explained, their DNA leaks out to form a biofilm that sticks to teeth. Dental research into seaweed enzyme producing microbes focuses on taking out the need to eliminate plaque entirely. More research is needed before the findings are incorporated into a line of new oral care products.

Read more:

http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/328583#ixzz20gOdxsSK

N E W S  F L A S H  #59                 

‘Keep 32 [teeth] molecule’ discovered,

— kills the bacteria that causes tooth decay.  July 2012

This science alert courtesy of

Queenslanders For Safe Water, Air and Food Inc.  

http://www.geek.com/articles/geek-cetera/keep-32-molecule-discovered-kills-the-bacteria-that-causes-tooth-decay-2012079/

N E W S  F L A S H  #58

Peoples Mandate to Halt Fluoridation

Across The: 

  

Dear Mayor,

Rosa Lee Long, TRC Council CEO Ian Church,

State Representatives Michael Trout, Shane Knuth,

TRC Council representatives,all local Media contacts

and members of our Tablelands community.

Please accept this letter of support and invitation on behalf of 40 plus community groups, including more than 1,000 families and 70 farms.

We wholeheartedly support both local and state government’s determination to make fluoridation of our domestic water service a local matter again. This is as it should be. Informed consent has long been a standard in all health related policies, regulations, charters and legislation across Australia.

We invite you to participate in two substantial demonstrations of our support for local and state government deliberations.

 The first public demonstration of our support will take place in 3 Tablelands communities this next Sunday, 1 July, at 2:00pm in Malanda, Yungaburra and Kuranda. Our demonstration will be in the form of a Drumming Circle, at each of these locations. All community members and especially our Councilors and members of State Parliament are most welcome to join in our friendly and beautiful demonstration of support.

 Our second public demonstration of support for local and state governments will take place over the coming months. And we urge our government representatives to get involved and become knowledgeable of our rights and obligations under Australian law concerning the matter of water supply fluoridation. As citizens it is our legal duty to keep our government representatives informed as to our will, on any matter that comes before Parliament or should come before Parliament. In this regard, we are asking all community members to inform our representatives via the use of clear and unambiguous signed individual Mandates. 

 Irrespective of any local or state government representative’s personal view, with respect to fluoridation of our water, we urge consideration of support for our rights and obligations under Australian law. The deliberative and participatory process of informing Parliament via Citizen Initiated Mandates is informative and liberating for both the governors and governed.

In this instance, a sufficient number of properly constructed and signed Mandates will enable our government to place a moratorium on fluoridation, with the clear knowledge that it is the Will of the People it represents.

 Further to this matter, we urge our local government representatives to enact a Transition Enabling Act. Such an Act will encourage and enable community across the Tablelands to participate, engage and support Council in responding to our region’s many environmental and fiscal challenges. 

We thank you for sharing and forwarding this First Notice email with your networks and colleagues so that response can quickly follow.

In faith and trust...

N E W S  F L A S H  #57

Warning to Mothers:

On 4 th August  2012, the state of New Hampshire

will become the first state to require fluoridating

communities to warn their citizens about the fluorosis risk

the additive poses to infants.

This past week, Governor John Lynch signed HB1416,

 ”an act relative to a required fluoride statement.”

The law will require the following notice on all consumer

confidence reports, which must be mailed to all water consumers,

be posted online, and available at city halls:

“Your public water supply is fluoridated. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, if your child under the age of 6 months is exclusively consuming infant formula reconstituted with fluoridated water, there may be an increased chance of dental fluorosis. Consult your child’s health care provider for more information.”

This new law is a proactive approach to reducing NH fluorosis rates by notifying parents about the risk posed to their infants by fluoridated water.  Not only should the law cause more parents to take preventative action by reducing infant fluoride exposure, but it should also inspire them to question why this toxic substance is in their tap water in the first place if it isn’t safe for infant consumption.  This marks a point when the State of New Hampshire has officially recognized  that fluoridated water poses a risk to NH infants; a risk backed up by countless studies and a growing fluorosis epidemic that afflicts 41% of U.S. adolescents.

The legislation was opposed by more than a dozen groups, including the NH Dental Association, the NH Oral Health Coalition, Delta Dental, the American Water Works Association, the Municipal Association, and the NH Department of Health and Human Services.  Even with this strong opposition from the well-financed dental lobby, the bill was still passed by the NH House by a vote of 253-23, and passed unanimously by the NH Senate.

HB-1416 was also signed quickly by Governor John Lynch,

rather than being approved without his signature,

showing his strong support for this action.

       Credit:  Fluoride Action Network

N E W S  F L A S H  #56

13 June, 2012   11:09 AM  AEST

Fluoride Challenger Faces Bankruptcy

By Bruce MacKenzie

The man who launched legal action in a bid to stop Rous Water’s fluoridation plans says he’s not bothered by the prospect of bankruptcy.

The Land and Environment Court has ordered Al Oshlack to pay 75 per cent of Rous Water’s legal costs, which could amount to several hundred thousand dollars.

But he says he will appeal against that decision.

Mr Oshlack says he’s not worried about increasing legal costs.

“Rous Water have got a costs order, you know they have to proceed to get the costs,” he said.

“They’ve got to go to the local court to get an order for the court, then if I can’t pay it they have to get a creditor’s decision to see whether they could bankrupt me or whether they have to appoint a trustee to my estate so I have to pay a certain amount per fortnight out of my Centrelink payment.

“That may take years.

“The people of Lismore don’t want (fluoridation).

“We’ve never wanted it and it’s not just greenies or farmers or

townspeople, we’ve always never wanted fluoride.

“Harold Fredericks, Habie Habib, John Crowther – they weren’t sort of my best of mates, they would be on the conservative side of the political spectrum I would say.

“But they’ve fought shoulder-to-shoulder

to stop this water being fluoridated.”

N E W S  F L A S H  #55

The Irish Times Thursday 31 May  2012

Town councils in Cork have joined Kerry County Council

in calling for a public review of water fluoridation in Ireland,

following the publication of a new report.

In a 360-page report, Bandon-based environmental auditor Declan Waugh found that babies fed with formula mixed with fluoridated water were at particular risk. “No child under the age of three should be exposed to fluoride,” he said. “They don’t even have teeth. The Risk Assessment of Water Fluoridation report says fluoride is a known risk factor in a series of health problems particularly prevalent in Ireland, including neurological and cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and skeletal muscular disorders. Ireland is the only EU member state with a legislative policy to add fluoride to the water supply.

“The incidence of these diseases in Ireland is far above the global average,” Mr Waugh added. “Ireland has twice the global average of osteoporosis, one of the highest levels in the world of childhood epilepsy and certain type of cancers associated with the digestive tract, including cancer of the liver, kidney, stomach and intestinal cancer.” Bandon and Kinsale town councils have agreed to ask the Minister for Health to review water fluoridation immediately. Minister for the Environment Phil Hogan said last November that he “trusted the processes in place”.

Source:

http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/ireland/2012/0531/1224316989605.html

N E W S  F L A S H  #54

- Credit:  Fluoride Action Network

The fluoride-free train keeps on rolling, with nearly 1 million people freed from fluoridation in 2012, and the momentum is only building.  There have been several more successful votes recently to end fluoridation in North American towns:

Palisades, Colorado – On May 15, the city council and the public works director decided to discontinue the use of fluoride in their drinking water system serving approximately 3,000 residents.  As the Public Works Director said, “The addition of fluoride doesn’t make the water safer, and it doesn’t improve the quality of the water.”

Pevely, Missouri – On May 1, the city discontinued fluoridation for it’s approximately 6,000 residents.  The decision was made in April by the Board of Alderman as a cost saving measure.

Dillon Valley Water District, Colorado – In March, the water district stopped adding fluoride due to worn out equipment and the cost to replace it.  On April 24, the water provider decided to discontinue the chemical’s use.

N E W S  F L A S H  #53

Civil Rights Violation

Regarding Forced Medication — [Fluoridation]

WHEREAS, the League of United Latin American Citizens is this nation’s oldest and largest Latino organization, founded in Corpus Christi, Texas on February 17, 1929; and

WHEREAS, LULAC throughout its history has committed itself to the principles that Latinos have equal access to opportunities in employment, education, housing and healthcare; and

WHEREAS, LULAC advocates for the well-being of, but not exclusively of, Hispanics throughout our country; and

WHEREAS, safe drinking water is a necessity for life; and

WHEREAS, the purpose of a public water supply is to supply water to the entire community which is composed of people with varying health conditions, in varying stages of life, and of varying economic status; not to forcibly mass medicate the population which is a civil rights violation; and

WHEREAS, fluoridation is mass medication of the public through the public water supply; and

WHEREAS, current science shows that fluoridation chemicals pose increased risk to sensitive subpopulations, including infants, the elderly, diabetics, kidney patients, and people with poor nutritional status; and

WHEREAS, minority communities are more highly impacted by fluorides as they historically experience more diabetes and kidney disease; and

WHEREAS, minorities are disproportionately harmed by fluorides as documented by increased rates of dental fluorosis (disfiguration and discoloration of the teeth); and

WHEREAS, the National Research Council in 2006 established that there are large gaps in the research on fluoride’s effects on the whole body; a fact that contradicts previous assurances made by public health officials and by elected officials, that fluorides and fluoridation have been exhaustively researched; and

WHEREAS, a growing number of cities and health professionals have rejected fluoridation based on current science and the recognition of a person’s right to choose what goes into his/her body; and

WHEREAS, the CDC now recommends that non-fluoridated water be used for infant formula (if parents want to avoid dental fluorosis – a permanent mottling and staining of teeth), which creates an economic hardship for large numbers of families, minority and otherwise; and

WHEREAS, the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), founded in 1929, has historically been a champion of the disenfranchised and a leader in the fight for social and environmental justice; and

WHEREAS, City Council Districts I-6 of San Antonio (predominantly minority districts) voted overwhelmingly that the public water supply should not be contaminated with fluoridation chemicals; and

WHEREAS, the election to fluoridate the water, essentially disenfranchised the right of these minority Districts to safe drinking water for all; and

WHEREAS, the U.S. Health and Human Services and the EPA (January 2011) have recently affirmed the NRC Study results that citizens may be ingesting too much fluoride and that the exposure is primarily from drinking water; and

WHEREAS, the proponents of fluoridation promised a safe and effective dental health additive, but the San Antonio Water System’s (SAWS) contract for fluoridation chemicals proves a “bait and switch”; as SAWS is adding the toxic waste by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, that has no warranty for its safety and effectiveness for any purpose from the supplier (PENCCO, Inc.) or the source (Mosaic Chemical); and

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, that LULAC commends efforts by organizations that oppose forced mass medication of the public drinking supplies using fluorides that are industrial grade, toxic waste by-products which contain contaminants (arsenic, lead, mercury) which further endanger life; and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that LULAC supports efforts by all citizens working to stop forced medication through the public water system because it violates civil rights; and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that LULAC opposes the public policy of fluoridation because it fails to meet legislative intent; and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that LULAC demands to know why government agencies entrusted with protecting the public health are more protective of the policy of fluoridation than they are of public health.

Approved this 1st day of July 2011.

Margaret Moran LULAC National President

  N E W S  F L A S H  #52

Join Council Member Vallone

to Speak Out

Against Fluoridation in NYC

Rally and Press Conference

on 15 th May 15 11AM – City Hall

If In Doubt Keep It Out!
These six short words say it all when it comes to fluoridated water.
A growing body of evidence has revealed the harmful impact of
fluoridation and on May 15th we will stand on the steps of City Hall
to call for the end of fluoride in New York City’s drinking water.
Please join me and a coalition of medical professionals, researchers,
and students at New York City’s first-ever anti-fluoride rally and
press conference.

Last year, I drafted legislation (Introduction Number 463) to ban the
addition of fluoride from New York City’s municipal water.
This legislation will have an immediate and critical impact – the city
will save between 5 and 7 million dollars per year, and our citizens
will no longer ingest a toxic chemical every time they take a sip of
water, take a shower or wash a piece of fruit.

To raise awareness on this very important issue and get the support
necessary to move the bill, we are hosting a rally and press
conference on the steps of City Hall in Lower Manhattan on May 15th,
2012, at 11:00 a.m., where we will hear from medical professionals and
even a few gifted and talented elementary school students researching
fluoridation.

Please spread the word, attend and invite friends! It’s important for
us to have a strong showing.

For additional information or to RSVP please contact Tatiana
Deligiannakis or Sally Franktdeligiannakis@council.nyc.gov,
sfrank@council.nyc.gov or 718-274-4500

For more information on this issue visit:

http://www.petervallone.com/index.php?page=fluoride-if-in-doubt-keep-it-out

N E W S  F L A S H  #51

WVU study shows fluoride in water supply does

not reduce tooth decay

Posted: Apr 12, 2012 4:13 AM

Updated: Apr 12, 2012 4:13 AM

A new study conducted by researchers at West Virginia University shows that fluoride added to the U.S. public water supplies have not reduced tooth decay.

The WVU Rural Health Research Center used federal statistics to conduct the study, according to a news release. The research concludes that children in urban areas who are more exposed to fluoridated water and dental care have as many cavities as children in rural areas who have less exposure to fluoridated water.

 ”For children’s dental health measures, it was found that fluoridation rates were not significantly related to the measures of either caries or overall condition of the teeth for urban or rural areas,” the researchers write in the report.

  N E W S  F L A S H  #50

❝ DESALINATION PLANTS

MAY BE BAD FOR YOUR HEALTH ❞   

Extract from report by

→ Kenneth Davidson ← 

Senior columnist at ‘The Age’
 (Australia)

With his kind permission.

In Australia there are three reverse osmosis desalination plants,

two more being built and two more proposed.

Where tests have been made available (from plants on the Gold Coast

and at Kurnell in Sydney), the results show the average boron content

of reverse osmosis desalinated water was about 0.5 mg/L

and the level rose higher as the filters aged.

Boron is a threat to public health. This is recognised by toxicologists.

The Harvard Medical School in 2008 said:

❝ Boron should not be used in children under 18. Deaths have occurred

when boron was taken by mouth or applied as a topical cream in infants 

N E W S  F L A S H  #49

Council revolts at fluoride plan

Mike Derry | 1st February 2012

BUNDABERG Regional Council has staged a revolt over state government plans to force the fluoridation of the region's water supply.

Councillor Alan Bush is leading the council’s opposition

to implementing state government-enforced water fluoridation.

Mike Knott

BUNDABERG Regional Council has staged a revolt over state government plans to force the fluoridation of the region’s water supply.

Councillor Alan Bush, a long-time opponent of fluoridation, yesterday succeeded in getting the council to agree not to go ahead with the work until the government meets council representatives and addresses their concerns.

Cr Bush told the meeting the council had written to Premier Anna Bligh and various ministers twice asking for a meeting.

However, none of them had yet agreed to make an appointment to discuss fluoridation.

Cr Bush said the State Government cannot be trusted to fully fund the infrastructure needed to fluoridate the region’s water…

  N E W S  F L A S H  #48

ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)

23 January  2012

Bourke Shire accused of illegally dumping fluoride

By Robyn Herron

(See original article)

The Bourke Shire Council has been accused of illegally dumping chemicals at its waste depot plant.

The Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) has charged the council with unlawfully transporting and disposing the chemical in October 2010.

The council says the fluoride was in its original packaging and shrink wrapped in plastic when it was buried four metres deep at the landfill.

The Bourke Shire’s general manager, Geoff Wise, says the council had more of the chemical than it needed and did not realise that it was not permitted to dump the waste at the depot.

He says the sodium fluoride has since been removed.

The council will plead guilty to the charges and the matter has been adjourned in the Bourke Local Court until next month.

A EPA spokeswoman says the action is being taken as the council breached the Protection of the Environment Operations Act.

She says the depot cannot be lawfully used as a waste facility for sodium fluoride, which is classified as hazardous and dangerous.

The council faces a maximum penalty of $22,000.

N E W S  F L A S H  #47

MEDIA RELEASE January 2012 –

with kind permission from

‘Queenslanders Against Water Fluoridation’

RESPONSE TO PREMIER BLIGH’S

FALSE CLAIMS ABOUT WATER FLUORIDATION:

Opposition to water fluoridation dominated the Queensland Agenda ‘OURSAY’ Forum in late 2011. *

Premier Anna Bligh responded to the three most popular Forum issues, as per the agreement with  the ‘OURSAY’ organisers.

The question calling for a Fluoride Referendum received the most votes, and the most support in the Queensland Forum.

In Premier Bligh’s Fluoride response, she entirely ignored the issue of having a Fluoride Referendum, and she made claims that were false and misleading.

Queenslanders For Safe Water, Air and Food Inc have now responded via video, to Premier Bligh’s misleading claims of safety.

We have also responded to Premier Bligh’s false claim that the American Dental Association has never advised that fluoridated water is a risk for infants.

Our rebuttal of Premier Bligh’s misleading statements can be viewed at the following link: 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1SB1_0_L3Q

It can be seen that false and misleading information was used as the basis of Premier Bligh’s mandatory legislation.  Further references are available upon request.**

We call upon Premier Bligh to rescind the unethical and harmful legislation that forced fluoridation on 4 million Queenslanders, despite widespread opposition.

NO politician has the right to forcibly medicate a whole population or a single person.

Without informed consent, a politician is doing to everyone what a single doctor can do to no-one.

Citizens across Australia are being misled by fluoridation promoters and enforcers.***

Media Release authorised by  Queenslanders For Safe Water, Air  & Food Inc    www.qawf.org

* http://oursay.org/the-queensland-agenda

** Contact info@qawf.org   mob 0418 777 112

*** http://www.fluoridealert.org/Alert/Australia/OPINION-Citizens-are-being-misled.aspx

Forced Fluoridation – Anna Bligh’s unethical harmful legacy

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

More Comments:

Why I Changed My Mind About Fluoridation -

John Colquhoun, D.D.S., Ph.D. Former Chief Dental Officer,

Auckland, New Zealand. 1997.

Why EPA’s Headquarters Professionals’ Union Opposes Fluoridation -

William Hirzy, Ph.D., National Treasury Employees Union Chapter 280, May 1, 1999.

Fluoride: A Statement of Concern -

Paul Connett, Ph.D. Professor of Chemistry, St. Lawrence University. January 2000.

Why I am now officially opposed to adding fluoride to drinking water -

Hardy Limeback, DDS, Ph.D, Head of Preventive Dentistry, University of Toronto. April 2000.

N E W S  F L A S H  #46

Recent Comments From FAN Supporters:

From former U.N. Ambassador Andrew Young:

“People are calling for investigative Fluoridegate hearings, and one can understand why, given the fact that the story about fluorides keeps changing. I am most deeply concerned for poor families who have babies: if they cannot afford unfluoridated water for their babies milk formula, do their babies not count? Of course they do. This is an issue of fairness, civil rights, and compassion.”

From civil rights leader Rev. Gerald Durley:

“I support the holding of Fluoridegate hearings at the state and national level so we can learn…why our government agencies haven’t told the black community openly that fluorides disproportionately harm black Americans…”

From William Owens, President of the 5,000-member-strong Coalition of African American Pastors:

“African Americans have more kidney disease and more diabetes, but nobody elected to tell us that kidney patients and diabetics are more susceptible to harm from ingested fluorides… We need to investigate this Fluoridegate mess. This is a civil rights and environmental justice issue.”

From Bernice King, daughter of Martin Luther King Jr.:

“Water fluoridation needs to end. It is good that organizations are lending their support to help push this outdated and harmful practice of fluoridation toward collapse.”

From Alveda King, niece of Martin Luther King Jr.: “This is a civil rights issue. No one should be subjected to drinking fluoride in their water, especially sensitive groups like kidney patients and diabetics, babies in their milk formula, or poor families that cannot afford to purchase unfluoridated water. Black and Latino families are being disproportionately harmed.”

From Laura Seydel, well-known environmental leader and daughter of CNN founder Ted Turner: “

…the government should stop adding fluoride chemicals to our water immediately…Gerber is selling bottles of non-fluoridated water that parents can use for their infant children. However, as Atlanta leaders have pointed out, bottled water is not always an option for low-income families.”

Attempts at Damage Control by Fluoridation Supporters:

Here is the telling statement in a letter sent to Howard Koh, U.S. Assistant Secretary for Health, from the President-Elect and Executive Director of the American Dental Association: “…we have asked for your help in addressing the concerns raised by Former Atlanta Mayor Andrew Young and Pastor Gerald Durley regarding the safety of water fluoridation for minority populations. We believe that this issue has the potential to gain traction.”

Adding fuel to the fire later in the year, the resolution passed by the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) was fiercely resisted, removed from the LULAC website, and then later restored. The resolution stated, “LULAC supports efforts by all citizens working to stop forced medication through the public water system because it violates civil rights; and…LULAC demands to know why government agencies entrusted with protecting the public health are more protective of the policy of fluoridation than they are of public health.”

The Message Reaches California

With key assistance from Patty Ducey-Brooks, David Kennedy, and others, nationally known black leader Bishop George McKinney and San Diegans for Safe Drinking Water hosted an event this past summer, a “Town Hall Meeting on Fluoridegate.” Bishop McKinney issued a statement that, “Our state and federal elected representatives should convene FluorideGate hearings immediately and put people under oath…And we need to find out why minority community leaders weren’t told that fluorides disproportionately harm Black Americans, Hispanics, and other people of color.”

The Vital Assistance in These Efforts from the Fluoride Action Network

At The Lillie Center, we are grateful that the Fluoride Action Network identified fluoridation as an Environmental Justice issue (also see FAN’s submission to HHS). With FAN’s wonderful connections and expertise, news about fluoride harm to minorities is now being used in city council meetings, in state legislative houses, in pieces published in the media, and elsewhere. We will be continuing our work of reaching out to black, hispanic and other minority leaders, and we recognize the vital role of Dr. Connett and the FAN team in helping to spread the word about this issue. The message simply won’t go away. We are pleased that the top leaders of the American Dental Association are concerned about these efforts “gaining traction,” and we look forward to even more awareness by minority citizens about their greater risk for harm from water fluoridation, and awareness of the fact that those promoting fluoridation are not warning them about their increased risk.

N E W S  F L A S H  #45

Another VICTORY

Hartland Township, Michigan has voted to stop Fluoridation. Quoting from a local newspaper: “The Board of Trustees voted 5-2 Tuesday to immediately cease adding the element to its water supply after a lengthy discussion that echoed what became a two-month-long debate.”

Here is an excerpt from another story with more details: “(Board members) struggled for a long time,” said Harper, who first learned about the issue from a chiropractor who also has a Ph.D. in nutrition during a conference. “Everybody did their own research. They didn’t rely what I provided them. We relied upon reliable sources, like the CDC, like Harvard. … All credible people.”  The story was also picked up by the AP and reported in the Detroit News.

Note: Hartland, MI is about 70 miles from Grand Rapids, MI (the first city to fluoridate in 1945).

N E W S  F L A S H  #44

British Columbia has the lowest

percentage of fluoridated water.

Prior to this week, only 3.8% of BC residents, living in eight communities, had fluoride added to their water by a municipal government.  This week that number dropped significantly as two more towns ended decades of fluoridation, leaving only 6 fluoridated communities left in BC.

In Williams Lake, British Columbia citizens voted 2453 to 970 on Saturday to end fluoridation for the town’s approximately 11,200 residents.  Williams Lake taxpayers will save $94,000 annually by ending the practice.  Town officials cited several reasons for bringing the referendum to the voters, including:

-Increased costs to continue adding fluoride to the water.

-Risk to City employees while handling the product.

-Prevalence of fluoride available in many dental hygiene and food products.

-Calls for it’s end from citizens and advocacy groups

The second BC community is Lake Cowichan, whose residents voted 335 to 147 to end fluoridation for approximately 3,000 people. These two communities join eight others in British Columbia that have stopped fluoridating their public water since 1992.

N E W S  F L A S H  #43

On 8th November 2011, Amesbury,

Massachusetts stopped fluoridation-

On 8th November, voters in Amesbury, Massachusetts officially ended 44 years of fluoridation for the town’s 16,500 residents. Amesbury had stopped adding sodium fluoride to the drinking water in February of 2009 because their poor quality, low-bid fluoride chemicals were clogging up their equipment with an unknown insoluble residue. Since 2009, local health officials have been working to convince the city to continue adding fluoride. The local Board of Health requested that the issue be brought before voters for approval, and the board voted 3 to 1 to recommend a “yes” vote on the ballot question. Fortunately, residents spoke out in opposition to fluoridation…

N E W S  F L A S H  #42

    THE QUEENSLAND PARTY

SAYS NO TO FLUORIDE

Clean Water Policy:

❝  If in doubt, leave it out 

Posted on October 31, 2011 by Ruth Bonnett

Queensland’s only state-based party will ensure

that water supplies are as safe and pure as

possible, with toxic fluoride to be removed, under

their Clean Water policy.

 The Queensland Party’s Health and Disabilities Spokesperson, Wendy Richardson today affirmed that her party’s policy would be to ‘educate rather than medicate’.

“Surely we must all agree that it is an inalienable right for people to have water that is clean, pure and unadulterated. It must be the individual’s choice to add chemicals or any other material to that water, not a government’s.”

“For 50 years or more, the western world has been told that fluoridation was useful in the prevention of tooth decay, and most people, including our health professionals and politicians, believed that. However, more and more dentists, doctors and toxicologists are changing their minds as they realise that these opinions have been based on flawed or even concocted science.”

N E W S  F L A S H  #41

Fluoridation continues to unravel in

North America —

As another town ends the practice and many more start to debate its safety.

Here are the action updates from ‘Fluoride Action Network’:

-The Lakeshore, Ontario City Council has ended fluoridation for approximately 33,000 residents!

-Last week 58% of the residents of Churchill, Manitoba voted to end fluoridation in their community.  The vote was a non-binding referendum, but town officials were expected to respect the will of the majority and stop adding fluoride to the drinking water.  However, town officials are now questioning whether to take any action on the issue.

-On November 2nd, the town of Fort St. John, British Columbia will hold an information session on fluoridation.  OnNovember 19th, residents will have an opportunity to vote on the issue.

-On November 8th, residents of Damariscotta and Newcastle, Maine will be voting on a referendum question asking whether the communities should continue water fluoridation.

-On November 8th, residents of Holly Hill, Florida will be voting on fluoridation on a special elections ballot.

-On November 15th, the Township Board of Trustees of Hartland, Michigan will hold a public hearing to consider whether it should stop adding fluoride to its drinking water amid health concerns.

-On November 19th, residents of Williams Lake, British Columbia will be asked to vote on a fluoride ballot question: “The cost to add fluoride to the City’s water system is increasing from $22,000 per year to approximately $94,000 per year.  Are you in favor of the City continuing to add fluoride to its water supply?”

-In November, city officials in Moncton, New Brunswick are expected to make a decision regarding the continuation of fluoridation.  Fluoride Free Moncton is leading the charge to have the practice stopped.

…and this is just the start.  Many more communities are debating fluoridation, and many more will be voting on it in coming months, including New York City, Milwaukee, and Philomath, Oregon.  If you know of any upcoming public hearings, meetings, or votes on fluoridation please make sure to notify FAN, so we can spread-the-word about these important opportunities to end fluoridation.

If you would like to start a campaign in your town, take a look at FAN’s primer on getting started.

Also, please take a minute to use our automated system to send a letter to your state officials, as well as to your local media, providing them with the real facts about fluoridation.

Sincerely,

Stuart Cooper

Campaign Manager

Fluoride Action Network

N E W S  F L A S H  #40

GOOD NEWS  !    

Dr. John Carnie has retired after years of

spearheading the charge to forcibly poison

the water supplies of the State of Victoria in Australia.

In April 2007 Dr. Carnie became Victoria’s Chief Health Officer (CHO) – a position that seemingly demands the rigorous promotion of mandatory water fluoridation policy.

Dr. Carnie entered the spotlight as a fluoridation promoter and enforcer soon after assuming the position of CHO.

As Dr. Paul Connett, Executive Director of the Fluoride Action Network (FAN) wrote in November 2007, “Dr. John Carnie, is proving just as arrogant as Dr. Hall (his predecessor) on fluoridation and as equally unprepared to defend his position in public debate.”

As the record shows, Dr. Carnie and his department never accepted the challenge to debate those such as Dr. Connett.

LET US HOPE FOR A BETTER REPLACEMENT…

N E W S  F L A S H  # 39

October 2011

Over the last year the communities below

(with approximate populations) have stopped adding

fluoride to their drinking water:

Oct. 25 – Palmer, Alaska    (8,400)        

Oct. 18 – Lawrenceburg, Tennessee  (11,000)   

Oct. 16 – Churchill, Manitoba  (1000)   

Oct. 13 – New Plymouth, New Zealand (50,000)      

Oct. 4 – Pinellas County, Florida (700,000)   

Sept. 30 – Spencer, Indiana/ BPP Water (10,500)

Sept. 22 – College Station, Texas   (100,000)           

Sept. 12 – Slave Lake, Alberta  (7,000)

Sept. 6 – Hohenwald, Tennessee  (4,000)                            

Aug. 16 – Pottstown, Pennsylvania (15,500)

Aug. 15 – Spring Hill, Tennessee (30,000) 

Aug. 8 – Philomath, Oregon  (4,500)

July 20 – Taber, Alberta (6,500)        

July 4 – Meadow Lake, Saskatchewan (5,000)

June 30 – Taumarunui, New Zealand  (5,000)     

June 6 – Fairbanks, Alaska  (30,500)

May 18 – Naples Village, New York (1070) 

May 16 – Mount Clemons, Michigan (17,300)          

April 21 – Lago Vista, Texas (6,500)

Mar. 17 – Marcellus, Michigan  (1,100)                  

Feb. 16 – Independence, Virginia  (1000)

Feb. 8 – Calgary, Alberta  (1,300,000)             

Feb. 7 – Yellow Springs, Ohio  (3200)

Feb. 7 – Vercheres, Quebec  (5240)             

Jan. 19 – Schuylkill Haven, PA (5,500)

Nov. 15, 2010 –  Sparta, North Carolina  (2,000)                       

Nov. 4, 2010 – Tellico, TN  (900)                                    

Oct. 25, 2010 – Waterloo, St. Jacobs, and Elmira,

                        Ontario (103,000)

Credit: Fluoride Action Network

 N E W S  F L A S H  #38

Water Fluoridation Injury —

Lawsuit Filed in Federal Court

A 13-year-old’s fluoride-discolored teeth was allegedly caused

by drinking fluoridated bottled water since infancy.

Her Mom is suing the bottlers for the cost

to cover up the unsightly teeth.

New York – Sept 21, 2011 – Attempting to reduce tooth decay in tap water drinkers, most US public water supplies include added fluoride chemicals. And some corporations sell fluoridated bottled water for the same reason.

However, ingesting fluoride can lead to dental fluorosis – white spotted, yellow, brown and/or pitted teeth, now afflicting 41% of adolescents, reports the CDC. But according to a newly-filed lawsuit, suppliers of fluoridated water fail to effectively warn customers that ingesting fluoride can discolor teeth.

Nidel Law, P.L.L.C., in conjunction with Paulson and Nace, P.L.L.C., filed a case against Nestle U.S.A., Nestle Waters North America, Inc., and the Gerber Products Company, for damage caused by fluoride contained in their products marketed and sold for consumption by children under the age of eight. The Plaintiff, a 13-year old girl, suffers from dental fluorosis. Her mother wants compensation for the costs associated with covering up her daughter’s unsightly teeth,

estimated to be over $100,000 over her lifetime.

 N E W S  F L A S H  # 37

Fluoride rejected

BREAKING NEWS:  Water fluoridation is to end in the

New Plymouth district. – New Zealand

In a unanimous decision New Plymouth District councillors this morning voted to stop fluoridating New Plymouth, Waitara, Urenui and Lepperton water supplies.

The decision sides with the overwhelming majority of submissions made to council on the issue two weeks ago which called for an end to water fluoridation.

Councillor Shaun Biesiek, who moved to drop the chemical from the district’s water supply, said supporters of fluoridation had failed to convince him the benefits it had in preventing tooth decay did not also come with health risks.

In an amendment to the motion the $18,000 formerly spent on fluoridation will now go toward dental health education programmes in schools.

Watch the meeting here: http://www.newplymouthnz.com/TheCouncilAndItsPeople/Meetings/MeetingsOnVideo.htm

     – Taranaki Daily News

N E W S  F L A S H  #36

Mass flouride poisoning causes plant shutdown

and riots in Shangha.

By Dina Specter

A solar-panel manufacturing plant in the eastern Chinese city of Haining has been forced to close after hundreds of residents attacked the facility in a 4-day protest over accusations the factory contaminated a nearby river, according to the BBC.

The riots began on Thursday and lasted until Sunday, at times turning violent.

About 500 villagers unleashed their anger by overturning eight vehicles, damaging four police cars, and destroying offices, reports The New York Times. At least 20 people have been arrested on charges of destruction of property, robbery and disturbing public order, according to The Los Angeles Times.

The plant, which is owned by New York Stock Exchange-listed company JinkoSolar, is accused by demonstrators of dumping toxic levels of flouride into local waters, killing large numbers of fish and some pigs.

In addition to ordering the plant closed, the city’s environmental protection bureau fined the facility 470,000 yuan ($73,600).

“[We will] go all out to maintain stability and seriously deal with those who are suspected of violating laws in the incident in accordance with the law,” a city government official said in a statement.

This isn’t the fist time local uprisings over fears of pollution have spurred Chinese authorities to take action, as the country struggles to maintain its image as a pioneer in green energy.

Last month, 12,000 demonstrators took to the streets to protest a chemical plant in Dalian in northeast China, before authorities promised to relocate the facility.

More recently, The Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau ordered the temporary closure of two factories amid fears of lead poisoning.

“People have a growing awareness of the damage caused by environmental pollution and a growing sense of rights,” Ma Jun, the director of the nonprofit Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs in Beijing, said in an interview last month, according to The New York Times.

N E W S  F L A S H  #35

Approved this 1st day of July 2011.

Margaret Moran LULAC National President

  The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), the largest and oldest Hispanic civil rights organization in the United States, adopted a resolution opposing the practice of water fluoridation.

The resolution was passed on July 1st at the 2011 LULAC National Convention in Cincinnati, and demands to know why health agencies are “more protective of the public policy of fluoridation than they are of public health.”

Henry Rodriguez, LULAC’s Texas civil rights chairman stated:

“The Hispanic community is no longer going to be silent on this issue.  This is about forcing us to be medicated through our drinking water without our consent or full disclosure of the risks.  Fluoridation is a civil rights violation.  Opposition to fluoridation is going to continue building and there is no stopping it.  There are millions of Hispanic and other minorities in the U.S. who don’t have the funds to avoid fluoridated water for making baby formula.  And millions of families don’t know they’re being medicated in their drinking water, or about possible risks for kidney patients and diabetics”

Babies, diabetics, kidney patients, and other groups are listed by the National Research Council as susceptible groups especially vulnerable to harm from ingested fluorides.  And after decades of water fluoridation, data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicates that 41% of American adolescents (12-15) have dental fluorosis, a side-effect of overexposure to fluoride.  CDC data also indicates that minorities, including African-Americans and Hispanics have

disproportionately higher rates of fluorosis.

(Read the original Press release on the LULAC resolutionfrom Dan Stockin of the Lillie Center Inc. ) 

While dentists want the public to believe that dental fluorosis is only a cosmetic issue, a new study out of India has found an association between dental fluorosis and lowered IQ, making it the 26th study to show a connection between fluoride exposure and lowered IQ.  This is shocking news considering the above data (worth repeating), that 41% of American adolescentsALREADY HAVE dental fluorosis, and that the rates aredisproportionally higher in black and hispanic communities!

This raises the question, why aren’t parents being warned about this?  At the very least, they should be getting a warning on their water bills alerting them not to use fluoridated tap water when reconstituting baby formula, since this is how most children are overexposed to fluoride.

According to FAN Director, Dr. Paul Connett, “Better still, let’s end this nonsense once and for all.  Take the fluoride out of the drinking water!  Protecting our children’s brains is far more important than protecting their teeth – especially since there are actually better ways of protecting their teeth, as most of the industrialized world has demonstrated.”

N E W S  F L A S H # 34

The momentum continues to build in

the battle against fluoridation.

Pottstown, Pennsylvania has joined the list of communities that have rejected water fluoridation.  In August, the Pottstown Borough Authority voted to cease adding fluoride to their drinking water, though they say it could take up to 6 months for tap water to return to its natural fluoride level.  The main reasons cited for rejection by Authority members was the vast availability of topical fluoride in dental products, and a cost savings of $50-60,000 dollars each year.

 N E W S  F L A S H # 33

Local Councils (UK) Could Face Prosecution

For Adding Fluoride To Water Supply —

6th September, 2011.

Lo